Large-scale analysis of interindividual variability in theta-burst stimulation data: Results from the ‘Big TMS Data Collaboration’
Many studies have attempted to identify the sources of interindividual variability in response to theta-burst stimulation (TBS). However, these studies have been limited by small sample sizes, leading to conflicting results. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Daniel T. Corp, Hannah G.K. Bereznicki, Gillian M. Clark, George J. Youssef, Peter J. Fried, Ali Jannati, Charlotte B. Davies, Joyce Gomes-Osman, Julie Stamm, Sung Wook Chung, Steven J. Bowe, Nigel C. Rogasch, Paul B. Fitzgerald, Giacomo Koch, Vincenzo Di Source Type: research

Incorrect calculation of total electrical energy delivered by a deep brain stimulator
Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices typically enable the programmer of the device to specify the pulse amplitude, the number of pulses delivered per second and the duration of each pulse – i.e. current, frequency and pulse width, respectively. Some devices also enable considerable control over the administration of the electric charge, via accurately-powered segmented electrodes. A DBS programmer may also consider the total electrical energy delivered (TEED) per second by such a d evice. TEED (1s) was used in 2002 by Moro et al. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mark D. McAuley Source Type: research

Acute effects of Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson ’s disease
Beta-based adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation (aDBS) is effective in Parkinson ’s disease (PD), when assessed in the immediate post-implantation phase. However, the potential benefits of aDBS in patients with electrodes chronically implanted, in whom changes due to the microlesion effect have disappeared, are yet to be assessed. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dan Pi ña-Fuentes, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Jonathan C. van Zijl, Harmen R. Moes, Teus van Laar, D.L. Marinus Oterdoom, Simon Little, Peter Brown, Martijn Beudel Source Type: research

A Two-Site, Open-Label, Non-Randomized Trial Comparing Focal Electrically-Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST) and Right Unilateral Ultrabrief Pulse Electroconvulsive Therapy (RUL-UBP ECT)
Focal Electrically-Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST) is a form of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) that spatially focuses the electrical stimulus to initiate seizure activity in right prefrontal cortex. Two open-label non-comparative studies suggested that FEAST has reduced cognitive side effects when compared to historical data from other forms of ECT. In two different ECT clinics, we compared the efficacy and cognitive side effects of FEAST and Right Unilateral Ultrabrief Pulse (RUL-UBP) ECT. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Sahlem, William V. McCall, E.Baron Short, Peter B. Rosenquist, James B. Fox, Nagy A. Youssef, Andrew J. Manett, Suzanne E. Kerns, Morgan M. Dancy, Laryssa McCloud, Mark S. George, Harold A. Sackeim Source Type: research

Pulsed transcranial electric brain stimulation enhances speech comprehension
One key mechanism thought to underlie speech processing is the alignment of cortical brain rhythms to the acoustic input, a mechanism termed entrainment. Recent work showed that transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) in speech relevant frequencies or adapted to the speech envelope can in fact enhance speech processing. However, it is unclear whether an oscillatory tES is necessary, or if transients in the stimulation (e.g., peaks in the tES signal) at relevant times are sufficient. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Philipp Ruhnau, Katharina S. Rufener, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle Source Type: research

The ansa subthalamica as a substrate for DBS-induced manic symptoms
Over the years, important insight on the neurocircuitry of psychiatric symptoms have emerged from side effects recorded during deep brain stimulation (DBS). We have recently treated obesity in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) using lateral hypothalamic region (LH) DBS[1, 2] and noticed that two out of four patients developed stimulation-induced hypomania/mania. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Flavia V. Gouveia, Pedro Gomes de Alvarenga, Eduardo J.L. Alho, Rachel E.S. Takahashi, Ruth Franco, Antonio Carlos Lopes, Erich T. Fonoff, Durval Damiani, Manoel J. Teixeira, Euripides C. Miguel, Clement Hamani Source Type: research

Subcortical atrophy correlates with the Perturbational Complexity Index in patients with disorders of consciousness
The complexity of neurophysiological brain responses to direct cortical stimulation, referred to as the perturbational complexity index (PCI), has been shown able to discriminate between consciousness and unconsciousness in patients surviving severe brain injury as well as several other conditions (e.g., wake, dreamless sleep, sleep and ketamine dreaming, anesthesia). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Evan S. Lutkenhoff, Micah A. Johnson, Silvia Casarotto, Marcello Massimini, Martin M. Monti Source Type: research

Presynaptic GABAB receptors underlie the antiepileptic effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation in the 4-aminopyridine model of epilepsy in brain slices of young rats
Low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) of the brain is one of the promising methods for helping patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, the mechanism of the antiepileptic effect of LFES is still unclear. We applied electrophysiological and pharmacological tools and mathematical modeling to investigate it. Using the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) model of epileptiform activity in juvenile rat brain slices, we found that LFES increased the interval between ictal discharges (IDs) in the entorhinal cortex. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Elena Y. Smirnova, Anton V. Chizhov, Aleksey V. Zaitsev Source Type: research

Somatotopic organization of STN and DBS implications in Parkinson ’s Disease - a case report of a woman “halved” by DBS stimulation
The anatomy and functional connections of basal ganglia have been extensively studied in humans and primates [1]. In particular, it is known that the subthalamus nucleus (STN) has neurons inserted in parallel and segregated circuits wiring connections among limbic, associative, and motor systems both in the cortex and the basal ganglia [2]. In the STN, neurons involved in motor control are placed in its dorsolateral region and present a somatotopic distribution, which is maintained in the afferences from the cortex and in the projections towards other structures of the basal ganglia [3]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: D. Alimonti, R. Donati, C. Foresti, O. Manara, M. Sessa Source Type: research

Linking cortical and behavioural inhibition: Testing the parameter specificity of a transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol
Across a series of studies, our lab has shown that the efficiency of action stopping is associated with the strength of GABAA-mediated short-intracortical inhibition (SICI) as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, these studies used fixed TMS parameters, which may not optimally probe GABAA receptor activity for each individual. In the present study, we measured the relationship between stopping efficiency and SICI using a range of TMS parameters. Participants completed a right-hand unimanual stop signal task to obtain a measure of stopping efficiency. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translatio...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dominic M.D. Tran, Nahian S. Chowdhury, Nicolas A. McNair, Justin A. Harris, Evan J. Livesey Source Type: research

Distinct Perceptive Pathways Selected with Tonic and Bursting Patterns of Thalamic Stimulation
Novel patterns of electrical stimulation of the brain and spinal cord hold tremendous promise to improve neuromodulation therapies for diverse disorders, including tremor and pain. To date, there are limited numbers of experimental studies in human subjects to help explain how stimulation patterns impact the clinical response, especially with deep brain stimulation.Objective/Hypothesis: We propose using novel stimulation patterns during electrical stimulation of somatosensory thalamus in awake deep brain stimulation surgeries and hypothesize that stimulation patterns will influence the sensory percept without moving the el...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew S. Willsey, Charles W. Lu, Sam R. Nason, Karlo A. Malaga, Scott F. Lempka, Cynthia A. Chestek, Parag G. Patil Source Type: research

Education moderates the effect of tDCS on episodic memory performance in cognitively impaired patients
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve episodic memory performance. In healthy aging those with higher education seem to benefit particularly (1). Whether the same applies to pathological aging remains to be tested. In pathological aging, however, the severity of cognitive impairment, which is influenced by pre-morbid cognition, compensatory processes, and neuropathology, needs to be considered. In this pilot study, we therefore tested whether education moderates the effect of tDCS on memory performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia due to Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) b...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Christine Krebs, Stefan Kl öppel, Bernhard Heimbach, Jessica Peter Source Type: research

Treatment of pudendal neuralgia by high-frequency rTMS of the medial wall of motor cortex bilaterally using an angled figure-of-eight coil
High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) of the motor cortex was shown effective in treating chronic pain, in particular neuropathic pain [1]. A flat figure-of-8 coil is classically used, focusing cortical stimulation in the superficial layers of the motor cortex [2]. Deeper brain structures can be stimulated by other types of coils (e.g., double-cone or H-coil), but their value to modulate pain perception remains controversial [3]. In fact, these coils stimulate more deeply but also more broadly the brain. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hasan Hodaj, Jean-Fran çois Payen, Anne Dumolard, Chantal Delon-Martin, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur Source Type: research

Tolerability of caloric vestibular stimulation in a persistent pain cohort
Persistent pain is a major healthcare problem worldwide, costing billions of dollars each year and being commonly refractory to existing treatments [for citations, see 1]. We read with interest the recent research article by Hagiwara et al. [2] in your journal, in which it was reported that active, but not sham, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), significantly modulated experimental pain in 16 healthy volunteers. GVS stimulates the vestibular system via direct current applied to bilateral mastoids, inducing activation in various vestibular, cognitive, affective and pain-related brain regions. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Trung T. Ngo, Wendy N. Barsdell, Phillip C.F. Law, Carolyn A. Arnold, Michael J. Chou, Andrew K. Nunn, Douglas J. Brown, Paul B. Fitzgerald, Stephen J. Gibson, Steven M. Miller Source Type: research

Phase-dependent transcranial magnetic stimulation of the lesioned hemisphere is accurate after stroke
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can produce plastic changes within descending motor pathways and distributed brain networks [1-2]. It has been proposed that TMS could enhance post-stroke motor recovery by normalizing imbalanced sensorimotor network function and/or upregulating corticospinal output [3-4] but studies using TMS to boost motor recovery have shown heterogeneous results [5]. However, TMS has traditionally been delivered uncoupled from endogenous brain oscillatory activity, leading to indiscriminate application of individual TMS pulses across different, physiologically distinct brain states. (Source: BRAI...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sara J. Hussain, William Hayward, Farah Fourcand, Christoph Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann, Ethan R. Buch, Margaret K. Hayward, Leonardo G. Cohen Source Type: research

Cognitive control training and transcranial direct current stimulation: a systematic approach to optimisation
Cognitive control (CC) is an important prerequisite for goal-directed behaviour and efficient information processing. Impaired CC is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex activity and various mental disorders, but may be effectively tackled by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-enhanced training. However, study data are inconsistent as efficacy depends on stimulation parameters whose implementations vary widely between studies. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Simone Weller, Michael A. Nitsche, Christian Plewnia Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation relieves the severe anxiety of a patient with COVID-19
The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) has been very stressful worldwide. Fear, sleep disturbances, depression, and anxiety can be overwhelming, leading to strong emotions in those who have contracted COVID-19 [1]. As there is currently no consensus on the psychological/psychiatric treatment of COVID-19, physicians have taken into account current clinical and mental conditions, comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, and others[2] based on their knowledge and experience. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Samuel Katsuyuki Shinjo, Andre Russowsky Brunoni, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Clarice Tanaka, Abrah ão Fontes Baptista Source Type: research

Source-based artifact-rejection techniques available in TESA, an open-source TMS –EEG toolbox
Two recently published artifact-rejection techniques [1,2]; designed for analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are now included in an open-source data-analysis toolbox TESA [3]. The new implementations of signal-space-projection –source-informed-reconstruction (SSP–SIR) [1] and source-utilized noise-discarding algorithm (SOUND) [2] are computationally efficient and easy to use, allowing the TMS–EEG researchers to suppress unwanted signal components, such as the TMS-evoked muscle artifact and TMS-pulse-elicited auditor y or somatosensory responses [1...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuomas P. Mutanen, Mana Biabani, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J. Ilmoniemi, Nigel C. Rogasch Source Type: research

Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation is More Effective than Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Enhancing Working Memory in Healthy Individuals: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Evidence
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to improve working memory (WM) performance in healthy individuals, however effects tend to be modest and variable. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) can be delivered with a direct-current offset (DC-offset) to induce equal or even greater effects on cortical excitability than tDCS. To-date, no research has directly compared the effects of these techniques on WM performance or underlying neurophysiological activity. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: O.W. Murphy, K.E. Hoy, D. Wong, N.W. Bailey, P.B. Fitzgerald, R.A. Segrave Source Type: research

Non-Invasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation Decreases Brain Activity During Trauma Scripts
This study examined how nVNS alters neural responses to personalized traumatic scripts. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew T. Wittbrodt, Nil Z. Gurel, Jonathon A. Nye, Stacy Ladd, Md Mobashir H. Shandhi, Minxuan Huang, Amit J. Shah, Bradley D. Pearce, Zuhayr S. Alam, Mark H. Rapaport, Nancy Murrah, Yi-An Ko, Ammer A. Haffer, Lucy H. Shallenberger, Viola Vaccarino, Ome Source Type: research

Neural Closed loop deep brain stimulation for freezing of Gait
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a devastating symptom of Parkinson ’s disease (PD), affecting over half of the patient population [1] and negatively impacting mobility and patient quality of life. This symptom has been difficult to treat with dopaminergic medication, is associated with arrhythmic gait, and can become refractory over time [2]. Moreover, it is deba ted to what extent deep brain stimulation (DBS) provided in an open-loop manner (olDBS) can mitigate FOG [3]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew N. Petrucci, Raumin S. Neuville, M. Furqan Afzal, Anca Velisar, Chioma M. Anidi, Ross W. Anderson, Jordan E. Parker, Johanna J. O ’Day, Kevin B. Wilkins, Helen M. Bronte-Stewart Source Type: research

Differential effects of vagus nerve stimulation paradigms guide clinical development for Parkinson ’s disease
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) modifies brain rhythms in the locus coeruleus (LC) via the solitary nucleus. Degeneration of the LC in Parkinson ’s disease (PD) is an early catalyst of the spreading neurodegenerative process, suggesting that stimulating LC output with VNS has the potential to modify disease progression. We previously showed in a lesion PD model that VNS delivered twice daily reduced neuroinflammation and motor deficits, an d attenuated TH-positive cell loss. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ariana Farran, Ryan Verner, Ryan McGuire, Kristi Helke, Vanessa Hinson, Heather Boger Source Type: research

A CASE of non-affective psychosis followed by extended response to non-stimulation in deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder
We present a CASE of acute onset of psychotic symptoms, without signs of hypomania, following DBS for intractable OCD in a patient with no prior history of psychosis or delusional beliefs. The patient was a male in his early 20s with a history of intractable OCD, receiving DBS of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) implanted as part of a randomized clinical trial of DBS for OCD (NCT00640133). The study sought to investigate effectiveness of DBS as a treatment for intractable OCD, as preliminary data had shown promising therapeutic effects [1] Abelson, Curtis, Sagher et al 2005). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Abigail A. Testo, Sarah L. Garnaat, Andrew K. Corse, Nicole McLaughlin, Benjamin D. Greenberg, Thilo Deckersbach, Emad N. Eskandar, Darin D. Dougherty, Alik S. Widge Source Type: research

Neural noise and cortical inhibition in schizophrenia
Neural information processing is subject to noise and this leads to variability in neural firing and behavior. Schizophrenia has been associated with both more variable motor control and impaired cortical inhibition, which is crucial for excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural commands. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lo ïc Carment, Lucile Dupin, Laura Guedj, Maxime Térémetz, Macarena Cuenca, Marie-Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado, Marc A. Maier, Påvel G. Lindberg Source Type: research

The Benefits and Costs of Changing Treatment Technique in Electroconvulsive Therapy Due to Insufficient Improvement of a Major Depressive Episode
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) technique is often changed after insufficient improvement, yet there has been little research on switching strategies. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Harold A. Sackeim, Joan Prudic, D.P. Devanand, Mitchell S. Nobler, Roger F. Haskett, Benoit H. Mulsant, Peter B. Rosenquist, William V. McCall Source Type: research

Decreased interhemispheric connectivity and increased cortical excitability in unmedicated schizophrenia: A prefrontal interleaved TMS fMRI study
Prefrontal abnormalities in schizophrenia have consistently emerged from resting state and cognitive neuroimaging studies. However, these correlative findings require causal verification via combined imaging/stimulation approaches. To date, no interleaved transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging study (TMS fMRI) has probed putative prefrontal cortex abnormalities in schizophrenia. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryan D. Webler, Carmen Hamady, Chris Molnar, Kevin Johnson, Leo Bonilha, Berry S. Anderson, Claartje Bruin, Daryl E. Bohning, Mark S. George, Ziad Nahas Source Type: research

The Role of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Major Depression: A Call to Increase the Evidence Base
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective intervention in major depressive disorder (MDD), with superior tolerability over medication [1]. Unfortunately, its widespread adoption has been impeded by high operational costs, decreasing accessibility. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jean-Philippe Miron, Jack Sheen, Farrokh Mansouri, Daniel M. Blumberger, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Jonathan Downar Source Type: research

Cover 1
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Troponin time courses after electroconvulsive therapy and physical stress may differ from incidents causing structural myocardial deficits
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and established therapeutic tool for various severe psychiatric diseases. It is known to be relatively safe with no absolute contraindications to its use according to the American Psychiatric Association. However, major adverse cardiac events and deaths in association with ECT have been reported [1]. Complications may include ECG abnormalities or takotsubo myopathy. One way of measuring the cardiovascular safety of ECT is the use of surrogate parameters that may indicate subclinical pathological processes. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Researc...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gereon Johannes Schnellb ächer, Michael Grözinger Source Type: research

Deep Brain Stimulation Telemedicine for Psychiatric Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic
We read with great interest the recent paper by Caulfield and George [1], in which they discuss how at-home neurotherapeutics, including self-administered repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, could assist to manage some of the potential mental health problems, particularly depression, caused by self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We concur with their view, but the authors did not discuss another neurotherapeutic technique that could be translated into a home setting, namely deep brain stimulation (DBS). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clini...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chencheng Zhang, Kaiwen Zhu, Dianyou Li, Valerie Voon, Bomin Sun Source Type: research

Lack of Clinical Response to deep brain stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle in depression
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment option for severe refractory major depressive disorder (MDD) [1, 2]. The most common neural targets for DBS in MDD are the subcallosal cingulate cortex (SCC) and the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) [3-5]. The long-term clinical response after DBS to these targets has been characterized as a gradual improvement in mood, with> 40% of patients reaching a responder status by 1 year [3, 4]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Benjamin Davidson, Peter Giacobbe, Karim Mithani, Anthony Levitt, Jennifer S. Rabin, Nir Lipsman, Clement Hamani Source Type: research

External trigeminal nerve stimulation for drug resistant epilepsy: a randomized controlled trial
External trigeminal nerve stimulation (ETNS) is an emergent, non-invasive neurostimulation therapy delivered bilaterally with adhesive skin electrodes. In previous studies, ETNS was associated to a decrease in seizure frequency in patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Francisco Gil-L ópez, Teresa Boget, Isabel Manzanares, Antonio Donaire, Estefanía Conde-Blanco, Eva Baillés, Luis Pintor, Xavier Setoaín, Núria Bargalló, Judith Navarro, Jordi Casanova, Josep Valls, Pedro Roldán, Jordi Rumià, Georgina Casanovas, G Source Type: research

Tuning Deep Brain Stimulation related depression by frequency modulation: a case report
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is a well-established treatment for advanced Parkinson ’s disease (PD), improving motor function and quality of life [1]. Moreover, STN-DBS can lead to changes in cognitive and behavioral functions in Parkinson’s disease (PD), modulating neural activity from several structures of cortico-subcortical circuitry [1,2]. While low-frequency (60–80 Hz) stimulation is useful in patients developing axial symptoms [3,4], its involvement in cognitive and neurobehavioral functions is not clear [5]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Res...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gabriele Imbalzano, Carlo Alberto Artusi, Elisa Montanaro, Alberto Romagnolo, Mario Giorgio Rizzone, Leonardo Lopiano, Maurizio Zibetti Source Type: research

Two Weeks of Image-guided Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Smoking Cessation: A Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial
Previous studies have found that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) transiently reduces smoking craving, decreases cigarette consumption, and increases abstinence rates. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xingbao Li, Karen J. Hartwell, Scott Henderson, Bashar W. Badran, Kathleen T. Brady, Mark S. George Source Type: research

Phase-specific manipulation of rhythmic brain activity by transcranial alternating current stimulation
Oscillatory phase has been proposed as a key parameter defining the spatiotemporal structure of neural activity. To enhance our understanding of brain rhythms and improve clinical outcomes in pathological conditions, modulation of neural activity by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) emerged as a promising approach. However, the phase-specificity of tACS effects in humans is still critically debated. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Marina Fiene, Bettina C. Schwab, Jonas Misselhorn, Christoph S. Herrmann, Till R. Schneider, Andreas K. Engel Source Type: research

Characterizing and predicting cortical evoked responses to direct electrical stimulation of the human brain
Direct electrical stimulation of the human brain has been used to successfully treat several neurological disorders, but the precise effects of stimulation on neural activity are poorly understood. Characterizing the neural response to stimulation, however, could allow clinicians and researchers to more accurately predict neural responses, which could in turn lead to more effective stimulation for treatment and to fundamental knowledge regarding neural function. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cynthia Steinhardt, Pierre Sacre, Timothy C. Sheehan, John H. Wittig, Sara K. Inati, Sridevi Sarma, Kareem A. Zaghloul Source Type: research

Accelerated iTBS treatment applied to the left DLPFC in depressed patients results in a rapid volume increase in the left hippocampal dentate gyrus, not driven by brain perfusion
Accelerated intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (aiTBS) has been shown to be an effective antidepressant treatment. Although neurobiological changes shortly after this intervention have been reported, whether aiTBS results in structural brain changes must still be determined. Furthermore, it possible that rapid volumetric changes are driven by factors other than neurotrophic processes. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chris Baeken, GuoRong Wu, Harold A. Sackeim Source Type: research

A systematic exploration of parameters affecting evoked intracranial potentials in patients with epilepsy
Brain activity is constrained by and evolves over a network of structural and functional connections. Corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) have been used to measure this connectivity and to discern brain areas involved in both brain function and disease. However, how varying stimulation parameters influences the measured CCEP across brain areas has not been well characterized. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bornali Kundu, Tyler S. Davis, Brian Philip, Elliot H. Smith, Amir Arain, Angela Peters, Blake Newman, Christopher R. Butson, John D. Rolston Source Type: research

Localizing Central Swallowing Functions by Combining Non-invasive Brain Stimulation with Neuroimaging
Swallowing is a complex sensorimotor process, which involves precise temporal coordination of the upper and lower lips, tongue, and pharyngeal and esophageal musculatures. This integrated process is controlled by neural interplay across cortical and subcortical networks. Although numerous functional brain imaging studies have suggested means to measure post-stroke pathological changes in the cortical control region of swallowing [1], identifying the precise functional localization of the motor area for swallowing has been challenging. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shasha Li, Marziye Eshghi, Sheraz Khan, Qiyuan Tian, Juho Joutsa, Yangming Ou, Qing Mei Wang, Jian Kong, Bruce Robert Rosen, Jyrki Ahveninen, Aapo Nummenmaa Source Type: research

Long-term update of the effect of spinal cord stimulation in advanced Parkinson ’s disease patients
This article reports the effect of SCS following 3-years of SCS in our pilot study ’s cohort of PD patients [2]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Olivia Samotus, Andrew Parrent, Mandar Jog Source Type: research

Safe Administration of Low Frequency rTMS in a Patient with Depression with Recurrent Antidepressant-Associated Hyponatremic Seizures
The incidence of antidepressant-associated hyponatremia ranges between 0.5 – 32% across various treatment settings, with elderly depressed individuals being at maximum risk(1). It is thought to happen via induction of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and is characterized by nausea, myalgia, weakness and headache(2). Symptoms usually appear within two weeks of starting the offending agent, and are associated with serum sodium levels (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Milind Vijay Thanki, Sachin Pradeep Baliga, Soumya Parameshwaran, Naren P. Rao, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Jagadisha Thirthalli Source Type: research

Efficacy of Repetitive Dual-site Paired Associative Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Up to 50% of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) respond poorly to drug treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been widely used in the treatment of psychiatric diseases. The research on TMS treatment of GAD has mainly focused on the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is considered a key structure for processing and responding to positive and negative emotion-related information [1]. Low-frequency stimulation over the right DLPFC may relieve anxiety symptoms by downregulating reactions to negative emotional stimuli [2]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yicong Lin, Peiqiong Chen, Kun Yang, Qilin Zhou, Shuqin Zhan, Hua Lin, Liping Li, Li Wang, Yuping Wang Source Type: research

Transorbital Electrical Stimulation in Retinitis Pigmentosa. Better results joining Visual Pattern Stimulation?
Electrical stimulation (ES) by peripheral (transpalpebral/transorbital/transcorneal) approach seems to currently be one of the most promising rehabilitative techniques, which are aimed at the restoration of the visual function in low vision (LV) patients affected by degenerative diseases. The non-invasiveness of this methodology and its many positive effects on multiple retinal cell targets have led to the use of ES in patients with ischemic optic neuritis, traumatic optic nerve lesions, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone-rod dystrophy, Best disease, Stargardt disease, retinal vascular occlusions, glaucoma, and dry and wet ag...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Francesca de Rossi, Margherita Guidobaldi, Simona Turco, Filippo Amore Source Type: research

LTP-like cortical plasticity predicts conversion to dementia in patients with memory impairment
New diagnostic criteria consider Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) as a clinico-biological entity identifiable in vivo on the presence of specific patterns of CSF biomarkers. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Francesco Di Lorenzo, Caterina Motta, Elias Paolo Casula, Sonia Bonn ì, Martina Assogna, Carlo Caltagirone, Alessandro Martorana, Giacomo Koch Source Type: research

Identification of vagus nerve stimulation parameters affecting rat hippocampal electrophysiology without temperature effects
Recent experiments in rats have demonstrated significant effects of VNS on hippocampal excitability but were partially attributed to hypothermia, induced by the applied VNS parameters. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wouter Van Lysebettens, Kristl Vonck, Lars Emil Larsen, Latoya Stevens, Charlotte Bouckaert, Charlotte Germonpr, Mathieu Sprengers, Evelien Carrette, Jean Delbeke, Wytse Jan Wadman, Paul Boon, Robrecht Raedt Source Type: research

The effects of direct brain stimulation in humans depend on frequency, amplitude, and white-matter proximity
Researchers have used direct electrical brain stimulation to treat a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, for brain stimulation to be maximally effective, clinicians and researchers should optimize stimulation parameters according to desired outcomes. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Uma R. Mohan, Andrew J. Watrous, Jonathan F. Miller, Bradley C. Lega, Michael R. Sperling, Gregory A. Worrell, Robert E. Gross, Kareem A. Zaghloul, Barbara C. Jobst, Kathryn A. Davis, Sameer A. Sheth, Joel M. Stein, Sandhitsu R. Das, Richard Gorniak, Paul Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis Of The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Inhibitory Control
Inhibitory control refers to a central cognitive capacity involved in the interruption and correction of actions. Dysfunctions in these cognitive control processes have been identified as major maintaining mechanisms in a range of mental disorders such as ADHD, binge eating disorder, obesity, and addiction. Improving inhibitory control by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could ameliorate symptoms in a broad range of mental disorders. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Philipp A. Schroeder, Tobias Schwippel, Ines Wolz, Jennifer Svaldi Source Type: research