Identifying resilient Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) peatland hummock hibernacula
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. At the northern limit of the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake ’s (Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque, 1818)) range, individuals spend up to half the year overwintering. In hummock hibernacula found in peatlands, it is likely that subsurface temperature and water table position are contributing factors dictating habitat suitability. As a step towards assessing t he vulnerability of hibernacula to anthropogenic changes, we combined subsurface temperature and water table dynamics to assess the likelihood that unflooded and unfrozen conditions were present in hummock hibernacula. Our results indicate that taller hummocks are more resilient to an advancing fros t line and fluctuating water table by providing a larger area and duration of unfrozen and unflooded conditions, and a critical overwintering depth that is farther from the hummock surface. In two study sites along eastern Georgian Bay, an unflooded and unfrozen zone was present for over 90% of the overwintering period for hummocks taller than 25–27 cm. Our findings highlight the vulnerability of peatland hummocks to variability of winter weather where deep freezing and (or) water table rise may nonlinearly reduce resilience. This suggests that height is not the only component affecting the suitability of hummock hibernacula and that further research should examine the structure and spatial arrangement of hummocks within a peatland.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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