Seizure risk with repetitive TMS: Survey results from over a half-million treatment sessions
Seizures are rare during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment, but estimating risk is difficult because of study heterogeneity and sampling limitations. Moreover, there are few studies comparing rates between device manufacturers. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Joseph J. Taylor, Noam G. Newberger, Adam P. Stern, Angela Phillips, David Feifel, Rebecca A. Betensky, Daniel Z. Press Source Type: research

Reproducibility of cortical response modulation induced by intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation of the human motor cortex
Over the past decade, the number of experimental and clinical studies using theta-burst-stimulation (TBS) protocols of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate brain activity has risen substantially. The use of TBS is motivated by the assumption that these protocols can reliably and lastingly modulate cortical excitability despite their short duration and low number of stimuli. However, this assumption, and thus the experimental validity of studies using TBS, is challenged by recent work showing large inter- and intra-subject variability in response to TBS protocols. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translatio...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Recep A. Ozdemir, Pierre Boucher, Peter J. Fried, Davide Momi, Ali Jannati, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Mouhsin M. Shafi Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of brain structural changes after electroconvulsive therapy in depression
Increases in the volume of the amygdala and hippocampus after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are among the most robust effects known to the brain-imaging field. Recent advances in the segmentation of substructures of these regions allow for novel insights on the relationship between brain structure and clinical outcomes of ECT. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregor Gryglewski, Rupert Lanzenberger, Leo R. Silberbauer, Daniel Pacher, Siegfried Kasper, Rainer Rupprecht, Richard Frey, Pia Baldinger-Melich Source Type: research

Changes in seizure duration during acute course electroconvulsive therapy
Seizure duration has long been measured as a potential marker of ECT treatment efficacy, with concern that short seizures may be clinically ineffective. Relatively small studies have documented a trend towards shorter seizures during acute course ECT, but data from large cohorts would help provide normative data on seizure duration changes during treatment. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: James Luccarelli, Thomas H. McCoy, Stephen J. Seiner, Michael E. Henry Source Type: research

Differing dose details and controlling confounding covariates in modulating motor cortex excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation
We appreciate the recent letter [1] that commented on our study of modulating motor cortex excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) [2]. The main point of the letter was that our reported modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) by tDCS was more consistent and thus had a larger effect size than previously reported results in the literature. We agree with the author that our results are much clearer than the ones from previous studies in the field and that the standard mean difference calculated for pairwise comparisons substantially exceeds what has been previously reported. (Source: BRAIN STIMULA...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Flavio Frohlich, Sangtae Ahn Source Type: research

Sustained relief after cessation of subthalamic stimulation for idiopathic dystonia: A 14-year observation
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established neurosurgical technique for medically refractory dystonia, providing marked improvement in both motor function and quality of life [1]. The effects of DBS targeting the globus pallidus internus (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) appear to be persisting, and patients continue to do well several years after implantation [1]. The discontinuation of DBS is usually followed by the reoccurrence of dystonic symptoms within hours or days [2]. However, previous studies have reported sustained clinical efficacy for several days or months after GPi-DBS interruption in inherited or id...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hongxia Li, Yunhao Wu, Yixin Pan, Peng Huang, Tao Wang, Chencheng Zhang, Dianyou Li, Yiwen Wu, Bomin Sun Source Type: research

Probing the effects of single-session iTBS on associative memory: A prospective, randomized, controlled cross-over study
A large corpus of research demonstrated that high-frequency (HF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human cortex exhibits neuroplastic effects similar to long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation in animal experiments. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a potent form of patterned rTMS, was also shown to have excitatory effects akin to LTP [1], although probably via a different cellular mechanism compared to standard rTMS [2]. However, recent evidence provides a crucial extension to the proposed mechanism of action of rTMS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bella B.B. Zhang, Rebecca L.D. Kan, Tsz-Fung Woo, Chetwyn C.H. Chan, Kenneth N.K. Fong, Georg S. Kranz Source Type: research

Non-invasive stimulation of the motor cerebellum has potential cognitive confounds
The cerebellum has been known to play an important role in motor control for over a century. Seminal work by Holmes [1] highlighted that damage to the cerebellum severely impaired motor coordination. Converging evidence from behavioural, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies has since highlighted the functional role of cerebellar-motor interactions in motor behaviours. Specifically, cerebellar lobules IV-VI and VIIB-VIII (which we will refer to as the “motor cerebellum”) have reciprocal anatomical connections with cortical motor areas [2]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translatio...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - June 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert M. Hardwick, Amanda S. Therrien, Elise Lesage Source Type: research

Parsing the antidepressant effects of non-invasive brain stimulation and pharmacotherapy: A symptom clustering approach on ELECT-TDCS
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) presents small antidepressant efficacy at group level and considerable inter-individual variability of response. Its heterogeneous effects bring the need to investigate whether specific groups of patients submitted to tDCS could present comparable or larger improvement compared to pharmacotherapy. Aggregate measurements might be insufficient to address its effects. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Stephan A. Goerigk, Frank Padberg, Adam Chekroud, Joseph Kambeitz, Markus B ühner, Andre R. Brunoni Source Type: research

Phase-dependent offline enhancement of human motor memory
Skill learning engages offline activity in the primary motor cortex (M1). Sensorimotor cortical activity oscillates between excitatory trough and inhibitory peak phases of the mu (8 –12 Hz) rhythm. We recently showed that these mu phases influence the magnitude and direction of neuroplasticity induction within M1. However, the contribution of M1 activity during mu peak and trough phases to human skill learning has not been investigated. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sara J. Hussain, Mary K. Vollmer, Jessica Stimely, Gina Norato, Christoph Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann, Ethan R. Buch, Leonardo G. Cohen Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy is associated with lower readmission rates in patients with schizophrenia
This study will explore the association between the administration of ECT and readmission rates using a machine learning method. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yin-bing Ying, Li-na Jia, Ze-yuan Wang, Wei Jiang, Jun Zhang, Hu Wang, Nai-qian Yang, Rui-wen Wang, Yan-ping Ren, Fei Gao, Xin Ma, Yi-lang Tang, William M. McDonald Source Type: research

Transcranial brain atlas for school-aged children and adolescents
Both fNIRS optodes and TMS coils are placed on the scalp, while the targeted brain activities are inside the brain. An accurate cranio-cortical correspondence is crucial to the precise localization of the cortical area under imaging or stimulation (i.e. transcranial locating), as well as guiding the placement of optodes/coils (i.e. transcranial targeting). However, the existing normative cranio-cortical correspondence data used as transcranial references are predominantly derived from the adult population, and whether and how correspondence changes during childhood and adolescence is currently unclear. (Source: BRAIN STIMU...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Zong Zhang, Zheng Li, Xiang Xiao, Yang Zhao, Xi-Nian Zuo, Chaozhe Zhu Source Type: research

Multi-session delivery of synchronous rTMS and sensory stimulation induces long-term plasticity
Combining training or sensory stimulation with non-invasive brain stimulation has shown to improve performance in healthy subjects and improve brain function in patients after brain injury. However, the plasticity mechanisms and the optimal parameters to induce long-term and sustainable enhanced performance remain unknown. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ming Zhong, Carolina Cywiak, Abigael C. Metto, Xiang Liu, Chunqi Qian, Galit Pelled Source Type: research

Chronic Insomnia: Treatment with Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation
Chronic insomnia is one of the most common types of sleep disorder [1]. The incidence of chronic insomnia in the general population ranges from 4% to 48% [2]. Because of its high prevalence and increased incidence, it has become a vital public health problem. Chronic insomnia increases the risk of mental and physical illness and of drug dependence or abuse [3]. At present non-drug therapy and drug therapy are usually used to treat chronic insomnia. Many patients with chronic insomnia have to take sedative hypnotic drugs for a long time to maintain sleep, and long-term use of drugs will bring a series of side effects and ad...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Qi Zhou, Jun Liu, Xi Mei, Xiaoli Liu, Xingxing Li, Wenhao Zhuang, Dongsheng Zhou, Gangqiao Qi, Huifei Ge Source Type: research

Single-pulse stimulation of cerebellar nuclei stops epileptic thalamic activity
Epileptic (absence) seizures in cerebral cortex can be stopped by pharmacological and optogenetic stimulation of the cerebellar nuclei (CN) neurons that innervate the thalamus. However, it is unclear how such stimulation can modify underlying thalamo-cortical oscillations. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Oscar H.J. Eelkman Rooda, Lieke Kros, Sade J. Faneyte, Peter J. Holland, Simona V. Gornati, Huub J. Poelman, Nico A. Jansen, Else A. Tolner, Arn M.J.M. van den Maagdenberg, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Freek E. Hoebeek Source Type: research

Moving to accelerated protocols of tDCS in schizophrenia: A case report
In recent years, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been increasingly used to reduce symptoms in patients with schizophrenia with good outcomes, particularly for auditory hallucinations [1] and negative symptoms [2]. tDCS protocols for schizophrenia typically include ten 20-min sessions of tDCS at 2 mA applied with a frontotemporal montage, i.e., with the anode over the left prefrontal cortex and the cathode over the left temporoparietal junction. The tDCS sessions were mostly delivered at a rate of 2 sessions per day over 5 consecutive days with an interval of at least 2 hours between consecutive sessions....
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Marine Mondino, Emmanuel Poulet, J érôme Brunelin Source Type: research

Generating artificial sensations with spinal cord stimulation in primates and rodents
For patients who have lost sensory function due to a neurological injury such as spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, or amputation, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may provide a mechanism for restoring somatic sensations via an intuitive, non-visual pathway. Inspired by this vision, here we trained rhesus monkeys and rats to detect and discriminate patterns of epidural SCS. Thereafter, we constructed psychometric curves describing the relationship between different SCS parameters and the animal's ability to detect SCS and/or changes in its characteristics. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Amol P. Yadav, Shuangyan Li, Max O. Krucoff, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Muhammad M. Abd-El-Barr, Miguel A.L. Nicolelis Source Type: research

Short-latency afferent inhibition remains intact without cortical somatosensory input: Evidence from a patient with isolated thalamic infarct
Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm elicited by pairing a peripheral nerve electrical stimulation with TMS of the motor cortex. Therefore, SAI is suggested as a neurophysiological marker of sensorimotor integrity and excitability [1]. Even though it is widely used in neurophysiological studies, the exact physiological mechanism that produces SAI still remains unclear. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: H.C. Alaydin, E.E. Ataoglu, H.Z.B. Caglayan, N. Tokgoz, B. Naziel, B. Cengiz Source Type: research

Eye movements and the perceived location of phosphenes generated by intracranial primary visual cortex stimulation in the blind
Restoring sight for the blind using electrical stimulation of the visual pathways is feasible but demands an understanding of the spatial mapping of the visual world at the site of targeted stimulation, whether in the retina, thalamus, or cortex. While a visual cortex stimulator can bypass the eye and create visual percepts, there is an inherent dissociation between this stimulation and eye movements. It is unknown whether and how robustly the brain maintains the oculomotor circuitry in patients with bare- or no-light perception. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Avi Caspi, Michael P. Barry, Uday K. Patel, Michelle Armenta Salas, Jessy D. Dorn, Arup Roy, Soroush Niketeghad, Robert J. Greenberg, Nader Pouratian Source Type: research

A theoretical framework for the site-specific and frequency-dependent neuronal effects of deep brain stimulation
Deep brain stimulation is an established therapy for several neurological disorders; however, its effects on neuronal activity vary across brain regions and depend on stimulation settings. Understanding these variable responses can aid in the development of physiologically-informed stimulation paradigms in existing or prospective indications. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Luka Milosevic, Suneil K. Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M. Lozano, Milos R. Popovic, William D. Hutchison, Milad Lankarany Source Type: research

Delta oscillation underlies the interictal spike changes after repeated transcranial direct current stimulation in a rat model of chronic seizures
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) provides a noninvasive polarity-specific constant current to treat epilepsy, through a mechanism possibly involving excitability modulation and neural oscillation. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yi-Jen Wu, Miao-Er Chien, Chia-Chu Chiang, Ying-Zu Huang, Dominique M. Durand, Kuei-Sen Hsu Source Type: research

Sonothermogenetics for noninvasive and cell-type specific deep brain neuromodulation
Critical advances in the investigation of brain functions and treatment of brain disorders are hindered by our inability to selectively target neurons in a noninvasive manner in the deep brain. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yaoheng Yang, Christopher Pham Pacia, Dezhuang Ye, Lifei Zhu, Hongchae Baek, Yimei Yue, Jinyun Yuan, Mark J. Miller, Jianmin Cui, Joseph P. Culver, Michael R. Bruchas, Hong Chen Source Type: research

Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves the outcome of postsurgical paresis in glioma patients – A randomized, double-blinded trial
Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nrTMS) is effective therapy for stroke patients. Neurorehabilitation could be supported by low-frequency stimulation of the non-damaged hemisphere to reduce transcallosal inhibition. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sebastian Ille, Anna Kelm, Axel Schroeder, Lucia E. Albers, Chiara Negwer, Vicki M. Butenschoen, Nico Sollmann, Thomas Picht, Peter Vajkoczy, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M. Krieg Source Type: research

A ventromedial prefrontal dysrhythmia in obsessive-compulsive disorder is attenuated by nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has consistently been linked to abnormal frontostriatal activity. The electrophysiological disruption in this circuit, however, remains to be characterized. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Svenja Treu, Javier J. Gonzalez-Rosa, Vanesa Soto-Leon, Diego Lozano-Soldevilla, Antonio Oliviero, Fernando Lopez-Sosa, Blanca Reneses-Prieto, Juan A. Barcia, Bryan A. Strange Source Type: research

Microstimulation-evoked neural responses in visual cortex are depth dependent
Cortical visual prostheses often use penetrating electrode arrays to deliver microstimulation to the visual cortex. To optimize electrode placement within the cortex, the neural responses to microstimulation at different cortical depths must first be understood. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tim Allison-Walker, Maureen A. Hagan, Nicholas S.C. Price, Yan T. Wong Source Type: research

Off-label transcranial magnetic stimulation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A twelve-year case series in a single clinic
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) appears to allay cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, with multi-site stimulation, higher education, milder severity, ≥5–10 sessions, medication, and cognitive training associated with greater efficacy [1–5]. However, a European taskforce found only level 3 evidence for TMS in these conditions [6]. Additionally, the safety of long-term chronic TMS in neurologic disease is unknown. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert A. Tumasian, Gayatri Devi Source Type: research

Replicable effect of cortical-paired associative stimulation on response inhibition as a function of age
How quickly we stop at a traffic light determines our survival. Similarly, how efficiently one can dodge a craving thought for a pint of beer could define one's relapse probability. Response inhibition, a form of impulsivity, measures one's ability to interrupt an ongoing action, and is central to neuropsychiatric disorders [1,2]. Using cortico-cortical paired associative stimulation (cc-PAS) with transcranial magnetic (TMS) pulses, we targeted the right pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) and right-inferior frontal cortex (rIFC). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Alekhya Mandali, Kosuke Tsurumi, Traian Popa, Valerie Voon Source Type: research

Role of gastric motility in weight gain after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease
Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is now considered as a gold standard surgical treatment for advanced forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), with dramatic improvement in parkinsonian disability. Rapid and significant body weight gain represents one of the most frequent side effects of STN-DBS, that could lead to increased cardiovascular and metabolic diseases [1 –3]. The mechanism of this weight gain is not fully understood and various factors have been envisaged such as decreased resting energy expenditure (REE), linked to the decreased parkinsonian disability and/or a local effect o...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nathalie Chastan, Najate Achamrah, St éphane Derrey, David Maltete, Moise Coeffier, Anne-Marie Leroi, Pierre Dechelotte, Marie-Laure Welter, Guillaume Gourcerol Source Type: research

The efficacy and acceptability of hybrid electroconvulsive therapy compared with standard electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia patients: A parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial
Previous studies have demonstrated that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) augmentation of antipsychotics is highly effective for treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients or those who require a rapid response [1]. Despite the effectiveness of ECT, its use is limited primarily due to adverse events (AEs) [2,3], which may be related to ECT dosing, seizures or electrode placement [3,4]. Notably, a study demonstrated that nonconvulsive electrotherapy (NET) or low-charge electrotherapy (LCE) may have similar antidepressant effects to ECT but without serious AEs in a sample of patients with depression [5]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULAT...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jia Li, Zhao-yun Jiang, Wen-feng Deng, Shu-xian Xu, Han Rong, Xiao-ming Kong, Xin-hui Xie Source Type: research

Neurovascular-modulation: A review of primary vascular responses to transcranial electrical stimulation as a mechanism of action
The ubiquitous vascular response to transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been attributed to the secondary effect of neuronal activity forming the classic neurovascular coupling. However, the current density delivered transcranially concentrates in: A) the cerebrospinal fluid of subarachnoid space where cerebral vasculature resides after reaching the dural and pial surfaces and B) across the blood-brain-barrier after reaching the brain parenchyma. Therefore, it is anticipated that tES has a primary vascular influence. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mersedeh Bahr-Hosseini, Marom Bikson Source Type: research

Cover 1
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - May 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acute low frequency dorsal subthalamic nucleus stimulation improves verbal fluency in Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that results in movement-related dysfunction and has variable cognitive impairment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the dorsal subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be effective in improving motor symptoms; however, cognitive impairment is often unchanged, and in some cases, worsened particularly on tasks of verbal fluency. Traditional DBS strategies use high frequency gamma stimulation for motor symptoms ( ∼130 Hz), but there is evidence that low frequency theta oscillations (5–12 Hz) are important in cognition. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION:...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Darrin J. Lee, Neil M. Drummond, Utpal Saha, Philippe De Vloo, Robert F. Dallapiazza, Robert Gramer, Tameem M. Al-Ozzi, Jordan Lam, Aaron Loh, Gavin J.B. Elias, Alexandre Boutet, Jurgen Germann, Mojgan Hodaie, Alfonso Fasano, Renato P. Munhoz, William Hut Source Type: research

Targeting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression: do we really know what we are stimulating and how best to do it?
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an established treatment for patients with depression who have not achieved optimal outcomes with one or more trials of antidepressant medication. It is an effective antidepressant treatment but there remains considerable scope for improving clinical outcomes. One method to potentially enhance the efficacy of rTMS is through the improvement of methods of stimulation localization. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Withdrawn: Reply to letter to the editor
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rajkumar Nallour Raveendran, Benjamin Thompson Source Type: research

Reply to letter to the editor
We thank Drs. He and Gan for their commentary on our case series (n = 3). The goal of the case series [1] was to provide initial proof of concept for the potential use of visual cortex anodal tDCS as a vision rehabilitation tool for individuals with macular degeneration and to motivate larger-scale studies capable of generating data suitable for formal statistical analyses. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rajkumar Nallour Raveendran, Benjamin Thompson Source Type: research

Reduction of Social Anxiety Symptoms with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Case Report
We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gleiciano R.M. Sousa, Melyssa K.C. Galdino, Sergio Machado, Emily C.C. Vieira, Jeniffer F. Rufino Source Type: research

Off-Label Promotion of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Provider Websites
Since 2008, several transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices and protocols have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment-resistant depression, severe migraines, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and smoking cessation. A variety of TMS stimulation protocols targeting different brain regions are being studied for their potential to treat other psychiatric and neurological conditions. While device manufacturers cannot legally promote TMS for off-label indications, providers face no analogous restrictions [1]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anna Wexler, Ashwini Nagappan, Deena Kopyto, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Alvaro Pascual-Leone Source Type: research

Repetitive measurements prolong the after-effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on crowding
When a parafoveal or peripheral target is surrounded by neighboring flankers, it is much more difficult to identify that target than one in foveal vision; this phenomenon is called visual crowding, which is an essential bottleneck for object recognition [1]. Visual crowding is almost absent in healthy foveal vision [2], but it is a major difficulty for clinical populations, such as those with macular degeneration (MD, a leading cause of blindness). The majority of patients with MD, characterized by central vision loss [3], have to rely on parafoveal retinal loci to view objects in replace of the fovea [4]. (Source: BRAIN S...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Qing He, Shuoqiu Gan Source Type: research

A degraded state of consciousness in healthy awake humans?
The perturbational complexity index (PCI) measures the spatiotemporal dynamics of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked electroencephalography (EEG) potentials (TEPs)1. High PCI values reflect the joint presence of integration and differentiation in thalamocortical networks of conscious brains1. Low PCI values have been reported during natural non-rapid eye movement sleep, in disorders of consciousness, and during unresponsiveness caused by general anesthetics2,3. The PCI can reliably dissociate different states of unconsciousness in a graded fashion1,3. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinic...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: G. Darmani, J.O. Nieminen, T.O. Bergmann, H. Ramezanpour, U. Ziemann Source Type: research

Targeting Location Relates to Treatment Response in Active but not Sham rTMS Stimulation
Precise targeting of brain functional networks is believed critical for treatment efficacy of rTMS (repetitive pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation) in treatment resistant major depression. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: A.C. Rosen, J. Bhat, V.A. Cardenas, T.J. Ehrlich, A.M. Horwege, D.H. Mathalon, B.J. Roach, G.H. Glover, B.W. Badran, S.D. Forman, M.S. George, M.E. Thase, D. Yurgelun-Todd, M.E. Sughrue, S.P. Doyen, P.J. Nicholas, J.C. Scott, L. Tian, J.A. Yesavage Source Type: research

Randomized double-blind sham-controlled trial of thalamic versus GPi stimulation in patients with severe medically refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome
There are still no sufficient data regarding the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and no agreement on optimal target. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: K.R. M üller-Vahl, N. Szejko, A. Saryyeva, C. Schrader, D. Krueger, A. Horn, A.A. Kühn, J.K. Krauss Source Type: research

A single session of navigation-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right anterior temporoparietal junction in autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by altered social interactions and atypical interests [1, 2]. Although the neuropathology of ASD has been extensively studied, our understanding of this atypical neurodevelopment is still limited. In recent years, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) technology has been developed rapidly and used as an investigational and therapeutic tool in psychiatric research [2]. Along this line, the application of rTMS in ASD has been recently studied. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Junya Fujino, Shisei Tei, Takashi Itahashi, Yuta Y. Aoki, Haruhisa Ohta, Takuji Izuno, Hironobu Nakamura, Masaaki Shimizu, Ryu-ichiro Hashimoto, Hidehiko Takahashi, Nobumasa Kato, Motoaki Nakamura Source Type: research

Does pericentral mu-rhythm “power” corticomotor excitability? – a matter of EEG perspective
Electroencephalography (EEG) and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1-HAND) have been combined to explore whether the instantaneous expression of pericentral mu-rhythm drives fluctuations in corticomotor excitability, but this line of research has yielded diverging results. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anke Ninija Karabanov, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, L ærke Gebser Krohne, Hartwig Roman Siebner Source Type: research

Self-Adjustment of Deep Brain Stimulation Delays Optimization in Parkinson ’s disease
Parkinson ’s Disease patients undergo time-consuming programming to refine stimulation parameters after deep brain stimulation surgery. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lais M. Oliveira, Marta Ruiz Lopez, Alexandre Boutet, Gavin J.B. Elias, Suneil K. Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M. Lozano, Renato P. Munhoz, Alfonso Fasano Source Type: research

Electrophysiological signatures predict clinical outcomes after deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus in Meige syndrome
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative therapy for ameliorating medically refractory primary Meige syndrome. However, the associations between DBS target position and surrounding electrophysiological properties as well as patients' clinical outcomes remains largely unknown. In a large number of patients, we investigated electrophysiological features around stimulation targets and explored their roles in predicting clinical outcomes following bilateral GPi-DBS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hong Tian, Bo Zhang, Yanbing Yu, Xueke Zhen, Li Zhang, Yue Yuan, Liang Wang Source Type: research

Cutaneous Sensation of Electrical Stimulation Waveforms
Skin sensation is the primary factor limiting the intensity of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). It is well established that different waveforms generate different sensations, yet transcranial stimulation has been limited to a relatively small number of prototypical waveforms. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gavin Hsu, Forouzan Farahani, Lucas C. Parra Source Type: research

Motor and non-motor outcomes of subthalamic deep brain stimulation in a case of juvenile PARK-PINK1
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for advanced Parkinson Disease (PD). The widespread application of DBS and the advancement in research on PD genetics has raised interest in understanding whether a differential treatment response in PD patients might be influenced by underlying genetic mutations [1,2]. To date, the literature reports mostly on patients with frequent mutations. Although PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) is the second most common (2 –7% of cases) genetic mutation associated with early-onset PD, the outcome of DBS has only been described in two patients with homozygous PINK-1 ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - April 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Roberta Balestrino, Claudia Ledda, Alberto Romagnolo, Marco Bozzali, Giovanni Giulietti, Elisa Montanaro, Mario Rizzone, Maurizio Zibetti, Carlo Alberto Artusi, Leonardo Lopiano Source Type: research