Transcranial brain stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus: Positive lessons from a negative trial

Tinnitus impairs many people's quality of life. The treatment of these patients is often a major challenge for general physicians, otolaryngologists, and psychiatrists particularly since reliably effective therapeutic tools are virtually not available. This not the least because the knowledge about its pathophysiology is still fragmentary. In search of the origins of tinnitus, early functional imaging studies have expanded the focus of tinnitus research to the brain. They supported the notion that this auditory phantom perception is associated with hyperactivity in primary and higher-order auditory processing areas.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience Author(s): João Zugaib, Ricardo M. Leão The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) is a region which has been traditionally linked to the genesis of tinnitus, the constant perception of a phantom sound. Sodium salicylate, a COX-2 inhibitor, can induce tinnitus in high doses. Hyperactivity of DCN neurons is observed in several animal models of tinnitus, including salicylate-induced tinnitus. The DCN presents several forms of endocannabinoid (EC) dependent synaptic plasticity and COX-2 can also participate in the oxidative degradation of ECs. We re...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract The purpose of this study was to test whether a Kv3 potassium channel modulator, AUT00063, has therapeutic potential for reversing noise-induced increases in spontaneous neural activity, a state that is widely believed to underlie noise-induced tinnitus. Recordings were conducted in noise exposed and control hamsters from dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) fusiform cells before and following intraperitoneal administration of AUT00063 (30 mg/kg). Fusiform cell spontaneous activity was increased in sound-exposed animals, approximating levels that were nearly 50% above those of controls. Administration of AUT00...
Source: Hearing Research - Category: Audiology Authors: Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
In this study, we examined the effect of administering an NMDA receptor blocker on the induction of hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) following intense sound exposure. Our prediction was that if hyperactivity induced by intense sound exposure is dependent on NMDA receptors, then blocking these receptors by administering an NMDA receptor antagonist just before animals are exposed to intense sound should reduce the degree of hyperactivity that subsequently emerges. We compared the levels of hyperactivity that develop in the DCN after intense sound exposure to activity recorded in control animals that were no...
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
Authors: Kleinjung T, Thüring C, Güntensperger D, Neff P, Meyer M Abstract Neurofeedback is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique employing real-time display of brain activity in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) signals to teach self-regulation of distinct patterns of brain activity or influence brain activity in a targeted manner. The benefit of this approach for control of symptoms in attention deficit disorders, hyperactivity, depression, and migraine has been proven. Studies in recent years have also repeatedly shown this treatment to improve tinnitus symptoms, although it has not become e...
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
Publication date: 17 September 2017 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 359 Author(s): Adam M. Sheppard, Guang-Di Chen, Senthilvelan Manohar, Dalian Ding, Bo-Hua Hu, Wei Sun, Jiwei Zhao, Richard Salvi Prolonged low-level noise exposure alters loudness perception in humans, presumably by decreasing the gain of the central auditory system. Here we test the central gain hypothesis by measuring the acute and chronic physiologic changes at the level of the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) after a 75-dB SPL, 10–20-kHz noise exposure for 5weeks. The compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP) were used to asse...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Tinnitus impairs quality of life of about 1-2% of the whole population. In most severe situation, tinnitus may cause social isolation, depression and suicide. Drug treatments for tinnitus are generally ineffective, and the mechanisms of tinnitus are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus is related to changes of widespread brain networks. Recent studies propose that paraflocculus (PFL), which is indirectly connected to various cortical regions, may be a gating zone of tinnitus. So we examined the electrophysiological changes and neurotransmitter alterations of the PFL in a rat mo...
Source: Hearing Research - Category: Audiology Authors: Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
This study is the first to use a novel method of atropine infusion directly into the fusiform cell layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus coupled with simultaneous recordings of neural activity to clarify the contribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) to in vivo fusiform cell baseline activity and auditory-somatosensory plasticity. We have determined that blocking the mAChRs increases the synchronization of spiking activity across the fusiform cell population and induces a dominant pattern of inversion in their stimulus timing-dependent plasticity. These modifications are consistent with similar changes esta...
Source: Journal of Neurophysiology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Animal models of hearing loss and tinnitus observe pathological neural activity in the tonotopic frequency maps of the primary auditory cortex. Here, we applied ultra high-field fMRI at 7 T to test whether human patients with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus also show altered functional activity in the primary auditory cortex. The high spatial resolution afforded by 7 T imaging allowed tonotopic mapping of primary auditory cortex on an individual subject basis. Eleven patients with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus were compared to normal-hearing controls. Patients showed an over-represen...
Source: Brain Topography - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Brain Topogr Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Effects of JZL184 and sodium salicylate on the DSE in cartwheel neurons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus.
Source: Synapse - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
In this study, we induced tinnitus in rats using blast exposure and investigated changes in spontaneous firing and bursting activity in the auditory cortex (AC) at one day, one month, and three months after blast exposure. Our results showed that spontaneous activity in the tinnitus-positive group began changing at one month after blast exposure, and manifested as robust hyperactivity at all frequency regions at three months after exposure. We also observed an increased bursting rate in the low-frequency region at one month after blast exposure and in all frequency regions at three months after exposure. Taken together, sp...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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