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The intensity of continuous theta burst stimulation, but not the waveform used to elicit motor evoked potentials, influences its outcome in the human motor cortex
Responses to continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) applied to the human primary motor cortex are highly variable between individuals. However, little is known about how to improve the after-effects of cTBS by adjusting the protocol characteristics. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Takuya Sasaki, Satoshi Kodama, Naohiko Togashi, Yuichiro Shirota, Yusuke Sugiyama, Shin-ichi Tokushige, Satomi Inomata-Terada, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Masashi Hamada Source Type: research

Artifactual hyperpolarization during extracellular electrical stimulation: Proposed mechanism of high-rate neuromodulation disproved
Kilohertz-frequency electric field stimulation (kEFS) applied to the spinal cord can reduce chronic pain without causing the buzzing sensation (paresthesia) associated with activation of dorsal column fibers. This suggests that high-rate spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a mode of action distinct from conventional, parasthesia-based SCS. A recent study reported that kEFS hyperpolarizes spinal neurons, yet this potentially transformative mode of action contradicts previous evidence that kEFS induces depolarization and was based on patch clamp recordings whose accuracy in the presence of kEFS has not been verified. (Source: ...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: L. Stephen Lesperance, Milad Lankarany, Tianhe Zhang, Rosana Esteller, St éphanie Ratté, Steven A. Prescott Source Type: research

Incomplete evidence that increasing current intensity of tDCS boosts outcomes
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function by applying a fixed low-intensity direct current to scalp. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Paola Marangolo, Benjamin M. Hampstead, Sven Bestmann, Elisabeth Galletta, Helena Knotkova, Marom Bikson Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Information for Authors
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of brain shift on subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is an emerging experimental therapy for treatment-resistant depression. New developments in SCC DBS surgical targeting are focused on identifying specific axonal pathways for stimulation that are estimated from preoperatively collected diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data. However, brain shift induced by opening burr holes in the skull may alter the position of the target pathways. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - December 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ki Sueng Choi, Angela M. Noecker, Patricio Riva-Posse, Justin K. Rajendra, Robert E. Gross, Helen S. Mayberg, Cameron C. McIntyre Source Type: research

Motor cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) improves acute stroke visuo-spatial neglect: A series of four case reports
Visuospatial neglect remains a relatively misunderstood complication of stroke. Up to 72% of right hemispheric strokes present neglect symptoms, and up to 75% of those patients still suffer at the 3-month mark [1]. This leads to marked increases in dependency, and lower functional outcomes [2]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: S. Bornheim, P. Maquet, J.L. Croisier, J.M. Crielaard, J.F. Kaux Source Type: research

The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on eating behaviors and body weight in obesity: A randomized controlled study
Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song Source Type: research

TMS over posterior parietal cortex disrupts trans-saccadic visual stability
Saccadic eye movements change the retinal location of visual objects, but we do not experience the visual world as constantly moving, we perceive it as seamless and stable. This visual stability may be achieved by an internal or efference copy of each saccade that, combined with the retinal information, allows the visual system to cancel out or ignore the self-caused retinal motion. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Th érèse Collins, Pierre O. Jacquet Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy and subsequent epilepsy in patients with affective disorders: A register-based Danish cohort study
It has been suggested that Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) might increase the risk of epilepsy but the few patient studies with retrospective data from medical records do not support the hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ECT and subsequent incident epilepsy in patients with affective disorder. We also explored whether any association varied with number of ECTs and time since last treatment. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fie Krossdal B øg, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Merete Osler Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy and risk of epilepsy in patients with affective disorders: A register-based Danish cohort study
It has been suggested that Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) might increase the risk of epilepsy but the few patient studies with retrospective data from medical records do not support the hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ECT and subsequent incident epilepsy in patients with affective disorder. We also explored whether any association varied with number of ECTs and time since last treatment. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fie Krossdal B øg, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Zorana Andersen, Merete Osler Source Type: research

Chronic deep brain stimulation in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model enhances memory and reduces pathological hallmarks
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder that currently remains extremely disabling. Recent work has shown that deep brain stimulation (DBS) has promising effects in AD patients. In parallel to the clinical trials, we investigated the impact of chronic DBS in 3xTg mice, a well-established animal model of AD. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Amandeep Mann, Elise Gondard, Davide Tampellini, Jorge A.T. Milsted, Desiree Marillac, Clement Hamani, Suneil K. Kalia, Andres M. Lozano Source Type: research

Effects of cerebellar neuromodulation in movement disorders: A  systematic review
The cerebellum is involved in the pathophysiology of many movement disorders and its importance in the field of neuromodulation is growing. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Carina Fran ça, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Ricardo Galhardoni, Valquiria Silva, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Rubens Gisbert Cury Source Type: research

Real-time EEG-defined excitability states determine efficacy of TMS-induced plasticity in human motor cortex
Rapidly changing excitability states in an oscillating neuronal network can explain response variability to external stimulation, but if repetitive stimulation of always the same high- or low-excitability state results in long-term plasticity of opposite direction has never been explored in vivo. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Christoph Zrenner, Debora Desideri, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann Source Type: research

Discrimination of atypical parkinsonisms with transcranial magnetic stimulation
Differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders, i.e. dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) still remains problematic. Furthermore, DLB may overlap with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the early stages of disease. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alberto Benussi, Valentina Dell ’Era, Valentina Cantoni, Clarissa Ferrari, Salvatore Caratozzolo, Luca Rozzini, Antonella Alberici, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni Source Type: research

A pilot study of subthalamic theta frequency deep brain stimulation for cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease
Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that leads to reduced quality of life, and may be the predominant source of disability at long term follow-up [1]. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the dorsal motor region of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) often leads to cognitive worsening, particularly in verbal fluency and executive control domains [2]. Oscillatory activity at specific frequencies across brain circuits integrates information important for cognition [3]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Katherine W. Scangos, Cameron S. Carter, Gene Gurkoff, Lin Zhang, Kiarash Shahlaie Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prevents chronic stress-induced hyperalgesia in rats
This study aimed to verify the effect of tDCS performed prior to CS exposure on nociceptive response. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: F. Fregni, I.C. Macedo, L.N. Spezia-Adachi, V.L. Scarabelot, G. Laste, A. Souza, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, W. Caumo, I.L.S. Torres Source Type: research

The interaction of pulse width and current intensity on the extent of cortical plasticity evoked by vagus nerve stimulation
Repeatedly pairing a tone with a brief burst of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) results in a reorganization of primary auditory cortex (A1). The plasticity-enhancing and memory-enhancing effects of VNS follow an inverted-U response to stimulation intensity, in which moderate intensity currents yield greater effects than low or high intensity currents. It is not known how other stimulation parameters effect the plasticity-enhancing effects of VNS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kristofer W. Loerwald, Michael S. Borland, Robert L. Rennaker, Seth A. Hays, Michael P. Kilgard Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation induces antidepressant-like effects in serotonin transporter knockout mice
Some of the antidepressant-like effects of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in rodents have been attributed to the modulation of prefrontal-raphe pathways. This is largely different from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase serotonin (5-HT) levels by inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT). SSRIs have limited efficacy when given to SERT knockout (KO) mice, or patients with mutations in the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatiana Bregman, Christina Nona, Julien Volle, Mustansir Diwan, Roger Raymond, Paul J. Fletcher, Jos é N. Nobrega, Clement Hamani Source Type: research

Differential release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens evoked by low-versus high-frequency medial prefrontal cortex stimulation
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coordinates goal-directed behaviors, which may be mediated through mPFC regulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, frequency-specific oscillatory activity between the frontal cortex and downstream structures may facilitate inter-region communication. Although high-frequency (e.g., 60  Hz) mPFC stimulation is known to increase basal dopamine levels in the NAc, little is known about how phasic dopamine release is affected by mPFC stimulation. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Daniel F. Hill, Kate L. Parent, Christopher W. Atcherley, Stephen L. Cowen, Michael L. Heien Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) paired with a decision-making task reduces risk-taking in a clinically impulsive sample
Impulsivity is a multidimensional personality trait observed across a variety of psychiatric disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has shown promise as an intervention to reduce impulsivity. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Casey S. Gilmore, Patricia J. Dickmann, Brent G. Nelson, Greg J. Lamberty, Kelvin O. Lim Source Type: research

Progressive practice promotes motor learning and repeated transient increases in corticospinal excitability across multiple days
A session of motor skill learning is accompanied by transient increases in corticospinal excitability(CSE), which are thought to reflect acute changes in neuronal connectivity associated with improvements in sensorimotor performance. Factors influencing changes in excitability and motor skill with continued practice remain however to be elucidated. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: L. Christiansen, M.J. Madsen, E. Bojsen-M øller, R. Thomas, J.B. Nielsen, J. Lundbye-Jensen Source Type: research

Global structural integrity and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness
Previous studies have separately reported impaired functional, structural, and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The perturbational complexity index (PCI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) derived marker of effective connectivity. The global fractional anisotropy (FA) is a marker of structural integrity. Little is known about how these parameters are related to each other. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Olivier Bodart, Enrico Amico, Francisco Gomez, Adenauer G. Casali, Sarah Wannez, Lizette Heine, Aurore Thibaut, Jitka Annen, Melanie Boly, Silvia Casarotto, Mario Rosanova, Marcello Massimini, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries Source Type: research

Simultaneous rTMS and psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: Clinical outcomes and predictors from a large naturalistic study
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered an efficacious non-invasive neuromodulation treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the clinical outcome of combined rTMS and psychotherapy (rTMS  + PT). Through common neurobiological brain mechanisms, rTMS + PT may exert enhanced antidepressant effects compared to the respective monotherapies. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lana Donse, Frank Padberg, Alexander T. Sack, A. John Rush, Martijn Arns Source Type: research

Report of seizure induced by 10 Hz rTMS over M1
We report the following TMS-related seizure. The subject was a 25 year-old woman with no declared disease who was participating in a TMS experiment. The subject did not have TMS-related risk factors, such as prior closed head injury, loss of consciousness, history of seizures or febrile seizures and family history of epilepsy. On the day of the event, the subject was well rested (i.e. she slept 8 hours during the night) and had not consumed high doses of caffeine or nicotine. However, she occulted drug use, considered an additional risk factor. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Valentina Bruno, Carlotta Fossataro, Francesca Garbarini Source Type: research

Vagus nerve magnetic modulation facilitates dysphagia recovery in patients with stroke involving the brainstem - A proof of concept study
Stroke involving the brainstem (SBS) causes severe oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). Research on the therapeutic efficacy of vagus nerve modulation (VNM) by using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in SBS patients with OD has been limited thus far. We aimed to assess the effect of VNM by using rTMS in improving swallowing function after SBS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang-Sheng Lin, Chen-Liang Chou, Miao-Hsiang Chang, Yuh-Mei Chung, Fu-Gong Lin, Po-Yi Tsai Source Type: research

tDCS changes in motor excitability are specific to orientation of current flow
Measurements and models of current flow in the brain during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) indicate stimulation of regions in-between electrodes. Moreover, the folded cortex results in local fluctuations in current flow intensity and direction, and animal studies suggest current flow direction relative to cortical columns determines response to tDCS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vishal Rawiji, Matteo Ciocca, Andr é Zacharia, David Soares, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson, John Rothwell, Sven Bestmann Source Type: research

Number of pulses or number of sessions? An open-label study of trajectories of improvement for once-vs. twice-daily dorsomedial prefrontal rTMS in major depression
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) shows efficacy in the treatment of major depressive episodes (MDEs), but can require ≥4–6 weeks for maximal effect. Recent studies suggest that multiple daily sessions of rTMS can accelerate response without reducing therapeutic efficacy. However, it is unresolved whether therapeutic effects track cumulative number of pulses, or cumulative number of sessions. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Schulze, Kfir Feffer, Christopher Lozano, Peter Giacobbe, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Daniel M. Blumberger, Jonathan Downar Source Type: research

Accelerated HF-rTMS in the elderly depressed: A feasibility study
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent in the elderly: about 14% is diagnosed with a depressive disorder, of which at least 2% meet the criteria of MDD [1]. As the average population gets gradually older, late-life depression is becoming more and more a significant health problem. In addition, MDD in the elderly is associated with important morbidity and early mortality [1]. In a global population, an estimated one on three patients with MDD fails to achieve a clinical response to psychotherapy and/or at least one anti-depressant [2]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alexandre Dardenne, Chris Baeken, Cleo L. Crunelle, Chris Bervoets, Frieda Matthys, Sarah C. Herremans Source Type: research

Simultaneous aerobic exercise and rTMS: Feasibility of combining therapeutic modalities to treat depression
Aerobic exercise (AEx) is the most commonly studied mode of exercise for the treatment of depression [1]. AEx has been implemented as a standalone approach as well as an adjunctive treatment concomitant with pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments [2 –5]. AEx is effective in reducing depressive symptoms whether employed singularly or with other anti-depressant treatments. The safety and efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treatment of depression is also well documented [6,7]. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryan E. Ross, Catherine J. VanDerwerker, Jennifer H. Newton, Mark S. George, E. Baron Short, Gregory L. Sahlem, A.J. Manett, James B. Fox, Chris M. Gregory Source Type: research

Safety of repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation: A systematic review
Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are increasingly used for therapeutic applications. However, adverse events (AEs) associated with repeated sessions have not been comprehensively evaluated. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Stevan Nikolin, Christina Huggins, Donel Martin, Angelo Alonzo, Colleen K. Loo Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Information for Authors
(Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Responders to rTMS for depression show increased fronto-midline theta and theta connectivity compared to non-responders
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for depression, but only some individuals respond. Predicting response could reduce patient and clinical burden. Neural activity related to working memory (WM) has been related to mood improvements, so may represent a biomarker for response prediction. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: N.W. Bailey, K.E. Hoy, N.C. Rogasch, R.H. Thomson, S. McQueen, D. Elliot, C.M. Sullivan, B.D. Fulcher, Z.J. Daskalakis, P.B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Sensory percepts induced by microwire array and DBS microstimulation in human sensory thalamus
Microstimulation in human sensory thalamus (ventrocaudal, VC) results in focal sensory percepts in the hand and arm which may provide an alternative target site (to somatosensory cortex) for the input of prosthetic sensory information. Sensory feedback to facilitate motor function may require simultaneous or timed responses across separate digits to recreate perceptions of slip as well as encoding of intensity variations in pressure or touch. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Brandon D. Swan, Lynne B. Gasperson, Max O. Krucoff, Warren M. Grill, Dennis A. Turner Source Type: research

Stochastic resonance in the human vestibular system – Noise-induced facilitation of vestibulospinal reflexes
There is strong evidence that the presence of noise can enhance information processing in sensory systems via stochastic resonance (SR). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: M. Wuehr, J.C. Boerner, C. Pradhan, J. Decker, K. Jahn, T. Brandt, R. Schniepp Source Type: research

Transcranial magnetic stimulation modulation of corticospinal excitability by targeting cortical I-waves with biphasic paired-pulses
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced I-wave behavior can be demonstrated at neuronal population level using paired-pulses and by observing short-interval cortical facilitation (SICF). Advancements in stimulator technology have made it possible to apply biphasic paired-pulses to induce SICF. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Elisa Kallioniemi, Petri Savolainen, Gustaf J ärnefelt, Päivi Koskenkorva, Jari Karhu, Petro Julkunen Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy for depression with comorbid borderline personality disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder: A case-control study
Little is known about the impact of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on clinical and cognitive outcomes of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tyler S. Kaster, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Benoit H. Mulsant, Daniel M. Blumberger Source Type: research

Early symptom improvement at 10 sessions as a predictor of rTMS treatment outcome in major depression
Predicting rTMS nonresponse could be helpful in sparing patients from futile treatment, and in improving use of limited rTMS resources. While several predictive biomarkers have been proposed, few are accurate for individual-level prediction; none have entered routine use. An alternative approach in pharmacotherapy predicts outcome from early response; patients showing minimal (e.g., ≤20%) improvement at 2 weeks can be predicted as nonresponders with negative predictive values (NPV) > 80–90%. This approach has recently been extended to ECT, but never before to rTMS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, T...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kfir Feffer, Hyewon Helen Lee, Farrokh Mansouri, Peter Giacobbe, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Sidney H. Kennedy, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Daniel M. Blumberger, Jonathan Downar Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy, depression, the immune system and inflammation: A systematic review
The management and treatment of major depressive disorder are major public health challenges, the lifetime prevalence of this illness being 4.4% –20% in the general population. Major depressive disorder and treatment resistant depression appear to be, in part, related to a dysfunction of the immune response. Among the treatments for depression ECT occupies an important place. The underlying cerebral mechanisms of ECT remain unclear. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Antoine Yrondi, Marie Sporer, Patrice P éran, Laurent Schmitt, Christophe Arbus, Anne Sauvaget Source Type: research

Effect of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation on center of pressure sway of static standing posture
The vestibular system is involved in the control of standing balance. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a noninvasive technique that can stimulate the vestibular system. In recent years, noisy GVS (nGVS) using noise current stimulation has been attempted, but it has not been clarified whether it affects postural sway in open-eye standing. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yasuto Inukai, Naofumi Otsuru, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Kei Saito, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Hideaki Onishi Source Type: research

Optimized auditory transcranial alternating current stimulation improves individual auditory temporal resolution
Temporal resolution of cortical, auditory processing mechanisms is suggested to be linked to peak frequency of neuronal gamma oscillations in auditory cortex areas (individual gamma frequency, IGF): Individuals with higher IGF tend to have better temporal resolution. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Alina Baltus, Sven Wagner, Carsten Hermann Wolters, Christoph Siegfried Herrmann Source Type: research

International randomized-controlled trial of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in depression
Evidence suggests that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant effects in unipolar depression, but there is limited information for patients with bipolar depression. Additionally, prior research suggests that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype may moderate response to tDCS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Colleen K. Loo, Mustafa M. Husain, William M. McDonald, Scott Aaronson, John P. O'Reardon, Angelo Alonzo, Cyndi S. Weickert, Donel M. Martin, Shawn M. McClintock, Adith Mohan, Sarah H. Lisanby, International Consortium of Research in tDCS (ICRT) Source Type: research

Limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (LOTES-2017): Engineering principles, regulatory statutes, and industry standards for wellness, over-the-counter, or prescription devices with low risk
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Marom Bikson, Devin Adair, Bhaskar Paneri, Abhishek Datta, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J. Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J. Tyler Source Type: research

The effects of medication use in transcranial direct current stimulation: A brief review
There has been increased interest in the potential use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as treatment for multiple conditions including depression, pain, and cognitive impairment. However, few studies account for the possible influence of comorbid medications when conducting tDCS research. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Molly E. McLaren, Nicole R. Nissim, Adam J. Woods Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for stroke: Current uses and future directions
Survivors of stroke often experience significant disability and impaired quality of life related to ongoing maladaptive responses and persistent neurologic deficits. Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to augment current approaches. One way to promote recovery and ameliorate symptoms may be to electrically stimulate the surviving brain. Various forms of brain stimulation have been investigated for use in stroke, including deep brain stimulation (DBS). (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - October 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gavin J.B. Elias, Andrew A. Namasivayam, Andres M. Lozano Source Type: research