Autoimmune movement disorders in children

Over the last decade, there have been significant advances in the identification, characterization, and treatment of autoimmune neurologic disorders in children. Many of these diseases include a characteristic movement disorder that can be a powerful aid to diagnosis. Frequently, movement disorders in autoimmune conditions are the sole or are among a few presenting symptoms, allowing for earlier diagnosis of an underlying malignancy or systemic autoimmune disease. Given that early detection and treatment with immunotherapy may confer improved outcomes, recognizing these patterns of abnormal movements is essential for child neurologists.
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusions Patients who develop anti-NMDAR encephalitis during pregnancy or become pregnant during recovery often have obstetrical complications, but most of the newborns are healthy and appear to have normal development.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Developmental disorders, Neonatal Article Source Type: research
Abstract IL-17A-producing CD4+ T helper cells (Th17) are crucial for the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and thus are exploited for clinical immunotherapies. Emerging evidence suggests Th17 cells are heterogeneous and able to adopt both pathogenic and non-pathogenic phenotypes which are shaped by environmental and genetic factors. On one hand, IL-6 in concert with TGFβ1 can induce non-pathogenic Th17 cells (non-pTh17), which are not effective in inducing tissue inflammation. On the other hand, IL-6, IL-1β with IL-23 induce pathogenic Th17 cells (pTh17) to induce immune pathologies in ...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Conclusions/interpretationCollectively, these data provide new insights into type 1 diabetes disease heterogeneity and highlight the importance of stratifying patients on the basis of their genetic and autoimmune signatures for immunotherapy and personalised disease management.
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Immunotherapy has transformed the treatment landscape for a wide range of human cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), monoclonal antibodies that block the immune-regulatory “checkpoint” receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, or its ligand PD-L1, can produce durable responses in some patients. However, coupled with their success, these treatments commonly evoke a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can affect any organ system and can be treatment-limiting and life-threatening, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which appears to be more frequent than initially described. The majority of irAEs from check...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Objective To determine the frequency of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis without detectable serum NMDAR antibodies and to compare the clinical features of these patients with those with NMDAR antibodies in serum and CSF. Methods This is a retrospective assessment of serum antibody status and clinical features of 489 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, defined by the presence of NMDAR antibodies in the CSF, and available paired serum/CSF samples examined at Hospital Clínic-Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer, Barcelona, between January 2007 and December 2017. NMDAR antibodies were...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, All Clinical Neurology Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Bonaventure Ip, Crystal Lam, Vincent Ip, Anne Chan, Vincent Mok, Elaine Au, Eric Chan, Alexander LauAbstractAutoimmune encephalitis is an important group of disease that can mimic infectious encephalitis, with one of the most severe forms being meningoencephalomyelitis. One of the recently identified biomarkers, glial fibillary acidic protein (GFAP), targets the cytosolic intermediate filament protein of astrocytes and causes a variety of clinical symptoms. Here, we report an adult Chinese woman presented with acut...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2020Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 123Author(s): Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh, Safa Tahmasebi, Seyyed Shamsadin AthariAbstractDespite the current advancements, cancer treatment approaches have limitations restricting their cure rate. Immunotherapy techniques are among novel and promising cancer therapeutic approaches. Therapeutic antibodies and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) are the main branches of immunotherapy. T lymphocytes and genetically engineered cells are among important cells which can be used in ACT. This review has focused on recent advances in engineered cell-based immunotherap...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
The inhibitory co-receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, Pdcd1) plays critical roles in the regulation of autoimmunity, anticancer immunity, and immunity against infections. Immunotherapies targeting PD-1 have revolutionized cancer management and instigated various trials of improved cancer immunotherapies. Moreover, extensive trials are underway to potentiate PD-1 function to suppress harmful immune responses. Here we found that both natural and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) up-regulate PD-1 on T cells without altering the expression levels of other co-receptors and cell surface molecules. GC-induced up-regulation of P...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Anna Tomczak, Elaine Su, Madina Tugizova, Aaron M. Carlson, Lucas B. Kipp, Haojun Feng, May H. HanAbstractAutoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy is a newly recognized autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorder, presenting with an array of neurological symptoms in association with autoantibodies against GFAP, a hallmark protein expressed on astrocytes. Limited knowledge is available on the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcome. Here, we report a case of autoimmune GFA...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study explored whether iloprost-treated DCs can suppress inflammation by promoting antigen-specific regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation through PGI2-G-protein-coupled receptor (IP). We established an allergic lung inflammation model using a hydrogel biomaterial delivery system and observed that iloprost significantly suppressed OVA-induced Th2 lung inflammation and increased the frequency of OVA-specific Tregs in vivo. We further observed that iloprost-treated DCs displayed tolerogenic characteristics, including low inflammatory cytokine (IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-23) expression levels, high anti-inflammatory ...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
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