The statistical significance filter leads to overoptimistic expectations of replicability

Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Shravan Vasishth, Daniela Mertzen, Lena A. Jäger, Andrew GelmanAbstractIt is well-known in statistics (e.g., Gelman &Carlin, 2014) that treating a result as publishable just because the p-value is less than 0.05 leads to overoptimistic expectations of replicability. These effects get published, leading to an overconfident belief in replicability. We demonstrate the adverse consequences of this statistical significance filter by conducting seven direct replication attempts (268 participants in total) of a recent paper (Levy &Keller, 2013). We show that the published claims are so noisy that even non-significant results are fully compatible with them. We also demonstrate the contrast between such small-sample studies and a larger-sample study; the latter generally yields a less noisy estimate but also a smaller effect magnitude, which looks less compelling but is more realistic. We reiterate several suggestions from the methodology literature for improving current practices.
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research
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Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
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