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The role of pitch pattern in Japanese 24-month-olds ’ word recognition
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Hisako W. Yamamoto, Etsuko Haryu (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Exploring the abstractness of number retrieval cues in the computation of subject-verb agreement in comprehension
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Zoe Schlueter, Alexander Williams, Ellen Lau Subject-verb agreement has provided critical insights into the cue-based memory retrieval system that supports language comprehension by showing that memory interference can cause erroneous agreement with non-subjects: ‘agreement attraction’. Here we ask how faithful retrieval cues are in relation to the grammar. We examine the impact of conjoined singular attractors (The advice from the doctor and the nurse …), which are syntactically plural but whose plurality is introd...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The company objects keep: Linking referents together during cross-situational word learning
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Martin Zettersten, Erica Wojcik, Viridiana L. Benitez, Jenny Saffran Learning the meanings of words involves not only linking individual words to referents but also building a network of connections among entities in the world, concepts, and words. Previous studies reveal that infants and adults track the statistical co-occurrence of labels and objects across multiple ambiguous training instances to learn words. However, it is less clear whether, given distributional or attentional cues, learners also encode associations among the nov...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

What explains the von Restorff effect? Contrasting distinctive processing and retrieval cue efficacy
This study contrasted two explanations of the von Restorff effect – distinctive processing and retrieval cue efficacy, which differ in their assumptions about encoding processes. A homonym, kiwi, was used as the critical word and manipulated to either be synonymous with background items, or made an isolate by orienting participants towards its alternate meaning. The orientation was done at either the encoding or retrieval stages. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that even without distinctive processing at encoding, the von Restorff effect could still occur at retrieval in the presence of an effective retrieval cue. Exper...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 16, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Context, facial expression and prosody in irony processing
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Gaétane Deliens, Kyriakos Antoniou, Elise Clin, Ekaterina Ostashchenko, Mikhail Kissine While incongruence with the background context is a powerful cue for irony, in spoken conversation ironic utterances often bear non-contextual cues, such as marked tone of voice and/or facial expression. In Experiment 1, we show that ironic prosody and facial expression can be correctly discriminated as such in a categorization task, even though the boundaries between ironic and non-ironic cues are somewhat fuzzy. However, an act-out task (E...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 3, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Models of retrieval in sentence comprehension: A computational evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical modeling
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth Research on similarity-based interference has provided extensive evidence that the formation of dependencies between non-adjacent words relies on a cue-based retrieval mechanism. There are two different models that can account for one of the main predictions of interference, i.e., a slowdown at a retrieval site, when several items share a feature associated with a retrieval cue: Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005) activation-based model and McElree’s (2000) direct-access model. Even though these t...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Weighing up the evidence for sound symbolism: Distributional properties predict cue strength
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Chris Westbury, Geoff Hollis, David M. Sidhu, Penny M. Pexman It is well-established that there are relationships between word meaning and certain letters or phonemes, a phenomenon known as sound symbolism. Most sound symbolism studies have relied on a small stimulus set chosen to maximize the probability of finding an effect for a particular semantic category. Attempts to assign weights to sound symbolic cues have been limited by a methodology that has relied largely on forced contrast judgments, which do not allow systema...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 21, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 20, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Allophones, not phonemes in spoken-word recognition
We present three experiments using selective adaptation that constitute strong tests of these representational hypotheses. In Experiment 1, we tested generalization of selective adaptation using different allophones of Dutch /r/ and /l/ – a case where generalization has not been found with perceptual learning. In Experiments 2 and 3, we tested generalization of selective adaptation using German back fricatives in which allophonic and phonemic identity were varied orthogonally. In all three experiments, selective adaptation was observed only if adaptors and test stimuli shared allophones. Phonemic identity, in contras...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Implicit learning of structure occurs in parallel with lexically-mediated syntactic priming effects in sentence comprehension
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 Author(s): Kristen M. Tooley, Matthew J. Traxler The aim of this study was to determine whether cumulative structural priming effects and trial-to-trial lexically-mediated priming effects are produced by the same mechanism in comprehension. Participants took part in a five-session eye tracking study where they read reduced-relative prime-target pairs with the same initial verb. Half of the verbs in these sentences were repeated across the five sessions and half were novel to each session. Total fixation times on the syntactically challenging ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Compounds, phrases and clitics in connected speech
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 Author(s): Hilary S.Z. Wynne, Linda Wheeldon, Aditi Lahiri Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the si...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Relative clause avoidance: Evidence for a structural parsing principle
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 Author(s): Adrian Staub, Francesca Foppolo, Caterina Donati, Carlo Cecchetto Three eye movement experiments investigated the processing of the syntactic ambiguity in strings such as the information that the health department provided, where the that-clause can be either a relative clause (RC) or the start of a nominal complement clause (CC; the information that the health department provided a cure). The experiments tested the prediction that comprehenders should avoid the RC analysis because it involves an unforced filler-gap dependency. Rea...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 24, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Mind the generation gap: Differences between young and old in everyday lexical categories
This study examined the balance between stability and flexibility in meanings of common, basic level artifact nouns by evaluating speaker differences in their use asa function of age, education, and gender. Diverse samples of monolingual Dutch- (N≈400) and French-speaking (N≈300) Belgian adults made lexical category judgments for pictures of storage containers. Mixture IRT-analyses revealed the presence of latent groups of categorizers related to age but not gender or education in each language. In both languages, older adults relied more on traditional materials such as glass or cardboard in their judgments, w...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 19, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Investigating the time-course of phonological prediction in native and non-native speakers of English: A visual world eye-tracking study
We report a study using the “visual-world” paradigm that investigated (1) the time-course of phonological prediction in English by native (L1) and non-native (L2) speakers whose native language was Japanese, and (2) whether the Japanese participants predicted phonological form in Japanese. Participants heard sentences which contained a highly predictable word (e.g., cloud, following The tourists expected rain when the sun went behind the …), and viewed an array of objects containing a target object which corresponded to the predictable word [cloud; Japanese: kumo], an English competitor object whose Engl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 16, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 9, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 9, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Sources of relative clause processing difficulty: Evidence from Russian
This study investigates the sources of processing difficulty in complex sentences involving relative clauses (RCs). Self-paced reading and eye tracking were used to test the comprehension of Russian subject- and object-extracted RCs (SRCs and ORCs) that had the same word-order configuration, but different noun phrase (NP) types (full NPs vs. pronouns) in the embedded clause. In both SRCs and ORCs, this NP intervened between the modified noun and the RC verb. A corpus analysis and acceptability rating experiment indicated different frequency/preference profiles for this word order depending on RC type and embedded NP type. ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Understanding metacognitive confidence: Insights from judgment-of-learning justifications
This study employed the delayed judgment-of-learning (JOL) paradigm to investigate the content of metacognitive judgments; after studying cue-target word-pairs, participants predicted their ability to remember targets on a future memory test (cued recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 and cued recall in Experiment 3). In Experiment 1 and the confidence JOL group of Experiment 3, participants used a commonly employed 6-point numeric confidence JOL scale (0–20–40–60–80–100%). In Experiment 2 and the binary JOL group of Experiment 3 participants first made a binary yes/no JOL prediction followed by ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Processing multiple gap dependencies: Forewarned is forearmed
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Dan Parker Many studies have shown that when forming a filler-gap dependency, comprehenders attempt to posit a gap site in advance of the input. However, it remains an open question what information they use to determine gap locations. The current study investigates parallelism in coordinate extraction structures, and asks whether comprehenders use parallelism constraints to structure their expectations about upcoming gap sites. Using a filled-gap paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 show that comprehenders rely on parallelism to restrict...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Comprehension in proficient readers: The nature of individual variation
This study was conducted to determine which abilities are central to explaining comprehension and which are secondary to other abilities. A battery of psycholinguistic and cognitive tests was administered to community college and university students. Seven constructs were identified: word decoding, working-memory capacity (WMC), general reasoning, verbal fluency, perceptual speed, inhibition, and language experience. Only general reasoning and language experience had direct effects; these two variables accounted for as much variance in comprehension as did the complete set. Direct effects of WMC and decoding were found onl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Does study duration have opposite effects on recognition and repetition priming?
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Christopher J. Berry, Emma V. Ward, David R. Shanks We investigated whether manipulating the duration for which an item is studied has opposite effects on recognition memory and repetition priming, as has been reported by Voss and Gonsalves (2010). Robust evidence of this would support the idea that distinct explicit and implicit memory systems drive recognition and priming, and would constitute evidence against a single-system model (Berry, Shanks, Speekenbrink, & Henson, 2012). Across seven experiments using study duratio...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 12, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The perceptual structure of printed words: The case of silent E words in French
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Fabienne Chetail, Alain Content According to a widespread view on functional units in word reading, the perceptual structure of printed words is constrained by print-to-speech mappings. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the organization of consonant and vowel letters (the CV pattern) determines the perceived structure of letter strings. Skilled readers were presented with two kinds of bisyllabic French words. Half of the words included a silent E between two consonants (e.g., gobelet, /gɔblɛ/) thus entailing three orthographi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 10, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The first- and second-language age of acquisition effect in first- and second-language book reading
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Nicolas Dirix, Wouter Duyck The age of acquisition (AoA) effect in first/monolingual language processing has received much attention in psycholinguistic research. However, AoA effects in second language processing were only investigated rarely. In the current study, we investigated first (L1) and second language (L2) AoA effects in a combined eye tracking and mega study approach. We analyzed data of a corpus of eye movements to assess the time course of AoA effects on bilingual reading. We found an effect of L2 AoA in both early an...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 2, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Order of items within associations
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Kenichi Kato, Jeremy B. Caplan Association-memory is a major focus of verbal memory research. However, experimental paradigms have only occasionally tested memory for the order of the constituent items (AB versus BA). Published models of association-memory, implicitly, make clear assumptions about whether associations are learned without order (e.g., convolution-based models) or with unambiguous order (e.g., matrix models). Seeking empirical data to test these assumptions, participants studied lists of word-pairs, and were tested w...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 1, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Bilingual experience shapes language processing: Evidence from codeswitching” [J. Memory Lang. 95 (2017) 173–189]
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): A.L. Beatty-Martínez, P.E. Dussias (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Serial position, output order, and list length effects for words presented on smartphones over very long intervals
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Cathleen Cortis Mack, Caterina Cinel, Nigel Davies, Michael Harding, Geoff Ward Three experiments examined whether or not benchmark findings observed in the immediate retrieval from episodic memory are similarly observed over much greater time-scales. Participants were presented with experimentally-controlled lists of words at the very slow rate of one word every hour using an iPhone recall application, RECAPP, which was also used to recall the words in either any order (free recall: Experiments 1 to 3) or the same order as present...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

“On the one hand” as a cue to anticipate upcoming discourse structure
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Merel C.J. Scholman, Hannah Rohde, Vera Demberg Research has shown that people anticipate upcoming linguistic content, but most work to date has focused on relatively short-range expectation-driven processes within the current sentence or between adjacent sentences. We use the discourse marker On the one hand to test whether comprehenders maintain expectations regarding upcoming content in discourse representations that span multiple sentences. Three experiments show that comprehenders anticipate more than just On the other hand; r...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 27, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Learning a talker or learning an accent: Acoustic similarity constrains generalization of foreign accent adaptation to new talkers
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Xin Xie, Emily B. Myers Past research has revealed that native listeners use top-down information to adjust the mapping from speech sounds to phonetic categories. Such phonetic adjustments help listeners adapt to foreign-accented speech. However, the mechanism by which talker-specific adaptation generalizes to other talkers is poorly understood. Here we asked what conditions induce cross-talker generalization in talker accent adaptation. Native-English listeners were exposed to Mandarin-accented words, produced by a single talker o...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 25, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Distributional learning of subcategories in an artificial grammar: Category generalization and subcategory restrictions
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Patricia A. Reeder, Elissa L. Newport, Richard N. Aslin There has been significant recent interest in clarifying how learners use distributional information during language acquisition. Many researchers have suggested that distributional learning mechanisms play a major role during grammatical category acquisition, since linguistic form-classes (like noun and verb) and subclasses (like masculine and feminine grammatical gender) are primarily defined by the ways lexical items are distributed in syntactic contexts. Though recent expe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 22, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 19, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 19, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Phrase frequency effects in free recall: Evidence for redintegration
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Cassandra L. Jacobs, Gary S. Dell, Colin Bannard Three experiments examined the effects of word and phrase frequency on free recall. Word frequency did not affect word recall, but when participants studied and recalled lists of compositional adjective-noun phrases (e.g. alcoholic beverages), phrase frequency had a consistently beneficial effect: both words from frequent phrases were more likely to be recalled than for infrequent phrases, providing evidence that long-term memory for phrases can aid in pattern completion, or redinteg...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 14, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Time to process information in working memory improves episodic memory
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Alessandra S. Souza, Klaus Oberauer In simple-span tasks, participants encode items sequentially for immediate serial recall. Complex-span tasks are similar, except that items are interleaved with a distraction task. Whereas immediate memory is higher in simple than complex span, in tests of episodic long-term memory, better recall for words studied in complex than simple span has been observed (McCabe, 2008). This McCabe effect has been explained by assuming that distraction displace items from working memory, forcing people to cov...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Novel phonotactic learning: Tracking syllable-position and co-occurrence constraints
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Amélie Bernard Are syllable-level and co-occurrence representations simultaneously available when one learns novel phonotactics? After training on word-medial consonant restrictions (e.g., word-medial onsets P/Z, codas D/F, and cross-syllable consonant clusters FP/DZ in items like baF.Pev, tiD.Zek), adults falsely recognized novel items containing restricted consonants with the same co-occurrences (e.g., FP) more often than those with different co-occurrences (e.g., FZ) when syllable-position information was kept constant (e....
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 22, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Working memory capacity is equally unrelated to auditory distraction by changing-state and deviant sounds
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Ulrike Körner, Jan P. Röer, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell The duplex-mechanism account states that there are two fundamentally different types of auditory distraction. The disruption by a sequence of changing auditory distractors (the changing-state effect) is attributed to the obligatory processing of the to-be-ignored information, which automatically interferes with short-term memory. The disruption by a sequence with a single deviant auditory distractor (the deviation effect), in contrast, is attributed to attentional captur...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 14, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of a speaker ’s gestures on the listener
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Francesco Ianì, Monica Bucciarelli A well-established literature reveals that a speaker’s gestures have beneficial effects on the listener’s memory for speech. A main assumption of our investigation is that gestures improve memory through the exploitation of the listener’s motor system. We tested this prediction in four experiments in which the participants listened to action sentences uttered by a speaker who either stayed still or accompanied the speech with congruent gestures. The results revealed that wh...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 5, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Appositives and their aftermath: Interference depends on at-issue vs. not-at-issue status
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Brian Dillon, Charles Clifton, Shayne Sloggett, Lyn Frazier Much research has explored the degree to which not-at-issue content is interpreted independently of at-issue content, or the main assertion of a sentence (AnderBois, Brasoveanu, & Henderson, 2011; Harris & Potts, 2009; Potts, 2005; Schlenker, 2010; Tonhauser, 2011; a.o.). Building on this work, psycholinguistic research has explored the hypothesis that not-at-issue content, such as appositive relative clauses, is treated distinctly from at-issue content in o...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 23, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

A Bayesian approach to the mixed-effects analysis of accuracy data in repeated-measures designs
We present logistic and probit mixed models that allow for random subject and item effects, as well as interactions between experimental conditions and both items and subjects in either one- or two-factor repeated-measures designs. The effect of experimental conditions on accuracy is assessed through Bayesian model selection and we consider two such approaches to model selection: (a) the Bayes factor via the Bayesian Information Criterion approximation and (b) the Watanabe-Akaike Information Criterion. Simulation studies are used to assess the methodology and to demonstrate its advantages over the more standard approach th...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 20, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The role of reward and reward uncertainty in episodic memory
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Alice Mason, Simon Farrell, Paul Howard-Jones, Casimir J.H. Ludwig Declarative memory has been found to be sensitive to reward-related changes in the environment. The reward signal can be broken down into information regarding the expected value of the reward, reward uncertainty and the prediction error. Research has established that high as opposed to low reward values enhance declarative memory. Research in neuroscience suggests that high uncertainty activates the reward system, which could lead to enhanced learning and memory. He...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 18, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Diffusion vs. linear ballistic accumulation: Different models, different conclusions about the slope of the zROC in recognition memory
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Adam F. Osth, Beatrice Bora, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote The relative amount of variability in memory strength for targets vs. lures in recognition memory is commonly measured using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) procedure, in which participants are given either a bias manipulation or are instructed to give confidence ratings to probe items. A near universal finding is that targets have higher variability than lures. Ratcliff and Starns (2009) questioned the conclusions of the ROC procedure by demonstrating that acco...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 18, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Skewing the evidence: The effect of input structure on child and adult learning of lexically based patterns in an artificial language
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Elizabeth Wonnacott, Helen Brown, Kate Nation Successful language acquisition requires both generalization and lexically based learning. Previous research suggests that this is achieved, at least in part, by tracking distributional statistics at and above the level of lexical items. We explored this learning using a semi-artificial language learning paradigm with 6-year-olds and adults, looking at learning of co-occurrence relationships between (meaningless) particles and English nouns. Both age groups showed stronger lexical learnin...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Attentional refreshing of information in working memory: Increased immediate accessibility of just-refreshed representations
We report five experiments in which we examined the local effects of refreshing. Participants were either instructed to refresh (to think of) the different memory items at an imposed pace after list presentation, so that we had experimental control over which item was being reactivated in the focus of attention at different points in time during retention, or were free to spontaneously use refreshing (or not). We present evidence for (1) the presumed local effect of refreshing that is heightened accessibility of the just-refreshed item, (2) the use of speeded responses to WM probes as a direct, independent index of the occ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 13, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Looking back on reading ahead: No evidence for lexical parafoveal-on-foveal effects
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Trevor Brothers, Liv J. Hoversten, Matthew J. Traxler Current models of eye movement control during reading make different predictions regarding the possibility of parafoveal-on-foveal effects – i.e. whether the lexical properties of upcoming, parafoveal words can affect reading time. To date, there have been contradictory findings from correlational corpus analyses and carefully controlled experimental studies regarding the existence of these effects. To address this controversy, we conducted four experimental studies (total ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 9, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

No prediction error cost in reading: Evidence from eye movements
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Steven Frisson, David R. Harvey, Adrian Staub Two eye movement while reading experiments address the issue of how reading of an unpredictable word is influenced by the presence of a more predictable alternative. The experiments replicate the robust effects of predictability on the probability of skipping and on early and late reading time measures. However, in both experiments, an unpredictable but plausible word was read no more slowly when another word was highly predictable (i.e., in a constraining context) than when no word was h...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 6, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Simulating a story character ’s thoughts: Evidence from the directed forgetting task
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Danielle N. Gunraj, Sri Siddhi N. Upadhyay, Kenneth J. Houghton, Deanne L. Westerman, Celia M. Klin Readers’ memory representations have been shown to include the sensory details of characters’ movement, dialogue, and navigation through space and time (e.g., Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002; Gunraj, Drumm-Hewitt, & Klin, 2014; Levine & Klin, 2001; Zwaan, 1996). We ask whether readers also encode the mental experiences of story characters, such as their thoughts and goals. To examine this question, we used...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 5, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The forward effects of testing on eyewitness memory: The tension between suggestibility and learning
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Leamarie T. Gordon, Ayanna K. Thomas Research has consistently demonstrated that taking a test prior to receiving misleading information can increase misinformation susceptibility (Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). However, research has also demonstrated that testing enhances subsequent learning (e.g., Tulving & Watkins, 1974; Wissman, Rawson, & Pyc, 2011). The goal of the present study was to examine these seemingly contradictory effects of testing. In two experiments we tested the hypothesis that testing infl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 4, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Bilingual experience shapes language processing: Evidence from codeswitching
We report three experiments on two groups of Spanish–English bilinguals who differed in codeswitching experience (codeswitchers and non-codeswitchers) to examine how different production choices predict comprehension difficulty. Experiment 1 examined the processing of gender congruent and gender incongruent determiner-noun switches in sentential contexts using event-related potentials. While codeswitchers demonstrated N400 sensitivity to congruency manipulations, non-codeswitchers showed a modulation of early frontal EEG activity to switching, regardless of switch type. Experiment 2 validated the translation-equivale...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 4, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of selective item repetition on the recall of other items
This study aimed at providing more direct evidence for this proposal by examining the influence of mental reinstatement of study context for the effects of selective retrieval. In addition, it was examined whether the induced beneficial effect generalizes from selective retrieval to selective restudy, and varies with retrieval difficulty, thus providing evidence on whether format of selective item repetition can influence context reactivation processes. In four experiments, prolonged retention intervals between study and selective item repetition were employed to impair study context access. Two main results emerged. First...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 29, 2017 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research