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Transcranial brain stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus: Positive lessons from a negative trial

Tinnitus impairs many people's quality of life. The treatment of these patients is often a major challenge for general physicians, otolaryngologists, and psychiatrists particularly since reliably effective therapeutic tools are virtually not available. This not the least because the knowledge about its pathophysiology is still fragmentary. In search of the origins of tinnitus, early functional imaging studies have expanded the focus of tinnitus research to the brain. They supported the notion that this auditory phantom perception is associated with hyperactivity in primary and higher-order auditory processing areas.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Kleinjung T, Thüring C, Güntensperger D, Neff P, Meyer M Abstract Neurofeedback is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique employing real-time display of brain activity in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) signals to teach self-regulation of distinct patterns of brain activity or influence brain activity in a targeted manner. The benefit of this approach for control of symptoms in attention deficit disorders, hyperactivity, depression, and migraine has been proven. Studies in recent years have also repeatedly shown this treatment to improve tinnitus symptoms, although it has not become e...
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
Publication date: 17 September 2017 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 359 Author(s): Adam M. Sheppard, Guang-Di Chen, Senthilvelan Manohar, Dalian Ding, Bo-Hua Hu, Wei Sun, Jiwei Zhao, Richard Salvi Prolonged low-level noise exposure alters loudness perception in humans, presumably by decreasing the gain of the central auditory system. Here we test the central gain hypothesis by measuring the acute and chronic physiologic changes at the level of the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) after a 75-dB SPL, 10–20-kHz noise exposure for 5weeks. The compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP) were used to asse...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Tinnitus impairs quality of life of about 1-2% of the whole population. In most severe situation, tinnitus may cause social isolation, depression and suicide. Drug treatments for tinnitus are generally ineffective, and the mechanisms of tinnitus are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus is related to changes of widespread brain networks. Recent studies propose that paraflocculus (PFL), which is indirectly connected to various cortical regions, may be a gating zone of tinnitus. So we examined the electrophysiological changes and neurotransmitter alterations of the PFL in a rat mo...
Source: Hearing Research - Category: Audiology Authors: Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
This study is the first to use a novel method of atropine infusion directly into the fusiform cell layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus coupled with simultaneous recordings of neural activity to clarify the contribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) to in vivo fusiform cell baseline activity and auditory-somatosensory plasticity. We have determined that blocking the mAChRs increases the synchronization of spiking activity across the fusiform cell population and induces a dominant pattern of inversion in their stimulus timing-dependent plasticity. These modifications are consistent with similar changes esta...
Source: Journal of Neurophysiology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Animal models of hearing loss and tinnitus observe pathological neural activity in the tonotopic frequency maps of the primary auditory cortex. Here, we applied ultra high-field fMRI at 7 T to test whether human patients with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus also show altered functional activity in the primary auditory cortex. The high spatial resolution afforded by 7 T imaging allowed tonotopic mapping of primary auditory cortex on an individual subject basis. Eleven patients with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus were compared to normal-hearing controls. Patients showed an over-represen...
Source: Brain Topography - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Brain Topogr Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Effects of JZL184 and sodium salicylate on the DSE in cartwheel neurons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus.
Source: Synapse - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
In this study, we induced tinnitus in rats using blast exposure and investigated changes in spontaneous firing and bursting activity in the auditory cortex (AC) at one day, one month, and three months after blast exposure. Our results showed that spontaneous activity in the tinnitus-positive group began changing at one month after blast exposure, and manifested as robust hyperactivity at all frequency regions at three months after exposure. We also observed an increased bursting rate in the low-frequency region at one month after blast exposure and in all frequency regions at three months after exposure. Taken together, sp...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Blast exposure can cause tinnitus and hearing impairment by damaging the auditory periphery and direct impact to the brain, which trigger neural plasticity in both auditory and non-auditory centers. However, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: Global & Universal Tags: Burns, Electricity, Explosions, Fire, Scalds Source Type: news
Abstract Tinnitus is defined as a phantom sound (ringing in the ears), and can significantly reduce the quality of life for those who suffer its effects. Ten to fifteen percent of the general adult population report symptoms of tinnitus with 1-2% reporting that tinnitus negatively impacts their quality of life. Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus and the military environment presents many challenging high-noise situations. Military noise levels can be so intense that standard hearing protection is not adequate. Recent studies suggest a role for inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction in response to...
Source: Hearing Research - Category: Audiology Authors: Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016 Source:Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Author(s): Senthilvelan Manohar, Kimberly Dahar, Henry J. Adler, Ding Dalian, Richard Salvi Severe noise-induced damage to the inner ear leads to auditory nerve fiber degeneration thereby reducing the neural input to the cochlear nucleus (CN).Paradoxically, this leads to a significant increase in spontaneous activity in the CN which has been linked to tinnitus, hyperacusis and ear pain.The biological mechanisms that lead to an increased spontaneous activity are largely unknown, but could arise from changes in glutamatergic or ...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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