New initiatives to promote open science at the Journal of Memory and Language
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Richard Gerrig, Kathleen Rastle (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 16, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Making sense of sequential lineups: An experimental and theoretical analysis of position effects
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Brent M. Wilson, Kristin Donnelly, Nicholas Christenfeld, John T. WixtedAbstractAs part of a criminal investigation, the police often administer a recognition memory task known as a photo lineup. A typical 6-person photo lineup consists of one suspect (who may or may not be guilty) and five physically similar foils (all known to be innocent). The photos can be shown simultaneously (i.e., all at once) or sequentially (i.e., one at a time). Approximately 30% of U.S. police departments have moved to using the sequential lineup procedur...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 14, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Exploring the shape of signal-detection distributions in individual recognition ROC data
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Simone Malejka, Arndt BröderAbstractThe question of whether recognition performance should be analyzed assuming continuous memory strength or discrete memory states has been bothering researchers for decades. Continuous-strength models (signal-detection theory) assume that memory strength varies according to Gaussian distributions, leading to graded memory-strength values. In contrast, discrete-state models (threshold theory) are formally equivalent to continuous-strength models with rectangular distributions, giving rise to de...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 24, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Learning from failure: Errorful generation improves memory for items, not associations
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Tina Seabrooke, Timothy J. Hollins, Christopher Kent, Andy J. Wills, Chris J. MitchellAbstractPotts and Shanks (2014) recently reported that making mistakes improved the encoding of novel information compared with simply studying. This benefit of generating errors is counterintuitive, since it resulted in less study time and more opportunity for proactive interference. Five experiments examined the effect of generating errors versus studying on item recognition, cued recall, associative recognition, two-alternative forced choice and...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 21, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Information packaging in speech shapes information packaging in gesture: The role of speech planning units in the coordination of speech-gesture production
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Isabella Fritz, Sotaro Kita, Jeannette Littlemore, Andrea KrottAbstractLinguistic encoding influences the gestural manner and path depiction of motion events. Gestures depict manner and path of motion events differently across languages, either conflating or separating manner and path, depending on whether manner and path are linguistically encoded within one clause (e.g., “rolling down”) or multiple clauses (e.g., “descends as it rolls”) respectively. However, it is unclear whether such gestural differences ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 13, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “The statistical significance filter leads to overoptimistic expectations of replicability” [J. Mem. Lang. 103 (2018) 151–175]
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Journal of Memory and LanguageAuthor(s): Shravan Vasishth, Daniela Mertzen, Lena A. Jäger, Andrew Gelman (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 5, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Individual differences in working memory capacity and long-term memory: The influence of intensity of attention to items at encoding as measured by pupil dilation
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Ashley L. Miller, Marina P. Gross, Nash UnsworthAbstractThe present study used pupil dilation as an index of the intensity of attention to determine if variation in attention at encoding partially accounts for the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and long-term memory (LTM). In Experiment 1, participants completed a delayed free recall task while pupil dilation was simultaneously recorded. Results revealed high WMC individuals displayed an increase in pupil dilation across serial positions, whereas low WMC individuals e...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 5, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Exploring the intrinsic-extrinsic distinction in prospective metamemory
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Jonathan A. Susser, Neil W. MulliganAbstractThe overwhelming majority of research on metamemory examines retrospective memory – memory for past events. The metamemory of prospective memory – remembering to carry out intentions in the future – is little studied. The cue utilization account is a prominent framework for analyzing retrospective metamemory, here applied to prospective metamemory. This framework predicts that intrinsic cues (e.g., characteristics of the to-be-remembered information) readily impact metame...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 5, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Social and configural effects on the cognitive dynamics of perspective-taking
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 104Author(s): Alexia Galati, Rick Dale, Nicholas D. DuranAbstractHow do environmental cues and social perspectives influence perspective selection? Listeners responded to instructions (e.g., “Give me the folder on the right”) from a simulated partner, selecting from two objects consistently aligned with themselves (ego-aligned; Experiment 1a) or the speaker (other-aligned; Experiment1b). In Experiment 2, listeners selected from triangular 3-object configurations whose orientation varied (ego-, other-, or neither-aligned). When the con...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 15, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 12, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Linguistic expectation management in online discourse processing: An investigation of Dutch inderdaad 'indeed' and eigenlijk 'actually'
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Geertje van Bergen, Hans Rutger BoskerAbstractInterpersonal discourse particles (DPs), such as Dutch inderdaad (≈‘indeed’) and eigenlijk (≈‘actually’) are highly frequent in everyday conversational interaction. Despite extensive theoretical descriptions of their polyfunctionality, little is known about how they are used by language comprehenders. In two visual world eye-tracking experiments involving an online dialogue completion task, we asked to what extent inderdaad, confirming an inferred expe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 6, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Topic situations: Coherence by inclusion
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Lyn Frazier, Charles CliftonAbstractTopic situations have been studied in the linguistic literature but for the most part have not been studied psycholinguistically. Five experiments tested predictions of the hypothesis that a sentence-initial prepositional phrase (PP) in English introduces a Topic Situation, which by default restricts the interpretation of the following discourse. Participants in judgment experiments interpreted later discourse events as being more likely to take place in the location specified by a PP when that PP...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 31, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The statistical significance filter leads to overoptimistic expectations of replicability
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Shravan Vasishth, Daniela Mertzen, Lena A. Jäger, Andrew GelmanAbstractIt is well-known in statistics (e.g., Gelman & Carlin, 2014) that treating a result as publishable just because the p-value is less than 0.05 leads to overoptimistic expectations of replicability. These effects get published, leading to an overconfident belief in replicability. We demonstrate the adverse consequences of this statistical significance filter by conducting seven direct replication attempts (268 participants in total) of a recent paper (Levy...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 30, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Where does the congruity effect come from in memorial comparative judgments? A serial-position-based distinctiveness account
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Jerwen Jou, Eric E. Escamilla, Andy U. Torres, Alejandro Ortiz, Paola SalazarAbstractA congruity effect (CE) refers to choosing the larger of two large things (smaller of two small things) faster than vice versa. The source of the CE in comparative judgments has been debated for decades without a definitive answer. Major extant models, e.g., the semantic-coding, the expectancy, and the evidence accrual models attribute the effect to matching or mismatching between the instruction (“choose larger” or “choose smaller...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 29, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Semantic diversity, frequency and the development of lexical quality in children’s word reading
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Yaling Hsiao, Kate NationAbstractFrequency exerts a powerful influence on lexical processing but it is possible that at least part of its effect is caused by high frequency words being experienced in more diverse contexts over an individual’s language experience. To capture this variability, we applied Latent Semantic Analysis on a 35-million-word corpus of texts written for children, deriving a measure of semantic diversity that quantifies the similarity of all the contexts a word appears in. Across three experiments with 6&n...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 25, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The list strength effect in source memory: Data and a global matching model
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Adam F. Osth, Julian Fox, Meredith McKague, Andrew Heathcote, Simon DennisAbstractA critical constraint on models of item recognition comes from the list strength paradigm, in which a proportion of items are strengthened to observe the effect on the non-strengthened items. In item recognition, it has been widely established that increasing list strength does not impair performance, in that performance of a set of items is unaffected by the strength of the other items on the list. However, to date the effects of list strength manipul...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 18, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

How does foveal processing difficulty affect parafoveal processing during reading?
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Aaron Veldre, Sally AndrewsAbstractModels of eye movement control during reading assume that the difficulty of processing word n in a sentence modulates the depth of processing of the upcoming word/s (word n + 1) in the parafovea. This foveal load hypothesis is widely accepted in the literature despite surprisingly few clear replications of the basic effect. We sought to establish whether observing a foveal load effect depends on the type of parafoveal preview used in the boundary paradigm. Participants’ eye movements were...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Listener sensitivity to probabilistic conditioning of sociolinguistic variables: The case of (ING)
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Charlotte Vaughn, Tyler KendallAbstractThis paper investigates the extent to which listeners are cued into the systematicity of variability in speech, particularly the grammatical conditioning constraints of the English sociolinguistic variable (ING) (e.g., talking vs. talkin). Listeners’ sensitivity to the realization of (ING) words embedded in sentences was tested under various conditions. Comprehenders demonstrated expectations about the grammatical category constraints conditioning the realization of (ING) even though such...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 6, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Are encoding/retrieval interactions in recall driven by remembering, knowing, or both?
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Oyku Uner, Henry L. RoedigerAbstractReinstating encoding conditions at retrieval typically enhances recall and recognition, but are encoding/retrieval interactions driven by remembering, knowing, or both? To address this question, we used the remember/know paradigm in two cued recall experiments that varied the match between encoding and retrieval conditions. Participants studied words with associate or rhyme cues and were tested with associate or rhyme cues, resulting in two match and two mismatch conditions. In both experiments, r...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 20, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Voluntary language switching: When and why do bilinguals switch between their languages?
This study examined when and why bilinguals switch voluntarily. Spanish-Basque bilinguals frequently switched between their languages and their language choice was related to the ease of lexical access. Words that were slow to be accessed in Basque were more often named in Spanish and vice versa. In terms of response times, switching costs were observed not only in the cued but also in the voluntary task. However, while cued switching showed a mixing cost (reflecting the cost associated with using two languages rather than one), a mixing benefit was observed for the voluntary task. This suggests that voluntarily using two ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 19, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Testing enhances memory for context
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Melisa Akan, Sarah E. Stanley, Aaron S. BenjaminAbstractThe beneficial effect of retrieval practice on memory is a well-established phenomenon. Despite the wealth of research on this testing effect, it is unclear whether the benefits of testing extend beyond the tested information to include memory for the context in which the memoranda were encountered. Three experiments examined the effect of testing on memory for context using a standard variant of a traditional item-context memory task, in which cue-target word pairs (the items)...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 18, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 14, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Variable agreement with coordinate subjects is not a form of agreement attraction
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 103Author(s): Lap-Ching Keung, Adrian StaubAbstractAgreement attraction (e.g., ∗The key to the cabinets are rusty) is not attributable to the linear proximity between the local noun and verb (Franck, Vigliocco, & Nicol, 2002). However, agreement with a disjoined subject (e.g., The horses or the clock is red) is specifically sensitive to the number of the nearer noun (Haskell & MacDonald, 2005). The present study highlights other differences between the influence on agreement of a local noun in the classic attraction configuration a...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 12, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Remind me of the context: Memory and metacognition at restudy
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Katarzyna Zawadzka, Nicola Simkiss, Maciej HanczakowskiAbstractMastering study materials often requires repeated learning. However, the strategy of restudying the same materials has been criticized for not giving sufficient opportunity for retrieval in the form of self-assessments that are known to benefit not only learning but also metacognitive monitoring of the learning process. Here we focus on the contribution of spontaneous retrieval in the form of reminding to repeated learning that does not require explicit self-assessments. B...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Working memory capacity mediates the relationship between removal and fluid intelligence
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Krishneil A. Singh, Gilles E. Gignac, Christopher R. Brydges, Ullrich K.H. EckerAbstractA process of active, item-wise removal of information from working memory (WM) has been proposed as the core component process of WM updating. Consequently, we investigated the associations between removal efficiency, WM capacity, and fluid intelligence (gF) in a series of three individual-differences studies via confirmatory factor analysis. In each study, participants completed a novel WM updating task battery designed to measure removal efficien...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Ordering adjectives in referential communication
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Kumiko FukumuraAbstractWe contrasted two hypotheses concerning how speakers determine adjective order during referential communication. The discriminatory efficiency hypotheses claims that speakers place the most discriminating adjective early to facilitate referent identification. By contrast, the availability-based ordering hypothesis assumes that speakers produce most available adjectives early to ease production. Experiment 1 showed that speakers use more pattern-before-color modifier orders (than the reversed) when pattern, not c...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Forms and features: The role of syncretism in number agreement attraction
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Natalia SlioussarAbstractMany experiments have studied attraction errors in number agreement (e.g. ‘The key to the cabinets were rusty’). It has been noted that singular heads with plural dependents (attractors) trigger larger attraction effects than plural heads with singular attractors, and that in languages with morphological case, morphologically ambiguous attractors trigger larger effects (accusative plural forms coinciding with nominative plural were compared to unambiguous case forms). In Russian, the nominative plu...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The non-strategic nature of linguistic long-term memory effects in verbal short-term memory
This study provides novel evidence for linguistic accounts of vSTM by demonstrating a robust impact of lexical and surface-level semantic knowledge on vSTM in non-strategic, fast-encoding conditions. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Limitations of translation activation in masked priming: Behavioural evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals and computational modelling
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Yun Wen, Walter J.B. van HeuvenAbstractElectrophysiological and behavioural evidence suggests that Chinese translations of English words are automatically activated when Chinese-English bilinguals read English words (e.g., Thierry & Wu, 2007; Wu & Thierry, 2010; Zhang, van Heuven, & Conklin, 2011). The present study investigated the impact of translation activation in three behavioural experiments with in total 118 Chinese-English bilinguals. First, we investigated whether Chinese phonology was the source of the effects of...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Cataphoric pronoun resolution in native and non-native sentence comprehension
We report the results from a series of eye-movement monitoring and questionnaire experiments investigating cataphoric pronoun resolution in German. Given earlier findings suggesting that the application of structure-sensitive constraints on reference resolution may be delayed in non-native language processing, we tested both native and proficient non-native speakers of German. Our results show that cataphoric pronouns trigger an active search in both native and non-native comprehenders. Whilst both participant groups demonstrated awareness of Condition C in an offline task, we found Condition C effects to be restricted to ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Influences of context load and sensibleness of background photographs on local environmental context-dependent recognition
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Takeo Isarida, Toshiko K. Isarida, Takayuki Kubota, Miyoko Higuma, Yuki MatsudaAbstractThe present study explored which theory can best explain local environmental context-dependent recognition. One type of theory (encoding specificity principle) posits that recognition reflects remembering of the past episode, whereas the other theory (ICE: Item Context Ensemble) posits that recognition reflects familiarity-based judgements. In three experiments, a total of 120 undergraduates intentionally studied a list of unrelated words superimpos...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The nature and consequences of false memories for visual stimuli
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Jianqin Wang, Henry Otgaar, Mark L. Howe, Felix Lippe, Tom SmeetsAbstractDifferent theoretical views exist regarding whether false memories contain perceptual information or are merely conceptual in nature. To address this question, we conducted three experiments to examine whether false memories for pictures had a priming effect on a perceptual closure task. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with pictorial versions of Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists and received a recognition task. Finally, in the perceptual closure t...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Language unifies relational coding: The roles of label acquisition and accessibility in making flexible relational judgments
We examined the ability to make relative, spatial judgments across verbal and nonverbal tasks of above, below, right and left in children between the ages of 5 and 10 years. We found that the verbal ability to make above/below judgments preceded verbal right/left judgments and all nonverbal judgments. We also found that only when the labels were accessed – as opposed to only having been acquired – did children’s nonverbal performance improve. Our findings further indicate that accessing the correct term was not needed for enhanced performance. The results suggest that accessing language unifies differen...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Divided attention during encoding causes separate memory traces to be encoded for repeated events
In this report, we examined the LSE in free recall and recognition when items were learned with full attention or under divided attention at encoding. In free recall, the results showed a robust LSE under full attention, but a null LSE in divided attention. In contrast, in recognition a null LSE was observed under full attention, but a positive LSE emerged under divided attention. Within REM theoretical framework, the combination of these findings suggests that DA reduces the tendency to accumulate information across repetitions in a single trace, thereby reducing the influence of differentiation. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Learning to recall: Examining recall latencies to test an intra-item learning theory of testing effects
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): William J. Hopper, David E. HuberAbstractWe propose a new theory for the benefits of recall practice based on intra-item learning. On this account, retrieval cues produce an initial memory state (termed ‘primary retrieval’). However, this state is incomplete and insufficient for overt recall of the item. A subsequent process, termed ‘convergent retrieval’, fills in any missing information through intra-item associations, allowing recall of the item. Because this occurs in a staged manner, directional learning ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Retrieval interference and semantic interpretation
We report two reading experiments that manipulated sentence plausibility, rather than grammaticality, as a diagnostic of interference. In both experiments, although reading times were longer for implausible sentences, this plausibility effect was reliably attenuated when a distractor item partially matched the cues at retrieval. We interpret these results as being compatible with the predictions of cue-based parsing. The illusions of plausibility that we report indicate that similarity-based retrieval interference has a potent influence on the semantic interpretation that is assigned to a sentence during processing. (Sourc...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Temporal contiguity in incidentally encoded memories
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): M. Karl HealeyAbstractThinking of one event often triggers recall of other events experienced nearby in time. This Temporal Contiguity Effect has been extensively documented in laboratory list learning tasks, but its source is debated. Is it due to task-general automatic processes that operate whenever new memories are formed? Or is it due to task-specific encoding strategies that operate only during deliberate rote learning? I test these theories by presenting over 3500 subjects with a surprise free recall test after various inciden...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Linguistic experience affects pronoun interpretation
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Jennifer E. Arnold, Iris M. Strangmann, Heeju Hwang, Sandra Zerkle, Rebecca NappaAbstractWe test the hypothesis that language experience influences the cognitive mechanisms used to interpret ambiguous pronouns like he or she, which require the context for interpretation. Pronoun interpretation is influenced by both the linguistic context (e.g., pronouns tend to corefer with the subject of the previous sentence) and social cues (e.g., gaze can signal the pronoun’s referent). We test whether pronoun comprehension biases are relat...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Detecting when timeseries differ: Using the Bootstrapped Differences of Timeseries (BDOTS) to analyze Visual World Paradigm data (and more)
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Michael Seedorff, Jacob Oleson, Bob McMurrayAbstractIn the last decades, major advances in the language sciences have been built on real-time measures of language and cognitive processing, measures like mouse-tracking, event related potentials and eye-tracking in the visual world paradigm. These measures yield densely sampled timeseries that can be highly revealing of the dynamics of cognitive processing. However, despite these methodological advances, existing statistical approaches for timeseries analyses have often lagged behind. ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Electrophysiological evidence for an independent effect of memory retrieval on referential processing
In this study, we show that the difficulty of re-activating and retrieving the representations of potential referents from memory (retrieval difficulty) influences referential processing, and that this effect is independent of the number of potential referents for a pronoun or the probability of possible referential interpretations (referential coherence). In two experiments, we varied retrieval difficulty by manipulating whether two referential candidates were modified by extra semantic information or not, creating representationally rich (modified) or bare (unmodified) referential candidates, respectively, and we measure...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Testing potentiates new learning across a retention interval and a lag: A strategy change perspective
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Jason C.K. Chan, Krista D. Manley, Sara D. Davis, Karl K. SzpunarAbstractPracticing retrieval on previously studied materials can potentiate subsequent learning of new materials. In four experiments, we investigated the influence of retention interval and lag on this test-potentiated new learning (TPNL) effect. Participants studied four word lists and either practiced retrieval, restudied, or completed math problems following Lists 1–3. Memory performance on List 4 provided an estimate of new learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, p...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Does dynamic visual noise eliminate the concreteness effect in working memory?
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Chrissy Chubala, Aimée M. Surprenant, Ian Neath, Philip T. QuinlanAbstractDynamic visual noise (DVN), an array of squares that randomly switch between black and white, interferes with certain tasks that involve visuo-spatial processing. Based on the assumption that the representation of concrete words includes an imagistic code whereas that of abstract words does not, Parker and Dagnall (2009) predicted that DVN should disrupt visual working memory and selectively interfere with memory for concrete words. They observed a rever...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Adults with poor reading skills, older adults, and college students: The meanings they understand during reading using a diffusion model analysis
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Gail McKoon, Roger RatcliffAbstractWhen a word is read in a text, the aspects of its meanings that are encoded should be those relevant to the text and not those that are irrelevant. We tested whether older adults, college students, and adults with poor literacy skills accomplish contextually relevant encoding. Participants read short stories, which were followed by true/false test sentences. Among these were sentences that matched the relevant meaning of a word in a story and sentences that matched a different meaning. We measured t...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Patterns of forgetting
In this study, memory for a list of words and narrative texts was assessed up to 12 weeks after initial learning. We observed that memory for the word list showed some forgetting early on, followed by an abrupt loss after about seven days. Moreover, for the narrative text, surface form memories were forgotten to around chance level after about an hour, whereas textbase level memories were retained until about seven days when memory suddenly dropped to around chance levels, much like the word list memories. In contrast to this, memory at the event model level remained high throughout, although there was some forgetting ov...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Comparing the confidence calculation rules for forced-choice recognition memory: A winner-takes-all rule wins
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Kiyofumi Miyoshi, Ayumi Kuwahara, Jun KawaguchiAbstractUsing a new signal-detection-theory-based approach, Experiments 1 and 2 of this study were found to reveal that the internal confidence for two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) recognition memory is calculated in a winner-takes-all manner. The signal strength for one of a pair of stimuli exclusively determines confidence and the other piece of useful information is discarded. Similar winner-takes-all confidence calculation has been reported in different kinds of visual perceptio...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Individual differences in syntactic processing: Is there evidence for reader-text interactions?
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Ariel N. James, Scott H. Fraundorf, Eun-Kyung Lee, Duane G. WatsonAbstractThere remains little consensus about whether there exist meaningful individual differences in syntactic processing and, if so, what explains them. We argue that this partially reflects the fact that few psycholinguistic studies of individual differences include multiple constructs, multiple measures per construct, or tests for reliable measures. Here, we replicated three major syntactic phenomena in the psycholinguistic literature: use of verb distributional st...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Mitigating the adverse effects of response deadline on recognition memory: Differential effects of semantic memory support on item and associative memory
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102Author(s): Praggyan (Pam) Mohanty, Moshe Naveh-BenjaminAbstractPrior research indicates that the effects of response deadline on episodic memory retrieval may be selective. Accordingly, this paper examines whether response deadline causes differential impairments in item and associative memory. Further, it investigates and contrasts the role of two types of semantic memory support– item memory support (in the form of meaningfulness of items, Experiment 1) and associative memory support (in the form of relatedness between items, Experiment...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 5, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Remind me of the context: Memory and metacognition at restudy
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101Author(s): Katarzyna Zawadzka, Nicola Simkiss, Maciej HanczakowskiAbstractMastering study materials often requires repeated learning. However, the strategy of restudying the same materials has been criticized for not giving sufficient opportunity for retrieval in the form of self-assessments that are known to benefit not only learning but also metacognitive monitoring of the learning process. Here we focus on the contribution of spontaneous retrieval in the form of reminding to repeated learning that does not require explicit self-assessments. B...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 5, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research