Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Effect of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation on center of pressure sway of static standing posture
The vestibular system is involved in the control of standing balance. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a noninvasive technique that can stimulate the vestibular system. In recent years, noisy GVS (nGVS) using noise current stimulation has been attempted, but it has not been clarified whether it affects postural sway in open-eye standing. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yasuto Inukai, Naofumi Otsuru, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Kei Saito, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Hideaki Onishi Source Type: research

Optimized auditory transcranial alternating current stimulation improves individual auditory temporal resolution
Temporal resolution of cortical, auditory processing mechanisms is suggested to be linked to peak frequency of neuronal gamma oscillations in auditory cortex areas (individual gamma frequency, IGF): Individuals with higher IGF tend to have better temporal resolution. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alina Baltus, Sven Wagner, Carsten Hermann Wolters, Christoph Siegfried Herrmann Source Type: research

International randomized-controlled trial of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in depression
Evidence suggests that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant effects in unipolar depression, but there is limited information for patients with bipolar depression. Additionally, prior research suggests that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype may moderate response to tDCS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Colleen K. Loo, Mustafa M. Husain, William M. McDonald, Scott Aaronson, John P. O'Reardon, Angelo Alonzo, Cyndi S. Weickert, Donel M. Martin, Shawn M. McClintock, Adith Mohan, Sarah H. Lisanby, International Consortium of Research in tDCS (ICRT) Source Type: research

Limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (LOTES-2017): Engineering principles, regulatory statutes, and industry standards for wellness, over-the-counter, or prescription devices with low risk
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Marom Bikson, Devin Adair, Bhaskar Paneri, Abhishek Datta, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J. Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J. Tyler Source Type: research

The effects of medication use in transcranial direct current stimulation: A brief review
There has been increased interest in the potential use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as treatment for multiple conditions including depression, pain, and cognitive impairment. However, few studies account for the possible influence of comorbid medications when conducting tDCS research. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Molly E. McLaren, Nicole R. Nissim, Adam J. Woods Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for stroke: Current uses and future directions
Survivors of stroke often experience significant disability and impaired quality of life related to ongoing maladaptive responses and persistent neurologic deficits. Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to augment current approaches. One way to promote recovery and ameliorate symptoms may be to electrically stimulate the surviving brain. Various forms of brain stimulation have been investigated for use in stroke, including deep brain stimulation (DBS). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gavin J.B. Elias, Andrew A. Namasivayam, Andres M. Lozano Source Type: research

Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex on the noradrenergic system in rats
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) is a promising therapeutic alternative to treat resistant major depressive disorder. In preclinical studies, DBS of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, the rodent SCC correlate) provokes an antidepressant-like effect, along with changes in noradrenaline levels at the site of stimulation. Hence, DBS appears to activate the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus (LC) system. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sonia Torres-Sanchez, Laura Perez-Caballero, Juan A. Mico, Pau Celada, Esther Berrocoso Source Type: research

Theta-phase closed-loop stimulation induces motor paradoxical responses in the rat model of Parkinson disease
High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widespread therapy used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and other diseases. Although it has proved beneficial, much recent attention has been centered around the potential of new closed-loop DBS implementations. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ivan Cordon, Mar ía Jesús Nicolás, Sandra Arrieta, Manuel Alegre, Julio Artieda, Miguel Valencia Source Type: research

Transcranial brain stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus: Positive lessons from a negative trial
Tinnitus impairs many people's quality of life. The treatment of these patients is often a major challenge for general physicians, otolaryngologists, and psychiatrists particularly since reliably effective therapeutic tools are virtually not available. This not the least because the knowledge about its pathophysiology is still fragmentary. In search of the origins of tinnitus, early functional imaging studies have expanded the focus of tinnitus research to the brain. They supported the notion that this auditory phantom perception is associated with hyperactivity in primary and higher-order auditory processing areas. (Sourc...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Christian Plewnia Source Type: research

Network-based brain stimulation selectively impairs spatial retrieval
Direct brain stimulation via electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) permits the modulation of endogenous electrical signals with significantly greater spatial and temporal specificity than non-invasive approaches. It also allows for the stimulation of deep brain structures important to memory, such as the hippocampus, that are difficult, if not impossible, to target non-invasively. Direct stimulation studies of these deep memory structures, though, have produced mixed results, with some reporting improvement, some impairment, and others, no consistent changes. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic,...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kamin Kim, Amber Schedlbauer, Matthew Rollo, Suganya Karunakaran, Arne, D. Ekstrom, Nitin Tandon Source Type: research

Bilateral extracephalic transcranial direct current stimulation improves endurance performance in healthy individuals
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to enhance endurance performance but its precise mechanisms and effects remain unknown. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: L. Angius, A.R. Mauger, J. Hopker, A. Pascual-Leone, E. Santarnecchi, S.M. Marcora Source Type: research

Facilitating electroconvulsive therapy seizure induction: Lower pulse frequency or longer stimulus duration?
Thirthalli et al. [1] reported a case series of 10 patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), all of whom had failed to experience an adequate seizure at an electrical charge of 540 mC. These patients were restimulated with pulse frequency reduced from 125 pulses per second (pps) to 50 pps; other stimulus parameters (pulse amplitude and pulse width) were kept unchanged. With this strategy, adequate seizures were induced in 62 of 67 ECT sessions. The authors [1] suggested that reduction of pulse frequency may help reduce seizure threshold and facilitate seizure induction. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Trans...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chittaranjan Andrade Source Type: research

Beyond variability: Subjective timing and the neurophysiology of motor cognition
Movement simulation helps increasing the chances to reach goals. A cognitive task used to study the neuro-behavioral aspects of movement simulation is mental rotation: people mentally re-orient rotated pictures of hands. However, the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in mental rotation is largely controversial. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: David Perruchoud, Mirta Fiorio, Paola Cesari, Silvio Ionta Source Type: research

Sailing in a sea of disbelief: In  vivo measurements of transcranial electric stimulation in human subcortical structures
In 2016, Gy örgy Buzsáki shocked the scientific field of transcranial electric stimulation (tES) when he showed that only a small amount of electric current applied to the scalp of a cadaver (app. 10%) can be measured in the brain [1]. This came after substantial criticism of the technique that had been build ing in the two years prior [e.g., 2]. So for tES critics the ‘cadaver study’ [1] - though never published in a peer-reviewed journal and having its own methodological issues - was the final proof that there is nothing stimulating about transcranial brain stimulation. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION:...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: P. Ruhnau, K.S. Rufener, H.-J. Heinze, T. Zaehle Source Type: research

Computational human head models of tDCS: Influence of brain atrophy on current density distribution
Despite increasing attention to the application of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for enhancing cognitive functions in subjects exposing to varying degree of cerebral atrophy such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), there is no general information for customizing stimulation protocol. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shirin Mahdavi, Farzad Towhidkhad, The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Source Type: research

Factors that contribute to the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for tinnitus treatment
The recent article by Landgrebe et al. [1] was of interest to me because my research team used similar protocols in our clinical trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for tinnitus treatment [2]. Landgrebe et al. reported that 10 sessions of real rTMS were not superior to 10 comparable sessions of sham rTMS in their multi-site trial involving 146 patients with chronic tinnitus. By contrast, our results [2] indicated that 10 sessions of real rTMS were significantly superior to sham rTMS for reducing tinnitus severity in a population of 64 participants. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert L. Folmer Source Type: research

Reply to the letter of Robert L. Folmer: Does treatment response depend on the type of stimulation device?
In his letter to the editor, Robert L. Folmer commented on our recently published article, in which we presented the results of a large multicenter study testing 1 Hz rTMS in the treatment of chronic tinnitus [1]. Very recently Dr. Folmer performed a similar study in patients with tinnitus [2]. While both studies have been conducted according to highest methodological standards and involved comparable study populations and similar stimulation protocols, the results were conflicting. While Dr Folmer's study demonstrated an efficacy of rTMS in his population of tinnitus patients, our study could not show any beneficial thera...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Michael Landgrebe, Martin Schecklmann, Berthold Langguth Source Type: research

Where and what TMS activates: Experiments and modeling
Despite recent developments in navigation and modeling techniques, the type and location of the structures that are activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) remain unknown. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ilkka Laakso, Takenobu Murakami, Akimasa Hirata, Yoshikazu Ugawa Source Type: research

Double-blind, proof-of-concept (POC) trial of Low-Field Magnetic Stimulation (LFMS) augmentation of antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression (TRD)
Low-Field Magnetic Stimulation (LFMS) is a novel, non-invasive, sub-threshold neuromodulation technique, shown in preliminary studies to have immediate mood elevating effects in both unipolar and bipolar depressed patients. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Maurizio Fava, Marlene P. Freeman, Martina Flynn, Bettina B. Hoeppner, Richard Shelton, Dan V. Iosifescu, James W. Murrough, David Mischoulon, Cristina Cusin, Mark Rapaport, Boadie W. Dunlop, Madhukar H. Trivedi, Manish Jha, Gerard Sanacora, Gretchen Herm Source Type: research

Short- and long-latency afferent inhibition; uses, mechanisms and influencing factors
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an ideal technique for non-invasively stimulating the brain and assessing intracortical processes. By delivering electrical stimuli to a peripheral nerve prior to a TMS pulse directed to the motor cortex, the excitability and integrity of the sensorimotor system can be probed at short and long time intervals (short latency afferent inhibition, long latency afferent inhibition). The goal of this review is to detail the experimental factors that influence the magnitude and timing of afferent inhibition in the upper limb and these include the intensity of nerve and TMS delivery, and ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Claudia V. Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Mitchell J. Savoie, Hunter J. Fassett, Mitchell B. Locke, Aimee J. Nelson Source Type: research

Changes in spectroscopic biomarkers after transcranial direct current stimulation in children with perinatal stroke
Perinatal stroke causes lifelong motor disability, affecting independence and quality of life. Non-invasive neuromodulation interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with intensive therapy may improve motor function in adult stroke hemiparesis but is under-explored in children. Measuring cortical metabolites with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can inform cortical neurobiology in perinatal stroke but how these change with neuromodulation is yet to be explored. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Helen L. Carlson, Patrick Ciechanski, Ashley D. Harris, Frank P. MacMaster, Adam Kirton Source Type: research

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and movement of aneurysm clips
We are interested in whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could cause movement of intracranial aneurysm clips. We conducted some backyard exercises – albeit, with the encouragement of Prof Anthony Barker, who designed the first TMS machine. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Saxby Pridmore, Fiona Lawson Source Type: research

Transcranial ultrasound stimulation promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reduces apoptosis in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury
The protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can be elevated by transcranial ultrasound stimulation in the rat brain. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei-Shen Su, Chun-Hu Wu, Szu-Fu Chen, Feng-Yi Yang Source Type: research

Optimization of epidural cortical stimulation for treatment-resistant depression
Major depressive disorder is debilitating and prevalent. Approximately 30% of patients do not respond to four antidepressant medications [1], and up to half of medication-resistant patients do not respond to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) [2]. Epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation (EpCS), with electrodes implanted superficially to dura mater, has shown promise as a potential treatment for TRD [3,4] with early work informing the development of improved lead placement and programming methods [5,6]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nolan R. Williams, Brandon S. Bentzley, Thomas Hopkins, Jaspreet Pannu, Gregory L. Sahlem, Istvan Takacs, Mark S. George, Ziad Nahas, Edward Baron Short Source Type: research

Modulation of hippocampal activity with fornix Deep Brain Stimulation
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Paul H. Stypulkowski, Scott R. Stanslaski, Jonathon E. Giftakis Source Type: research

Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes of deep TMS over the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in OCD patients
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lior Carmi, Uri Alyagon, Noam Barnea-Ygael, Joseph Zohar, Reuven Dar, Abraham Zangen Source Type: research

Increased left prefrontal brain perfusion after MRI compatible tDCS attenuates momentary ruminative self-referential thoughts
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique, assumed to influence cognition and emotional processing. Objective: However, it is unclear how tDCS influences spontaneous cognitive processes such as momentary self-referential thoughts on the neuronal level. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chris Baeken, Jonathan Remue, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Andre R. Brunoni, Sara De Witte, Romain Duprat, Ernst H.W. Koster, Rudi De Raedt, Guo-Rong Wu Source Type: research

Prefrontal versus motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects on post-surgical opioid use
Pain is often a complaint that precedes total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the procedure itself is associated with considerable post-operative pain lasting days to weeks which can predict longer-term surgical outcomes. Previously, we reported significant opioid-sparing effects of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation from a single-blind trial. In the present study, we used double-blind methodology to compare motor cortex tDCS and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clini...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jeffrey J. Borckardt, Scott T. Reeves, Cole Milliken, Brittan Carter, Thomas I. Epperson, Ryan J. Gunselman, Alok Madan, H. Del Schutte, Harry A. Demos, Mark S. George Source Type: research

Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation improves gait and balance in stroke survivors: A pilot randomised controlled trial
Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) is delivered using a Portable Neuromodulation Stimulation (PoNS ™) device that stimulates two cranial nerve nuclei (trigeminal and facial nerve nuclei) using electrodes embedded in a mouthpiece that rests on the tongue. Danilov and colleagues reported that prolonged and repetitive (20 minutes or more) tongue stimulation coupled with specific training of balanc e and gait can initiate long-lasting neuronal reorganization that can be measured in participants' behaviour [1]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Mary P. Galea, L. Eduardo Cofr é Lizama, Andisheh Bastani, Maya G. Panisset, Fary Khan Source Type: research

Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during transcranial near-infrared laser irradiation
When turning your face to the sun during sunset or sunrise, red and near infrared light may penetrate your forehead and reach the brain. We Japanese and our ancestors worship the sun during sunrise or sunset. We think such religious performance may have some scientific basis for humans. Positive behavioral improvement has been observed following transcranial near-infrared light therapy in humans with chronic traumatic brain injury [1] and depression [2] [3] [4]. We have demonstrated focal increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during and after near infrared laser or light irradiation in mice [5] and in human beings [6]. (So...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroshi Nawashiro, Shunichi Sato, Satoko Kawauchi, Satoru Takeuchi, Kimihiro Nagatani, Nobuyuki Yoshihara, Hiroshi Shinmoto Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for disorders of consciousness: Systematic review of cases and ethics
A treatment for patients suffering from prolonged severely altered consciousness is not available. The success of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in diseases such as Parkinson's, dystonia and essential tremor provided a renewed impetus for its application in Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jonathan Vanhoecke, Marwan Hariz Source Type: research

Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation improves cognitive dysfunction and synaptic plasticity deficit in the prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in diabetic patients. We have previously reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can facilitate visuospatial working memory in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic peripheral neuropathy and mild cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yi-Jen Wu, Chou-Ching Lin, Che-Ming Yeh, Miao-Er Chien, Ming-Chung Tsao, Philip Tseng, Chin-Wei Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu Source Type: research

Vagus nerve stimulation improves locomotion and neuronal populations in a model of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying therapies, and symptomatic treatments are often limited by debilitating side effects. In PD, locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons degenerate prior to substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) beneficially alters LC neurons, and decreases pro-inflammatory markers, allowing functional improvement of LC and its targets, making it a potential PD therapeutic. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ariana Q. Farrand, Kristi L. Helke, Rebecca A. Gregory, Monika Gooz, Vanessa K. Hinson, Heather A. Boger Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Information for Authors
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How to consider animal data in tDCS safety standards
We thank Chhatbar and colleagues for the editorial commentary [1] on the original paper “Safety parameter considerations of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in rats” [2]. We would like to respond to their itemized concerns: (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Mark P. Jackson, Marom Bikson, David Liebetanz, Michael Nitsche Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation versus caffeine as a fatigue countermeasure
To assess the efficacy of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to remediate the deleterious effects of fatigue induced by sleep deprivation and compare these results to caffeine, a commonly used fatigue countermeasure. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lindsey K. McIntire, R. Andy McKinley, Justin M. Nelson, Chuck Goodyear Source Type: research

Facial gender and hemispheric asymmetries: A hf-tRNS study
A right-hemispheric superiority for the representation of the female face has been previously shown [1 –3], and it has been attributed to the ‘cradling bias’, namely the leftward bias observed during infant cradling by an adult, found in female but not in male individuals [4]. Due to the fact that infants are cradled on the left side by the mother, their right hemisphere would be preferentially exposed to the mother's face, and the right-hemisphere of the mother would be directly exposed to the baby's face [5]: this bias has been interpreted as the basis of the hemispheric imbalance for processing female ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Giulia Prete, Gianluca Malatesta, Luca Tommasi Source Type: research

Novel method of altering stimulus parameter to facilitate seizure induction during electroconvulsive therapy
A generalized seizure (GS) is a prerequisite for an effective electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) session, and a number of parameters determine its successful induction. There are instances (eg. elderly patients, or patients on anticonvulsant medications), when a clinician would not be able to elicit a GS, despite using the maximum charge limit of an ECT device [1]. In this scenario, options, such as vigorous hyperventilation, pretreatment with xanthines, lowering the dose of anesthetic agents and the use of etomidate/ketamine have been suggested [1]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jagadisha Thirthalli, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Sayantanava Mitra, Abhishekh Hulegar Ashok, Bangalore N. Gangadhar Source Type: research

1-Hz rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus: A sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial
Chronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Michael Landgrebe, G öran Hajak, Stefan Wolf, Frank Padberg, Philipp Klupp, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Thomas Polak, Jacqueline Höppner, Rene Haker, Joachim Cordes, Thomas Klenzner, Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Thomas Kammer, Erika Graf, Michael Koller, Tobi Source Type: research

Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) might be a mechanism behind the analgesic effects of auricular acupuncture
Randomized clinical trials (RCT) demonstrated that auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in treatment of acute and chronic pain, although the mechanisms behind AA are not elucidated. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Taras Usichenko, Henriette Hacker, Martin Lotze Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Automated night-time deep brain stimulation battery checks can induce symptoms: Identification and management of a new hardware complication
Since the first introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus for the treatment of medically refractory tremor [1], worldwide experience with this technique has grown. Continuous thalamic stimulation by DBS systems has replaced thalamotomy as thalamic stimulation has fewer and in parts reversible adverse effects with life changing impact on tremor control [2]. A significant improvement in overall tremor symptoms (ranging from 40% up to 95%), in hand function as well as in activities of daily living (e.g. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - August 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lisa Klingelhoefer, Natasha Hulse, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Keyoumars Ashkan, Michael Samuel Source Type: research

The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures
Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: K.E. Brown, K.R. Lohse, I.M.S. Mayer, G. Strigaro, M. Desikan, E.P. Casula, S. Meunier, T. Popa, J.-C. Lamy, O. Odish, B.R. Leavitt, A. Durr, R.A.C. Roos, S.J. Tabrizi, J.C. Rothwell, L.A. Boyd, M. Orth Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson's disease dementia: A randomised double-blind crossover trial
Attentional dysfunction is a common and prominent feature of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), however, side effects are typically associated with the use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of this symptom and do not work in all patients [1]. One potential non-pharmacological intervention is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and a previous pilot study in Lewy body dementia patients, where a single 20-min session of anodal tDCS was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), showed tentative evidence of post-stimulation improvements in attentional, but not visuoperceptual, performance...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Greg J. Elder, James Ashcroft, Katrina da Silva Morgan, Marium Umme Kulsum, Rebecca Banerjee, Payel Chatterjee, Michael J. Firbank, Ian G. McKeith, Hrishikesh Kumar, John-Paul Taylor Source Type: research

Cumulative effects of single TMS pulses during beta-tACS are stimulation intensity-dependent
Single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses activate different components of the motor cortex neural circuitry in a stimulation intensity-dependent way and may lead to a cumulative increase of corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the same stimulation session. Furthermore, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to increase in a frequency-specific way the level of CSE probed by single-pulse TMS. The interaction of these two phenomena, i.e. cumulative increases and baseline shifts of CSE, and the involved neural circuitry has not been studied yet. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Tra...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Valerio Raco, Robert Bauer, Sandro Norim, Alireza Gharabaghi Source Type: research

Polarity-independent effects of tDCS on paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian M üller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann Source Type: research

Transcranial ultrasonic stimulation modulates single-neuron discharge in macaques performing an antisaccade task
Low intensity transcranial ultrasonic stimulation (TUS) has been demonstrated to non-invasively and transiently stimulate the nervous system. Although US neuromodulation has appeared robust in rodent studies, the effects of US in large mammals and humans have been modest at best. In addition, there is a lack of direct recordings from the stimulated neurons in response to US. Our study investigates the magnitude of the US effects on neuronal discharge in awake behaving monkeys and thus fills the void on both fronts. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nicolas Wattiez, Charlotte Constans, Thomas Deffieux, Pierre M. Daye, Mickael Tanter, Jean-Fran çois Aubry, Pierre Pouget Source Type: research

Quantitative reassessment of safety limits of tDCS for two animal studies
We read the article by Jackson et al. [1] with great interest. The authors concluded that the threshold for causing a brain lesion in a rat model using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is well below the level previously reported by Liebetanz et al. [2] Using a computational modeling approach, they also indicated that current density at the level of the brain is a better predictor of brain damage than current density at the level of electrode or electrode-skin interface. While we admire their scientific rigor and the use of computational modeling, we are concerned that the units of tDCS dose they chose has aff...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - July 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pratik Y. Chhatbar, Mark S. George, Steven A. Kautz, Wuwei Feng Source Type: research