Detecting when timeseries differ: Using the Bootstrapped Differences of Timeseries (BDOTS) to analyze Visual World Paradigm data (and more)
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102 Author(s): Michael Seedorff, Jacob Oleson, Bob McMurray In the last decades, major advances in the language sciences have been built on real-time measures of language and cognitive processing, measures like mouse-tracking, event related potentials and eye-tracking in the visual world paradigm. These measures yield densely sampled timeseries that can be highly revealing of the dynamics of cognitive processing. However, despite these methodological advances, existing statistical approaches for timeseries analyses have often lagged behind. Here,...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 25, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Linguistic experience affects pronoun interpretation
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102 Author(s): Jennifer E. Arnold, Iris M. Strangmann, Heeju Hwang, Sandra Zerkle, Rebecca Nappa We test the hypothesis that language experience influences the cognitive mechanisms used to interpret ambiguous pronouns like he or she, which require the context for interpretation. Pronoun interpretation is influenced by both the linguistic context (e.g., pronouns tend to corefer with the subject of the previous sentence) and social cues (e.g., gaze can signal the pronoun’s referent). We test whether pronoun comprehension biases are related to...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 22, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Temporal contiguity in incidentally encoded memories
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102 Author(s): M. Karl Healey Thinking of one event often triggers recall of other events experienced nearby in time. This Temporal Contiguity Effect has been extensively documented in laboratory list learning tasks, but its source is debated. Is it due to task-general automatic processes that operate whenever new memories are formed? Or is it due to task-specific encoding strategies that operate only during deliberate rote learning? I test these theories by presenting over 3500 subjects with a surprise free recall test after various incidental e...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 17, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Retrieval interference and semantic interpretation
We report two reading experiments that manipulated sentence plausibility, rather than grammaticality, as a diagnostic of interference. In both experiments, although reading times were longer for implausible sentences, this plausibility effect was reliably attenuated when a distractor item partially matched the cues at retrieval. We interpret these results as being compatible with the predictions of cue-based parsing. The illusions of plausibility that we report indicate that similarity-based retrieval interference has a potent influence on the semantic interpretation that is assigned to a sentence during processing. (Sourc...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 13, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Learning to recall: Examining recall latencies to test an intra-item learning theory of testing effects
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 102 Author(s): William J. Hopper, David E. Huber We propose a new theory for the benefits of recall practice based on intra-item learning. On this account, retrieval cues produce an initial memory state (termed ‘primary retrieval’). However, this state is incomplete and insufficient for overt recall of the item. A subsequent process, termed ‘convergent retrieval’, fills in any missing information through intra-item associations, allowing recall of the item. Because this occurs in a staged manner, directional learning occur...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 8, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Divided attention during encoding causes separate memory traces to be encoded for repeated events
In this report, we examined the LSE in free recall and recognition when items were learned with full attention or under divided attention at encoding. In free recall, the results showed a robust LSE under full attention, but a null LSE in divided attention. In contrast, in recognition a null LSE was observed under full attention, but a positive LSE emerged under divided attention. Within REM theoretical framework, the combination of these findings suggests that DA reduces the tendency to accumulate information across repetitions in a single trace, thereby reducing the influence of differentiation. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 6, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Language unifies relational coding: The roles of label acquisition and accessibility in making flexible relational judgments
We examined the ability to make relative, spatial judgments across verbal and nonverbal tasks of above, below, right and left in children between the ages of 5 and 10 years. We found that the verbal ability to make above/below judgments preceded verbal right/left judgments and all nonverbal judgments. We also found that only when the labels were accessed – as opposed to only having been acquired – did children’s nonverbal performance improve. Our findings further indicate that accessing the correct term was not needed for enhanced performance. The results suggest that accessing language unifies differen...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 2, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The nature and consequences of false memories for visual stimuli
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101 Author(s): Jianqin Wang, Henry Otgaar, Mark L. Howe, Felix Lippe, Tom Smeets Different theoretical views exist regarding whether false memories contain perceptual information or are merely conceptual in nature. To address this question, we conducted three experiments to examine whether false memories for pictures had a priming effect on a perceptual closure task. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with pictorial versions of Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists and received a recognition task. Finally, in the perceptual closure task (...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 29, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Influences of context load and sensibleness of background photographs on local environmental context-dependent recognition
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101 Author(s): Takeo Isarida, Toshiko K. Isarida, Takayuki Kubota, Miyoko Higuma, Yuki Matsuda The present study explored which theory can best explain local environmental context-dependent recognition. One type of theory (encoding specificity principle) posits that recognition reflects remembering of the past episode, whereas the other theory (ICE: Item Context Ensemble) posits that recognition reflects familiarity-based judgements. In three experiments, a total of 120 undergraduates intentionally studied a list of unrelated words superimposed on...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 23, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Cataphoric pronoun resolution in native and non-native sentence comprehension
We report the results from a series of eye-movement monitoring and questionnaire experiments investigating cataphoric pronoun resolution in German. Given earlier findings suggesting that the application of structure-sensitive constraints on reference resolution may be delayed in non-native language processing, we tested both native and proficient non-native speakers of German. Our results show that cataphoric pronouns trigger an active search in both native and non-native comprehenders. Whilst both participant groups demonstrated awareness of Condition C in an offline task, we found Condition C effects to be restricted to ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 18, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Limitations of translation activation in masked priming: Behavioural evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals and computational modelling
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101 Author(s): Yun Wen, Walter J.B. van Heuven Electrophysiological and behavioural evidence suggests that Chinese translations of English words are automatically activated when Chinese-English bilinguals read English words (e.g., Thierry & Wu, 2007; Wu & Thierry, 2010; Zhang, van Heuven, & Conklin, 2011). The present study investigated the impact of translation activation in three behavioural experiments with in total 118 Chinese-English bilinguals. First, we investigated whether Chinese phonology was the source of the eff...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 5, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The non-strategic nature of linguistic long-term memory effects in verbal short-term memory
This study provides novel evidence for linguistic accounts of vSTM by demonstrating a robust impact of lexical and surface-level semantic knowledge on vSTM in non-strategic, fast-encoding conditions. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 2, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Forms and features: The role of syncretism in number agreement attraction
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101 Author(s): Natalia Slioussar Many experiments have studied attraction errors in number agreement (e.g. ‘The key to the cabinets were rusty’). It has been noted that singular heads with plural dependents (attractors) trigger larger attraction effects than plural heads with singular attractors, and that in languages with morphological case, morphologically ambiguous attractors trigger larger effects (accusative plural forms coinciding with nominative plural were compared to unambiguous case forms). In Russian, the nominative plural f...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 30, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Ordering adjectives in referential communication
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101 Author(s): Kumiko Fukumura We contrasted two hypotheses concerning how speakers determine adjective order during referential communication. The discriminatory efficiency hypotheses claims that speakers place the most discriminating adjective early to facilitate referent identification. By contrast, the availability-based ordering hypothesis assumes that speakers produce most available adjectives early to ease production. Experiment 1 showed that speakers use more pattern-before-color modifier orders (than the reversed) when pattern, not color,...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 23, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Working memory capacity mediates the relationship between removal and fluid intelligence
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101 Author(s): Krishneil A. Singh, Gilles E. Gignac, Christopher R. Brydges, Ullrich K.H. Ecker A process of active, item-wise removal of information from working memory (WM) has been proposed as the core component process of WM updating. Consequently, we investigated the associations between removal efficiency, WM capacity, and fluid intelligence (gF) in a series of three individual-differences studies via confirmatory factor analysis. In each study, participants completed a novel WM updating task battery designed to measure removal efficiency. I...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 16, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Remind me of the context: Memory and metacognition at restudy
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 101 Author(s): Katarzyna Zawadzka, Nicola Simkiss, Maciej Hanczakowski Mastering study materials often requires repeated learning. However, the strategy of restudying the same materials has been criticized for not giving sufficient opportunity for retrieval in the form of self-assessments that are known to benefit not only learning but also metacognitive monitoring of the learning process. Here we focus on the contribution of spontaneous retrieval in the form of reminding to repeated learning that does not require explicit self-assessments. By man...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 14, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Does syntax bias serial order reconstruction of verbal short-term memory?
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100 Author(s): Timothy Jones, Simon Farrell Existing models of short-term sequence memory can account for effects of long-term knowledge on the recall of individual items, but have rarely addressed the effects of long-term sequential constraints on recall. We examine syntactic constraints on the ordering of words in verbal short-term memory in four experiments. People were found to have better memory for sequences that more strongly conform to English syntax, and that errors in recall tended to make output sequences more syntactic (i.e., a syntactic...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 6, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Evidence for the use of three-way binding structures in associative and source recognition
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100 Author(s): Hyungwook Yim, Adam F. Osth, Vladimir M. Sloutsky, Simon J. Dennis Avoiding interference among similar memory traces may be helped by forming complex memory structures that include multiple components of the event. In a laboratory setting, these structures have been studied through list learning paradigms, where the pairs in one list are swapped in another list (i.e., ABABr condition), and one has to form a memory structure that includes items and context together (i.e., three-way binding). However, despite the long history of the the...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 27, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The phonetic specificity of contrastive hyperarticulation in natural speech
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100 Author(s): Andrew Wedel, Noah Nelson, Rebecca Sharp Evidence suggests that speakers hyperarticulate phonetic cues to word identity in a way that increases phonetic distance to similar competitors. However, the degree and type of phonetic similarity between competitors which induces hyperarticulation remains unclear. Here, we compared neighborhood density (as a representative of a phonetically-general type of similarity) to the existence of a phonetic cue-specific lexical minimal pair in terms of their ability to predict hyperarticulation of two ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 16, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Infants ’ recognition of foreign-accented words: Flexible yet precise signal-to-word mapping strategies
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100 Author(s): Marieke van Heugten, Melissa Paquette-Smith, Dena R. Krieger, Elizabeth K. Johnson To develop adult-like communication skills, children need to learn to converse not only with individuals from their local community, but also with second-language learners who might have foreign accents. Here, we ask when infants can recognize foreign-accented word forms, and what the cognitive underpinnings are that enable children to map such surface forms onto established lexical representations. In line with reports using regional accents, Canadian-...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 3, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Is speech recognition automatic? Lexical competition, but not initial lexical access, requires cognitive resources
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100 Author(s): Xujin Zhang, Arthur G. Samuel Current models of spoken word recognition suggest that multiple lexical candidates are activated in parallel upon hearing an utterance, with these lexical hypotheses competing with each other for recognition. The current project investigated the effect of cognitive load on initial lexical access and later lexical competition. In a set of priming studies, the lexicality of the primes (i.e., non-word vs. word) was manipulated to dissociate these two sub-processes. We tested performance on a semantic associa...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - February 3, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Free recall dynamics in value-directed remembering
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100 Author(s): Aikaterini Stefanidi, Derek M. Ellis, Gene A. Brewer An emerging literature on value-directed remembering has shown that people are able to encode and remember information that is more important. Researchers operationalize importance by differentially assigning value to the memoranda that participants are asked to encode and remember. In the present investigation, a slightly altered value-directed-remembering paradigm was used to investigate how value modifies the dynamics of memory organization and search in free recall. In Experimen...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 29, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Beyond cloze probability: Parafoveal processing of semantic and syntactic information during reading
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 100 Author(s): Aaron Veldre, Sally Andrews Theories of eye movement control in reading assume that early oculomotor decisions are determined by a word’s frequency and cloze probability. This assumption is challenged by evidence that readers are sensitive to the contextual plausibility of an upcoming word: First-pass fixation probability and duration are reduced when the parafoveal preview is a plausible, but unpredictable, word relative to an implausible word. The present study sought to establish whether the source of this effect is sensitivi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 27, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The roles of remembering and outshining in global environmental context-dependent recognition
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Takeo Isarida, Toshiko K. Isarida, Takayuki Kubota, Kotaro Nishimura, Moemi Fukasawa, Kodai Thakahashi The present study investigated whether odor and background-music dependent recognition is best explained by the outshining account, consisting of the encoding-specificity and the outshining principles. In contrast, the ICE theory posits that recognition of a past episode involves judgment processes based on global activation of the item, the context, and the ensemble information in the probe and memory. Experiments 1 and 2 manipulate...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 19, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Perceptual fluency affects judgments of learning: The font size effect
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Chunliang Yang, Tina S.-T. Huang, David R. Shanks The font size effect on judgments of learning (JOLs) refers to the fact that people give higher JOLs to large than to small font size words, despite font size having no effect on retention. The effect is important because it spotlights a process dissociation between metacognitive judgments about memory and memory performance itself. Previous research has proposed a fluency theory to account for this effect, but this theory has been contradicted by a recent study which found no differen...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - December 9, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The role of pitch pattern in Japanese 24-month-olds ’ word recognition
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Hisako W. Yamamoto, Etsuko Haryu (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Exploring the abstractness of number retrieval cues in the computation of subject-verb agreement in comprehension
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Zoe Schlueter, Alexander Williams, Ellen Lau Subject-verb agreement has provided critical insights into the cue-based memory retrieval system that supports language comprehension by showing that memory interference can cause erroneous agreement with non-subjects: ‘agreement attraction’. Here we ask how faithful retrieval cues are in relation to the grammar. We examine the impact of conjoined singular attractors (The advice from the doctor and the nurse …), which are syntactically plural but whose plurality is introd...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The company objects keep: Linking referents together during cross-situational word learning
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Martin Zettersten, Erica Wojcik, Viridiana L. Benitez, Jenny Saffran Learning the meanings of words involves not only linking individual words to referents but also building a network of connections among entities in the world, concepts, and words. Previous studies reveal that infants and adults track the statistical co-occurrence of labels and objects across multiple ambiguous training instances to learn words. However, it is less clear whether, given distributional or attentional cues, learners also encode associations among the nov...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

What explains the von Restorff effect? Contrasting distinctive processing and retrieval cue efficacy
This study contrasted two explanations of the von Restorff effect – distinctive processing and retrieval cue efficacy, which differ in their assumptions about encoding processes. A homonym, kiwi, was used as the critical word and manipulated to either be synonymous with background items, or made an isolate by orienting participants towards its alternate meaning. The orientation was done at either the encoding or retrieval stages. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that even without distinctive processing at encoding, the von Restorff effect could still occur at retrieval in the presence of an effective retrieval cue. Exper...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 16, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Context, facial expression and prosody in irony processing
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Gaétane Deliens, Kyriakos Antoniou, Elise Clin, Ekaterina Ostashchenko, Mikhail Kissine While incongruence with the background context is a powerful cue for irony, in spoken conversation ironic utterances often bear non-contextual cues, such as marked tone of voice and/or facial expression. In Experiment 1, we show that ironic prosody and facial expression can be correctly discriminated as such in a categorization task, even though the boundaries between ironic and non-ironic cues are somewhat fuzzy. However, an act-out task (E...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - November 3, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Models of retrieval in sentence comprehension: A computational evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical modeling
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 99 Author(s): Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth Research on similarity-based interference has provided extensive evidence that the formation of dependencies between non-adjacent words relies on a cue-based retrieval mechanism. There are two different models that can account for one of the main predictions of interference, i.e., a slowdown at a retrieval site, when several items share a feature associated with a retrieval cue: Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005) activation-based model and McElree’s (2000) direct-access model. Even though these t...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Weighing up the evidence for sound symbolism: Distributional properties predict cue strength
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Chris Westbury, Geoff Hollis, David M. Sidhu, Penny M. Pexman It is well-established that there are relationships between word meaning and certain letters or phonemes, a phenomenon known as sound symbolism. Most sound symbolism studies have relied on a small stimulus set chosen to maximize the probability of finding an effect for a particular semantic category. Attempts to assign weights to sound symbolic cues have been limited by a methodology that has relied largely on forced contrast judgments, which do not allow systema...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 21, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Cover 3: atla_research_210x280.pdf
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 20, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Allophones, not phonemes in spoken-word recognition
We present three experiments using selective adaptation that constitute strong tests of these representational hypotheses. In Experiment 1, we tested generalization of selective adaptation using different allophones of Dutch /r/ and /l/ – a case where generalization has not been found with perceptual learning. In Experiments 2 and 3, we tested generalization of selective adaptation using German back fricatives in which allophonic and phonemic identity were varied orthogonally. In all three experiments, selective adaptation was observed only if adaptors and test stimuli shared allophones. Phonemic identity, in contras...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 28, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Implicit learning of structure occurs in parallel with lexically-mediated syntactic priming effects in sentence comprehension
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 Author(s): Kristen M. Tooley, Matthew J. Traxler The aim of this study was to determine whether cumulative structural priming effects and trial-to-trial lexically-mediated priming effects are produced by the same mechanism in comprehension. Participants took part in a five-session eye tracking study where they read reduced-relative prime-target pairs with the same initial verb. Half of the verbs in these sentences were repeated across the five sessions and half were novel to each session. Total fixation times on the syntactically challenging ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Compounds, phrases and clitics in connected speech
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 Author(s): Hilary S.Z. Wynne, Linda Wheeldon, Aditi Lahiri Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the si...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Relative clause avoidance: Evidence for a structural parsing principle
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 98 Author(s): Adrian Staub, Francesca Foppolo, Caterina Donati, Carlo Cecchetto Three eye movement experiments investigated the processing of the syntactic ambiguity in strings such as the information that the health department provided, where the that-clause can be either a relative clause (RC) or the start of a nominal complement clause (CC; the information that the health department provided a cure). The experiments tested the prediction that comprehenders should avoid the RC analysis because it involves an unforced filler-gap dependency. Rea...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 24, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Mind the generation gap: Differences between young and old in everyday lexical categories
This study examined the balance between stability and flexibility in meanings of common, basic level artifact nouns by evaluating speaker differences in their use asa function of age, education, and gender. Diverse samples of monolingual Dutch- (N≈400) and French-speaking (N≈300) Belgian adults made lexical category judgments for pictures of storage containers. Mixture IRT-analyses revealed the presence of latent groups of categorizers related to age but not gender or education in each language. In both languages, older adults relied more on traditional materials such as glass or cardboard in their judgments, w...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 19, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Investigating the time-course of phonological prediction in native and non-native speakers of English: A visual world eye-tracking study
We report a study using the “visual-world” paradigm that investigated (1) the time-course of phonological prediction in English by native (L1) and non-native (L2) speakers whose native language was Japanese, and (2) whether the Japanese participants predicted phonological form in Japanese. Participants heard sentences which contained a highly predictable word (e.g., cloud, following The tourists expected rain when the sun went behind the …), and viewed an array of objects containing a target object which corresponded to the predictable word [cloud; Japanese: kumo], an English competitor object whose Engl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 16, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Cover 4: els_resintso_210x280.pdf
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 9, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Cover 3: atla_researc_210x280.pdf
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 9, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Sources of relative clause processing difficulty: Evidence from Russian
This study investigates the sources of processing difficulty in complex sentences involving relative clauses (RCs). Self-paced reading and eye tracking were used to test the comprehension of Russian subject- and object-extracted RCs (SRCs and ORCs) that had the same word-order configuration, but different noun phrase (NP) types (full NPs vs. pronouns) in the embedded clause. In both SRCs and ORCs, this NP intervened between the modified noun and the RC verb. A corpus analysis and acceptability rating experiment indicated different frequency/preference profiles for this word order depending on RC type and embedded NP type. ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Understanding metacognitive confidence: Insights from judgment-of-learning justifications
This study employed the delayed judgment-of-learning (JOL) paradigm to investigate the content of metacognitive judgments; after studying cue-target word-pairs, participants predicted their ability to remember targets on a future memory test (cued recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 and cued recall in Experiment 3). In Experiment 1 and the confidence JOL group of Experiment 3, participants used a commonly employed 6-point numeric confidence JOL scale (0–20–40–60–80–100%). In Experiment 2 and the binary JOL group of Experiment 3 participants first made a binary yes/no JOL prediction followed by ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Processing multiple gap dependencies: Forewarned is forearmed
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Dan Parker Many studies have shown that when forming a filler-gap dependency, comprehenders attempt to posit a gap site in advance of the input. However, it remains an open question what information they use to determine gap locations. The current study investigates parallelism in coordinate extraction structures, and asks whether comprehenders use parallelism constraints to structure their expectations about upcoming gap sites. Using a filled-gap paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 show that comprehenders rely on parallelism to restrict...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Comprehension in proficient readers: The nature of individual variation
This study was conducted to determine which abilities are central to explaining comprehension and which are secondary to other abilities. A battery of psycholinguistic and cognitive tests was administered to community college and university students. Seven constructs were identified: word decoding, working-memory capacity (WMC), general reasoning, verbal fluency, perceptual speed, inhibition, and language experience. Only general reasoning and language experience had direct effects; these two variables accounted for as much variance in comprehension as did the complete set. Direct effects of WMC and decoding were found onl...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 26, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Does study duration have opposite effects on recognition and repetition priming?
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Christopher J. Berry, Emma V. Ward, David R. Shanks We investigated whether manipulating the duration for which an item is studied has opposite effects on recognition memory and repetition priming, as has been reported by Voss and Gonsalves (2010). Robust evidence of this would support the idea that distinct explicit and implicit memory systems drive recognition and priming, and would constitute evidence against a single-system model (Berry, Shanks, Speekenbrink, & Henson, 2012). Across seven experiments using study duratio...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 12, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The perceptual structure of printed words: The case of silent E words in French
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Fabienne Chetail, Alain Content According to a widespread view on functional units in word reading, the perceptual structure of printed words is constrained by print-to-speech mappings. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the organization of consonant and vowel letters (the CV pattern) determines the perceived structure of letter strings. Skilled readers were presented with two kinds of bisyllabic French words. Half of the words included a silent E between two consonants (e.g., gobelet, /gɔblɛ/) thus entailing three orthographi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 10, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

The first- and second-language age of acquisition effect in first- and second-language book reading
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Nicolas Dirix, Wouter Duyck The age of acquisition (AoA) effect in first/monolingual language processing has received much attention in psycholinguistic research. However, AoA effects in second language processing were only investigated rarely. In the current study, we investigated first (L1) and second language (L2) AoA effects in a combined eye tracking and mega study approach. We analyzed data of a corpus of eye movements to assess the time course of AoA effects on bilingual reading. We found an effect of L2 AoA in both early an...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 2, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Order of items within associations
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Kenichi Kato, Jeremy B. Caplan Association-memory is a major focus of verbal memory research. However, experimental paradigms have only occasionally tested memory for the order of the constituent items (AB versus BA). Published models of association-memory, implicitly, make clear assumptions about whether associations are learned without order (e.g., convolution-based models) or with unambiguous order (e.g., matrix models). Seeking empirical data to test these assumptions, participants studied lists of word-pairs, and were tested w...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 1, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Bilingual experience shapes language processing: Evidence from codeswitching” [J. Memory Lang. 95 (2017) 173–189]
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): A.L. Beatty-Martínez, P.E. Dussias (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 30, 2017 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research