Connecting Amazonian, Cerrado, and Atlantic forest histories: Paraphyly, old divergences, and modern population dynamics in tyrant-manakins (Neopelma/Tyranneutes, Aves: Pipridae)

Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and EvolutionAuthor(s): João Marcos Guimarães Capurucho, Mary V. Ashley, Camila C. Ribas, John M. BatesAbstractSeveral biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain connections between Amazonian and Atlantic forest biotas. These hypotheses are related to the timing of the connections and their geographic patterns. We performed a phylogeographic investigation of Tyrant-manakins (Aves: Pipridae, Neopelma/Tyranneutes) which include species inhabiting the Amazon and Atlantic forests, as well as gallery forests of the Cerrado. Using DNA sequence data, we determined phylogenetic relationships, temporal and geographic patterns of diversification, and recent intraspecific population genetic patterns, relative to the history of these biomes. We found Neopelma to be a paraphyletic genus, as N. chrysolophum is sister to Neopelma + Tyranneutes, with an estimated divergence of approximately 18 Myrs BP, within the oldest estimated divergence times of other Amazonian and Atlantic forest avian taxa. Subsequent divergences in the group occurred from Mid Miocene to Early Pliocene and involved mainly the Amazonian species, with an expansion into and subsequent speciation in the Cerrado gallery forests by N. pallescens. We found additional structure within N. chrysocephalum and N. sulphureiventer. Analysis of recent population dynamics in N. chrysocephalum, N. sulphureiventer, and N. palle...
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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In this study, we characterized the role of MYBBP1A by experiments in cell lines, xenografts and human tumor samples. We have found that MYBBP1A downregulation increases c-MYB (Avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) activity, leading to a rise in the stem-like cell population. We identified that the downregulation of MYBBP1A increases tumorigenic properties, in vitro and in vivo, in renal carcinoma cell lines that express high levels of c-MYB exclusively. Moreover, in a cohort of renal tumors, MYBBP1A is downregulated or lost in a significant percentage of tumors correlating with poor patient prognosis and a metastat...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract In order to compare the short-term efficacies of the live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, four groups of SPF chickens were vaccinated with each of the vaccines using eye drop and aerosol inoculations, and were subsequently challenged with a wild-type MG strain. When administered by the recommended routes (eye drop for ts-11 and fine aerosol for 6/85), both vaccines induced substantial and comparable levels of protection against airsacculitis and tracheitis caused by wild-type MG. The long-term efficacies of the two vaccines administered by the recommended route wer...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
For years, the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's Great Backyard Bird Count have provided valuable data for avian research. Ray Brown from the Talkin' Birds podcast talks with Scott Simon about it.
Source: NPR Health and Science - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
e Kim Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can silently circulate in poultry and wild aquatic birds and potentially mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In the U.S., recent emergence and spread of H7N8 and H7N9 HPAI viruses not only caused devastating losses to domestic poultry but also underscored the capability of LPAI viruses to mutate into HPAI viruses. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated pathogenicity and transmissibility of H7N8 and H7N9 LPAI viruses (the progenitors of HPAI viruses) in chickens and turkeys. We also included H7N2 isolated from an outbreak of LPAI in commercial...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
by Nico M. Franz, Lukas J. Musher, Joseph W. Brown, Shizhuo Yu, Bertram Lud äscher Phylogenomic research is accelerating the publication of landmark studies that aim to resolve deep divergences of major organismal groups. Meanwhile, systems for identifying and integrating the products of phylogenomic inference–such as newly supported clade concepts–have not kept pace. Howeve r, the ability toverbalize node concept congruence and conflict across multiple, in effect simultaneously endorsed phylogenomic hypotheses, is a prerequisite for building synthetic data environments for biological systematics and othe...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we identified a pair of nonrearranging VJ-joined Ig superfamily genes, termed putative remnants of an Ag receptor precursor (PRARP) genes, in chicken. Both genes encode a single V-set Ig domain consisting of a canonical J-like segment and a potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory or switch motif in the cytoplasmic region. In vitro experiments showed that both genes were expressed at the cell surface as membrane proteins, and their recombinant products formed a monomer and a disulfide-linked homodimer or a heterodimer. These two genes were mainly expressed in B and T cells and were upregulated in r...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web gathered by the MedPage Today staff
Source: MedPage Today Public Health - Category: American Health Source Type: news
acute;rez R Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a persistent sanitary problem for the South American poultry industry despite extensive vaccination. The IBV single-stranded RNA genome has high rates of mutation and recombination that generate a notorious virus variability. Since most IBV vaccines are type-specific, there is a need for a constant surveillance of the circulating lineages and knowledge about their genetic and antigenic properties. Here we present an integrative analysis that provides the pattern of genetic variation of the South American IBV strains and information about their antigenic cha...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
ConclusionInfluenza vaccination is immunologically active for AIRD, with little value of the second dose of the pandemic vaccine and further scrutiny on persistence of immune response to vaccine in AIRD  is needed.
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Journal of Thermal BiologyAuthor(s): Jamie Jarolimek, Kerri VierlingAbstractSummer temperature patterns within tree cavities might influence occupancy of cavities by different animals such as birds and bats, and furthermore, cavity temperatures can influence processes such as embryonic development or the development of young. Our study aimed to identify the environmental variables influencing cavity temperatures during summer (June-July) in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in southeastern Idaho. We collected temperature data between June 22 and July 27, 2015 usi...
Source: Journal of Thermal Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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