Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for a Patient with Locked-in Syndrome
Locked-in syndrome (LIS) was first introduced by Plum and Posner. It refers to the combination of quadriplegia and anarthria brought about by disruption of the corticospinal and corticobulbar pathways of the brain stem, respectively [1]. Patients with LIS are alert and aware of their environment but cannot speak or move their limbs. They retain the capacity to use vertical eye movements and blinking to communicate. LIS occurs following disruption of the motor tracts in the ventral brain stem and at least 60% of the cases are caused by stroke [2].Early and intensive rehabilitation reportedly improves the functional outcome ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Takeshi Satow, Taro Komuro, Takuya Yamaguchi, Nobuhiko Tanabe, Tatsuya Mima Source Type: research

A thermal mechanism underlies tFUS neuromodulation
We read with great interest the commentary titled, “Reversible Neuroinhibition Does Not Require a Thermal Mechanism” in response to our article “Reversible Neuroinhibition by Focused Ultrasound is mediated by a Thermal Mechanism.”https://paperpile.com/c/tMOaqH/huQ3 [1] We are grateful that the authors highlight an important and complex point of ongoing discussion in the literature about the underlying mechanism(s) of FUS-mediated neuromodulation. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: David P. Darrow, Parker O ’Brien, Tom Richner, Theoden I. Netoff, Emad S. Ebbini Source Type: research

Matching stimulation paradigms resolve apparent differences between optogenetic and electrical VTA stimulation
Optogenetic stimulation has grown into a popular brain stimulation method in basic neuroscience while electrical stimulation predominates in clinical applications. In order to explain the effects of electrical stimulation on a cellular level and evaluate potential advantages of optogenetic therapies, comparisons between the two stimulation modalities are necessary. This comparison is hindered, however, by the difficulty of effectively matching the two fundamentally different modalities. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Theresa CS. Weidner, Daniel Vincenz, Marta Brocka, Jennifer Tegtmeier, Anja M. Oelschlegel, Frank W. Ohl, J ürgen Goldschmidt, Michael T. Lippert Source Type: research

A case series of a novel 1 Hz right-sided dorsolateral prefrontal cortex rTMS protocol in major depression
Although effective in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and superior in tolerability to medication, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is currently burdened by high costs of equipment acquisition, operation and technical complexity, precluding its widespread use [1]. Simplifying the treatment technique could facilitate more widespread uptake of rTMS in community settings. To this end, we investigated a non-cooled parabolic coil that is less expensive than cooled figure of eight (Fo8) coils and allow simplified positioning because of its central opening and wide stimulation area. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATI...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jean-Philippe Miron, Helena Voetterl, Farrokh Mansouri, Daniel M. Blumberger, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Jonathan Downar Source Type: research

Brain Stimulation ’s Expanding Impact – Now Immediately Free to Download by Anyone, Anywhere and at Anytime
The brain stimulation revolution continues to grow and even accelerate. Business models around academic publishing are also changing. Beginning Jan 1, 2020, Brain Stimulation content will become fully open access. The author argues that this change will likely expand the overall impact of the journal, without compromising editorial quality. However there are some concerns to consider with this transition to full open access. This editorial looks back on the history of brain stimulation academic publishing and summarizes the reasons for this optimistic view of the open access future. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Trans...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mark S. George Source Type: research

A Novel tDCS Sham Approach Based on Model-Driven Controlled Shunting
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique able to transiently modulate brain activity, is surging as one of the most promising therapeutic solutions in many neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, profound limitations exist in current placebo (sham) protocols that limit single- and double-blinding, especially in non-na ïve subjects. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Francesco Neri, Lucia Mencarelli, Arianna Menardi, Fabio Giovannelli, Simone Rossi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Alessandro Rossi, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ricardo Salvador, Giulio Ruffini, Emiliano Santarnecchi Source Type: research

Aggressiveness after centromedian nucleus stimulation engages prefrontal thalamocortical circuitry
We present a case of a 9-year-old girl who underwent centromedian (CM) nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation for DRE and developed unexpected and reversible post-stimulation aggressive behaviour. With connectomic analyses, we show that stimulation-induced aggressiveness engaged prefrontal cortex-bound white matter fibre tracts. This is the first report of aggressiveness following CM stimulation, which also mapped the salient neural circuitry involving prefrontal thalamocortical projections. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Han Yan, Alexandre Boutet, Karim Mithani, Jurgen Germann, Gavin J.B. Elias, Ivanna Yau, Cristina Go, Suneil K. Kalia, Andres M. Lozano, Alfonso Fasano, George M. Ibrahim Source Type: research

Primary visual cortex excitability is not atypical in acquired synaesthesia
LL: study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting/revising the manuscript. RS: study concept and design, data acquisition, revising the manuscript. DPL: study concept and design, data interpretation, revising the manuscript. DBT: study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting/revising the manuscript. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Lungu, Ryan Stewart, David P. Luke, Devin B. Terhune Source Type: research

SICI during changing brain states: differences in methodology can lead to different conclusions
Short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) is extensively used to probe GABAergic inhibitory mechanisms in M1. Task-related changes in SICI are presumed to reflect changes in the central excitability of GABAergic pathways. Usually, the level of SICI is evaluated using a single intensity of conditioning stimulus so that inhibition can be compared in different brain states. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jaime Ib áñez, Danny A. Spampinato, Varshini Paraneetharan, John C. Rothwell Source Type: research

Interhemispheric pathways in agenesis of the corpus callosum and Parkinson ’s disease
Several transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures of interhemispheric transfers are thought to be mediated mainly by transcallosal pathways [1-4]. Ipsilateral silent period (iSP) is the suppression of motor output by TMS of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1). iSP is absent or delayed in patients with corpus callosum (CC) abnormalities, including agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) [1,3]. Interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) is studied with paired-pulse bilateral M1 TMS using short (SIHI) or long (LIHI) interstimulus intervals [2]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Karlo J. Lizarraga, James Saravanamuttu, Julianne K. Baarb é, Anthony E. Lang, Robert Chen Source Type: research

Transcranial alternating current stimulation of α but not β frequency sharpens multiple visual functions
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain and enhance cortical oscillatory activity in a frequency-dependent manner. In our previous study (Nakazono et al.2016), 20 Hz ( β) tACS significantly increased excitability of primary motor cortex compared with 10 Hz (α) tACS. α oscillations are a prominent feature of the primary visual cortex (V1) in a resting electroencephalogram. Hence, we investigated whether α and β tACS can differentially influence multiple visual functions. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hisato Nakazono, Katsuya Ogata, Akinori Takeda, Emi Yamada, Takahiro Kimura, Shozo Tobimatsu Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Information for Authors
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation ASsociated With Physical-therapy In Acute Stroke Patients - the tDCS ASAP - a Randomized, Triple Blind, Sham-controlled Study
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation has been increasing in popularity in the last few years. Despite vast amounts of articles on the use of tDCS on stroke patients, very little has been done during the acute phase. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stephen Bornheim, Jean-Louis Croisier, Pierre Maquet, Jean-Fran çois Kaux Source Type: research

Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-refractory major depressive disorder: A three-arm, blinded, randomized controlled trial
Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel intervention for treatment-refractory depression (TRD). To date, many open-label case series and one randomized controlled trial of modest sample size have provided preliminary evidence that DMPFC-rTMS is an effective treatment for TRD. Here, we report the results of a large, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial of DMPFC-rTMS for TRD. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Katharine Dunlop, Jack Sheen, Laura Schulze, Peter Fettes, Farrokh Mansouri, Kfir Feffer, Daniel M. Blumberger, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Sidney H. Kennedy, Peter Giacobbe, Blake Woodside, Jonathan Downar Source Type: research

Region-dependent bidirectional plasticity in M1 following quadripulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in the inferior parietal cortex
The ability to manipulate the excitability of the network between the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and primary motor cortex (M1) may have clinical value. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fuminari Kaneko, Eriko Shibata, Megumi Okawada, Takashi Nagamine Source Type: research

Static and dynamic network properties of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation target predict changes in emotion regulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique to treat psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the rTMS response varies across subjects. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Linda Douw, Mirjam Quaak, Sophie M.D.D. Fitzsimmons, Stella J. de Wit, Ysbrand D. van der Werf, Odile A. van den Heuvel, Chris Vriend Source Type: research

Stimulating the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex (VLPFC) Modulates Frustration-Induced Aggression: A tDCS Experiment
The prefrontal cortex is crucial for top-down regulation of aggression, but the neural underpinnings of aggression are still poorly understood. Past research showed the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) modulates aggression following exposure to risk factors for aggression (e.g., social exclusion, violent media). Although frustration is a key risk factor for aggression, no study to date has examined the modulatory role of tDCS on frustration-induced aggression. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Alessia Gallucci, Paolo Riva, Leonor J. Romero Lauro, Brad J. Bushman Source Type: research

Direct current stimulation boosts hebbian plasticity in  vitro
There is evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve learning performance. Arguably, this effect is related to long term potentiation (LTP), but the precise biophysical mechanisms remain unknown. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Greg Kronberg, Asif Rahman, Mahima Sharma, Marom Bikson, Lucas C. Parra Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Treatment Outcome for rTMS in Treatment-Resistant Depression at 3-month Follow-up
This study aimed to demonstrate that after-rTMS clinical improvement is associated with functional connectivity (FC) changes of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC) and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), and FC of sgACC and rACC might serve as potential predictors for treatment response. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruiyang Ge, Jonathan Downar, Daniel M. Blumberger, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez Source Type: research

The impact of brain morphometry on tDCS effects on GABA levels
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over both dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFCs) can change neurotransmitter levels when measured with concurrent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) [1,2]. For instance, tDCS elevated prefrontal GABA levels in adults with gambling disorder (GD) [1]. Such effect may be clinically meaningful as medications targeting the GABAergic system can reduce craving [3] and impulsivity in GD [4]. However, there are still several unknowns on how tDCS influences brain activity. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Amy E. Bouchard, Maya Dickler, Emmanuelle Renauld, Christophe Lenglos, Francine Ferland, Richard A. Edden, Claude Rouillard, Jean Leblond, Shirley Fecteau Source Type: research

Direct current stimulation boosts Hebbian plasticity in vitro
There is evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve learning performance. Arguably, this effect is related to long term potentiation (LTP), but the precise biophysical mechanisms remain unknown. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Greg Kronberg, Asif Rahman, Mahima Sharma, Marom Bikson, Lucas C. Parra Source Type: research

Deep Brain Stimulation and refractory Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's disease: improvement with high-frequency current steering co-stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra
Axial and gait disorders in Parkinson ’s Disease (PD) are considered signs of disease progression with involvement of the extra nigrostriatal system. In PD patients treated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), these symptoms may also occur from spread of the electric field outside the STN [1]. Various approache s have been suggested to manage gait disturbances [1 -3] and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) DBS has recently been reported to improve resistant freezing of gait (FoG) [4-5]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nico Golfr è Andreasi, Vittorio Rispoli, Elena Contaldi, Fabiana Colucci, Lorenzo Mongardi, Michele Alessandro Cavallo, Mariachiara Sensi Source Type: research

Treatment emergent affective switch with intermittent theta burst stimulation over right temporo-parietal junction: a case report
We report the case of a 42-year-old female, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (recurrent) and psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES), who showed TEAS with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). She presented with an episode of low mood, vague pain symptoms such as headache, reduced interest, easy fatigability, disturbed sleep and impaired activities of daily living for one month. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shobit Garg, Rashi Agarwal, Sai Krishna Tikka, Sumit Khattri Source Type: research

Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Intracranial Aneurysm Clips: A Case Report and Guidelines for Clinicians
We present a case of severe treatment-resistant major depression successfully treated with deep TMS, followed by conventional TMS, in a patient status-post a ruptured cerebral aneurysm treated with a titanium aneurysm clip. We summarize guidelines from the MRI literature supporting the use of TMS in patients with titanium aneurysm clips. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mason Stillman, Nicole Chandonnet, Lindsey Davis, Randall Buzan, Theodore Wirecki Source Type: research

Cerebellar Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Role of Coil Type from Distinct Manufacturers
Stimulating the cerebellum with transcranial magnetic stimulation is often perceived as uncomfortable. No study has systematically tested which coil design can effectively trigger a cerebellar response with the least discomfort. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Danny Spampinato, Jaime Ib áñez, Manos Spanoudakis, Paul Hammond, John C. Rothwell Source Type: research

Brain oscillation-synchronized stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depression using real-time EEG-triggered TMS
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is an effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but response rates are low and effect sizes small. Synchronizing TMS pulses with instantaneous brain oscillations can reduce variability and increase efficacy of TMS-induced plasticity. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Brigitte Zrenner, Christoph Zrenner, Pedro Caldana Gordon, Paolo Belardinelli, Eric J. McDermott, Surjo R. Soekadar, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Ulf Ziemann, Florian M üller-Dahlhaus Source Type: research

Cortical modulation of nociception by galvanic vestibular stimulation: a potential clinical tool?
Vestibular afferents converge with nociceptive ones within the posterior insula, and can therefore modulate nociception. Consistent with this hypothesis, caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) has been shown to reduce experimental and clinical pain. Since CVS can induce undesirable effects in a proportion of patients, here we explored an alternative means to activate non-invasively the vestibular pathways using innocuous bi-mastoid galvanic stimulation (GVS), and assessed its effects on experimental pain. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Koichi Hagiwara, Caroline Perchet, Maud Frot, H élène Bastuji, Luis Garcia-Larrea Source Type: research

Automated speech analysis to improve TMS-based language mapping: algorithm and proof of concept
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during confrontational naming can induce anomia or speech arrest and paraphasias and those can be used to locate language areas. This method is qualitative and time-consuming since a trained professional needs to analyze a long video-file of the mapping session. For data analysis we adapted an existing speech analysis method(1) to cope with TMS noise, which exceeds 100 dB SPL with each discharge of the coil. Our algorithm deciphered what was said and the reaction time (RT) of each utterance with a resolution of up to 10 ms, leading to a fast and quantitative analysis. (Source: BRAIN ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Seynaeve, Deepak Baby, Hugo Van hamme, Steven De Vleeschouwer, Patrick Dupont, Wim Van Paesschen Source Type: research

A frontal-vagal network theory for Major Depressive Disorder: Implications for optimizing neuromodulation techniques
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by high comorbidity with cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, a combination of high heart rate (HR) and low heart rate variability (HRV) has been frequently reported in depressed patients. The present review proposes a frontal-vagal (brain-heart) network that overlaps with functional nodes of the depression network. Moreover, we summarize neuromodulation studies that have targeted key nodes in this depression network, with subsequent impact on heart rate (HR) or heart-rate-variability (HRV), such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), subgenual...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tabitha A. Iseger, Nienke E.R. van Bueren, J. Leon Kenemans, Richard Gevirtz, Martijn Arns Source Type: research

Cardiovascular differences between sham and active iTBS related to treatment response in MDD
Heart rate in MDD is often dysregulated, expressed in overall higher heart rates (HR) and lower heart rate variability (HRV). Interestingly, HR decelerations have been reported after stimulation of the DLPFC using rTMS, suggesting connectivity between the DLPFC and the heart. Recently, a new form of rTMS called theta burst stimulation (TBS) has been developed. One form of TBS, intermittent TBS (iTBS), delivers 600 pulses in just 3 min. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tabitha A. Iseger, Martijn Arns, Jonathan Downar, Daniel M. Blumberger, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez Source Type: research

Effects of bilateral anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the tongue primary motor cortex on cortical excitability of the tongue and tongue motor functions
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool for inducing cortical excitability changes [1]. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1) for exploring mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity and motor functions of the limbs. However, little is known about the effects of tDCS on the tongue region. Here, we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS over the bilateral tongue M1 representation relative to those of unilateral anodal tDCS on tongue region cortical excitability and tongue and jaw motor functions. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translationa...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hitoshi Maezawa, Carmelo Vicario, Min-Fang Kuo, Masayuki Hirata, Tatsuya Mima, Michael A. Nitsche Source Type: research

Simulation of transcranial magnetic stimulation in head model with morphologically-realistic cortical neurons
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables non-invasive modulation of brain activity with both clinical and research applications, but fundamental questions remain about the neural types and elements TMS activates and how stimulation parameters affect the neural response. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Aman S. Aberra, Boshuo Wang, Warren M. Grill, Angel V. Peterchev Source Type: research

Cerebellar Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Essential Tremor: a double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover, add-on clinical trial
There is controversial evidence about the effect of cerebellar low-frequency stimulation in patients with essential tremor (ET). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nahid Olfati, Ali Shoeibi, Ebrahim Abdollahian, Hamideh Ahmadi, Alireza Hoseini, Saeed Akhlaghi, Vida Vakili, Mohsen Foroughipour, Fariborz Rezaeitalab, Mohammad-Taghi Farzadfard, Parvaneh Layegh, Shahrokh Naseri Source Type: research

Dose-controlled tDCS reduces electric field intensity variability at a cortical target site
Variable effects limit the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a research and therapeutic tool. Conventional application of a fixed-dose of tDCS does not account for inter-individual differences in anatomy (e.g. skull thickness), which varies the amount of current reaching the brain. Individualised dose-control may reduce the variable effects of tDCS by reducing variability in electric field (E-field) intensities at a cortical target site. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Carys Evans, Clarissa Bachmann, Jenny Lee, Evridiki Gregoriou, Nick Ward, Sven Bestmann Source Type: research

Conditions for numerically accurate TMS electric field simulation
Computational simulations of the E-field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly used to understand its mechanisms and to inform its administration. However, characterization of the accuracy of the simulation methods and the factors that affect it is lacking. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Luis J. Gomez, Moritz Dannhauer, Lari M. Koponen, Angel V. Peterchev Source Type: research

Cost of focality in TDCS: Interindividual variability in electric fields
In transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), electric current is applied via two large electrodes to modulate brain activity. Computational models have shown that large electrodes produce diffuse electric fields (EFs) in the brain, which depends on individual head and brain anatomy. Recently, smaller electrodes as well as novel electrode arrangements, including high-definition TDCS (HD-TDCS) montages, have been introduced to improve the focality of EFs. Here, we investigated whether the EFs of focal montages are more susceptible to interindividual anatomical differences. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translation...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Marko Mikkonen, Ilkka Laakso, Satoshi Tanaka, Akimasa Hirata Source Type: research

A Case Series Exploring the Effect of Twenty Sessions of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Cannabis Use and Craving
Currently there are few evidence based treatments for Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and those that are available have limited efficacy(1). Cannabis craving is a commonly described behavioral construct in CUD(2), and may have clinical relevance. An expanding evidence base suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreases craving across a variety of different substance use disorders and may have treatment efficacy(3). We recently reported that it was both safe and feasible to deliver a single session of rTMS to non-treatment seeking participants w...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Sahlem, Margaret A. Caruso, E.Baron Short, James B. Fox, Brian J. Sherman, Andrew J. Manett, Robert J. Malcolm, Mark S. George, Aimee L. McRae-Clark Source Type: research

Using EMG to deliver lumbar dynamic electrical stimulation to facilitate cortico-spinal excitability
Potentiation of synaptic activity in spinal networks is reflected in the magnitude of modulation of motor responses evoked by spinal and cortical input. After spinal cord injury, motor evoked responses can be facilitated by pairing cortical and peripheral nerve stimuli. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Giuliano Taccola, Parag Gad, Stanislav Culaclii, Ronaldo M. Ichiyama, Wentai Liu, V. Reggie Edgerton Source Type: research

Probing the Circuitry of Panic with Deep Brain Stimulation: Connectomic Analysis and Review of the Literature
Panic attacks affect a sizeable proportion of the population. The neurocircuitry of panic remains incompletely understood. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gavin J.B. Elias, Peter Giacobbe, Alexandre Boutet, J ürgen Germann, Michelle E. Beyn, Robert M. Gramer, Aditya Pancholi, Suresh E. Joel, Andres M. Lozano Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of a Multiple Sclerosis Symptom Cluster
People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) have an over five-fold increased risk of experiencing and being treated for neuropathic pain. Interestingly, pain has been described as a potentially moderating factor of fatigue and depression [1]. Up to 92% of PwMS are affected by fatigue [2] and 24% suffer from depression [3]. Depressed PwMS are more likely to have pain and there is a positive association between the interference of painful symptoms, and pain severity, with depression severity [4]. Pain, fatigue, and depression are interdependently associated and potentially modifiable [5]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Transla...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Brain Stimulation, C.D. Workman, J. Kamholz, T. Rudroff Source Type: research

Feasibility of home-based, self-applied transcranial direct current stimulation to enhance motor learning in middle-aged and older adults
We read with great interest the recent letter sent to you by McConnell and colleagues [1], in which they discuss one of the first applications of truly independent home-based electrical brain stimulation, applied following safety recommendations. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulating cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period [2,3]. tDCS presents interesting options as a therapeutic intervention in multiple neurological disorders, such as stroke, depression, chronic pain, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer ’s and Parkinson’s disease...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pablo Maceira-Elvira, Traian Popa, Anne-Christine Schmid, Friedhelm C. Hummel Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces seizure frequency in patients with refractory focal epilepsy: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, and three-arm parallel multicenter study
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored in epilepsy with limited samples, varied parameters, and inconclusive results. We aimed to study the efficacy of tDCS for patients with refractory focal epilepsy. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dongju Yang, Qun Wang, Cuiping Xu, Fang Fang, Jingjing Fan, Liping Li, Qiaoyi Du, Ruihua Zhang, Ye Wang, Yicong Lin, Zhaoyang Huang, Hongmei Wang, Chunhong Chen, Qinlan Xu, Yue Wang, Yi Zhang, Zhang Zhang, Xin Zhao, Xuan Zhao, Ting Li, Chunyan Liu, Yulian Source Type: research

Reversible neuroinhibition does not require a thermal mechanism
We wish to respond to the recent publication by Darrow et  al. titled “Reversible Neuroinhibition by Focused Ultrasound is mediated by a Thermal Mechanism [1].” Specifically, we wish to alert the larger transcranial Focused Ultrasound Sonication (tFUS) community regarding inducing reversible neuroinhibition without thermal changes. Prior research has clearly demonstrated neuroinhibition without the temperature change suggested by Darrow et al. In a study attempting to suppress regional cortical excitability in rabbits, fMRI BOLD was used to monitor neural activity in the visual cortex after LED light ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Norman M. Spivak, Mark E. Schafer, Alexander Bystritsky Source Type: research

Prefrontal delta oscillations during deep brain stimulation predict treatment success in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is a promising neurotherapeutic approach for severe and refractory cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Successful VC/VS-DBS treatment alters function in frontostriatal pathways important for the etiopathogenesis of OCD [1 –3]. Monitoring changes in frontostriatal functioning resulting from active DBS can reveal signatures of DBS engagement with disease-relevant pathways [1,4]. In particular, modulation of the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) seems to be crucial for therapeutic success: symptomatic OCD patien ts demonstrate h...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ezra E. Smith, Thomas Sch üller, Daniel Huys, Juan Carlos Baldermann, Markus Ullsperger, John JB. Allen, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Jens Kuhn, Theo O.J. Gruendler Source Type: research

Double cone coil rTMS efficacy for treatment-resistant depression: A  prospective randomized controlled trial
Major depressive disorder is the first cause of ill health and disability worldwide and more than 300 million people are affected according to World Health Organization. Moreover, it has been estimated that 30 –50% of patients are resistant to antidepressants and cognitive behavioral treatment. In this regard, the development of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an alternative approach is interesting [1]. Indeed, rTMS consists of a non-invasive cerebral stimulation not requiring gen eral anesthesia. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Maud Tastevin, Karine Baumstarck, Florence Groppi, Michel Cermolacce, Guillaume Lagrange, Christophe Lan çon, Raphaëlle Richieri Source Type: research

Transcranial focused ultrasound pulsation suppresses pentylenetetrazol induced epilepsy in  vivo
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal neuron discharge, and one-third of epilepsy patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). The current management for DRE includes epileptogenic lesion resection, disconnection, and neuromodulation. Neuromodulation is achieved through invasive electrical stimulus including deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or responsive neurostimulation (RNS). As an alternative therapy, transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) can transcranially and non-invasively modulate neuron activity. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sin-Guang Chen, Chih-Hung Tsai, Chia-Jung Lin, Cheng-Chia Lee, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Hao-Li Liu Source Type: research

A case report of pulmonary embolism during electroconvulsive therapy and its further application after somatic stabilization
We describe a case of a 49-year-old, male, Caucasian, pharmaco-resistant patient with a recurrent major depressive disorder, who developed acute pulmonary embolism during a course of inpatient right-unilateral ultra-brief electroconvulsive therapy. After the stabilization of his somatic condition, we were able to safely continue with further ECT applications until his mood normalized and he was able to return to his normal life outside the hospital. Case reports on this topic are scarce – our article demonstrates that electroconvulsive treatment, with proper precautionary measures (anti-aggregative or anti-coagulatio...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Buday J, Albrecht J, Mare š T, Podgorná G, Žukov I, Kališová L, Raboch J, Anders M Source Type: research