Diagnostic significance of immunoglobulin G avidity in symptomatic and asymptomatic West Nile virus infection
Abstract INTRODUCTION West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 500 days in certain patients. To evaluate the usefulness of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity assessment in the diagnosis of WNV infection, we analyzed 54 WNV IgM- and/or IgG-positive serum samples from 39 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 15 asymptomatic cases tested during a seroprevalence investigation. METHODS Serological tests (WNV IgM/IgG antibody detection, IgG avidity) were performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 47 (87%) samples. Acute/recent WNV infection was confirmed based on low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 44 IgM-positive samples (93.6%). In three IgM-positive samples (6.4%), high IgG AIs were detected, thus indicating persisting IgM antibodies from previous infections. All IgM-negative samples showed high AIs. Patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease tested within 30 days showed low AIs. In six patients tested 34-50 days after disease onset, AI was borderline (42%-60%), suggesting earlier WNV IgG maturation. Samples with the highest IgM values were associated with the lowest AIs (Spearman's rho coefficient -0.767, p
Authors: Whyler NC, Teng JC, Brewster DJ, Chin R, Cox I, Druce J, Prince HM, Sheffield DA, Teh E, Sarode V PMID: 31736076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: 12 November 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 7Author(s): Laura R.H. Ahlers, Chasity E. Trammell, Grace F. Carrell, Sophie Mackinnon, Brandi K. Torrevillas, Clement Y. Chow, Shirley Luckhart, Alan G. GoodmanSummaryThe World Health Organization estimates that more than half of the world’s population is at risk for vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses. Because many arboviruses are mosquito borne, investigation of the insect immune response will help identify targets to reduce the spread of arboviruses. Here, we use a genetic screening approach to identify an insulin-like receptor as a...
(Washington State University) A discovery by a Washington State University-led research team has the potential to inhibit the spread of West Nile virus as well as Zika and dengue viruses. The researchers demonstrated that mammalian insulin activated an antiviral immunity pathway in mosquitoes, increasing the insects' ability to suppress the viruses. Since mosquito bites are the most common way humans are infected with West Nile, stopping the virus among the insects would protect human health.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Ahead of Print.
We describe a case of neuroinvasive WNV presenting with uveomeningitis in a young and otherwise healthy patient.
Diagnostic and treatment costs associated with West Nile virus can have significant economic impacts for both patients and healthcare systems.Emerging Infectious Diseases
J. Steyn et al.
eyel We reviewed the literature on the role of temperature in transmission of zoonotic arboviruses. Vector competence is affected by both direct and indirect effects of temperature, and generally increases with increasing temperature, but results may vary by vector species, population, and viral strain. Temperature additionally has a significant influence on life history traits of vectors at both immature and adult life stages, and for important behaviors such as blood-feeding and mating. Similar to vector competence, temperature effects on life history traits can vary by species and population. Vector, host, and viral...
G. Valiakos et al.
eng Li Cao Ye Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Dengue virus (DENV), and West Nile virus (WNV), are important arthropod-borne pathogens that present an immense global health problem. Their unpredictable disease severity, unusual clinical features, and severe neurological manifestations underscore an urgent need for antiviral interventions. Furin, a host proprotein convertase, is a key contender in processing flavivirus prM protein to M protein, turning the inert virus to an infectious particle. For this reason, the current study was planned to evaluate the antiviral ac...