Hypothalamic CNTF volume transmission shapes cortical noradrenergic excitability upon acute stress

Stress-induced cortical alertness is maintained by a heightened excitability of noradrenergic neurons innervating, notably, the prefrontal cortex. However, neither the signaling axis linking hypothalamic activation to delayed and lasting noradrenergic excitability nor the molecular cascade gating noradrenaline synthesis is defined. Here, we show that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone-releasing neurons innervate ependymal cells of the 3rd ventricle to induce ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) release for transport through the brain's aqueductal system. CNTF binding to its cognate receptors on norepinephrinergic neurons in the locus coeruleus then initiates sequential phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and tyrosine hydroxylase with the Ca2+-sensor secretagogin ensuring activity dependence in both rodent and human brains. Both CNTF and secretagogin ablation occlude stress-induced cortical norepinephrine synthesis, ensuing neuronal excitation and behavioral stereotypes. Cumulatively, we identify a multimodal pathway that is rate-limited by CNTF volume transmission and poised to directly convert hypothalamic activation into long-lasting cortical excitability following acute stress.
Source: EMBO Journal - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Neuroscience Articles Source Type: research

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DiscussionMCI prevalence varied among Hispanic/Latino backgrounds, but not as widely as reported in the previous studies. CVD risk and depressive symptoms were associated with increased MCI, whereas APOE4 was not, suggesting alternative etiologies for MCI among diverse Hispanics/Latinos. Our findings suggest that mitigating CVD risk factors may offer important pathways to understanding and reducing MCI and possibly dementia among diverse Hispanics/Latinos.
Source: Alzheimer's and Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Local application of sevoflurane in the wound bed appears to exhibit analgesic, antimicrobial, and positive healing effects. It could be a promising alternative treatment to be included as a therapeutic option for wound care. PMID: 31730517 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous vasculopathy related to the skin, such as livedo reticularis and ulcers of torpid evolution due to cutaneous vasculopathy are extremely rare. Thus, it is necessary to include skin ulcers as one of the phenotypic manifestations of NF-1. PMID: 31730516 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The authors suggest stasis mucinosis and OALM represent the spectrum of euthyroid mucin depositional disease in varying clinical settings. PMID: 31730515 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: From this case report, the authors believe NPWTi-d may be more effective in cases with intractable ulcers associated with infection that need better granulation. PMID: 31730514 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
Authors: Roshangar L, Soleimani Rad J, Kheirjou R, Reza Ranjkesh M, Ferdowsi Khosroshahi A Abstract Burn wounds are one of the main causes of skin damage. Based on World Health Organization statistics, almost 300 000 people worldwide die of burns each year. In severe burns, the cells and blood vessels are often injured and the blood supply to the wound is disturbed. Many factors such as oxygenation, infection, aging, hormones, and nutrition potentially can influence burn progression and disrupt repair with unbalanced release of various growth factors and cytokines. Different treatment approaches such as dressings a...
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: An illustrated guide for dressing application in burn wounds was developed and validated for content by an expert panel. PMID: 31730512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest cohort reported in the literature of patients with frostbite injuries treated with HBOT. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may show positive impact on the demarcation level of frostbite and, despite the common side effects, it generally causes no long-term sequelae. PMID: 31730511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This is an easily reproducible and safe technique for effluent control in patients with Björk grade 4 abdomen with established EAF. PMID: 31730510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the importance of arterial-arterial connections such as the pedal arch to the healing potential of foot and ankle wounds after STSG in this high-risk patient population. PMID: 31730509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
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