Radiation Toxicity in the Central Nervous System: Mechanisms and Strategies for Injury Reduction

The potential for radiation-induced toxicities in the brain produces significant anxiety, both among patients receiving radiation therapy and those radiation oncologists providing treatment. These concerns often play a significant role in the medical decision-making process for most patients with diseases in which radiotherapy may be a treatment consideration. Although the precise mechanisms of neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration after ionizing radiation exposure continue to be poorly understood from a biological perspective, there is an increasing body of scientific and clinical literature that is producing a better understanding of how radiation causes brain injury; factors that determine whether toxicities occur; and potential preventative, treatment, and mitigation strategies for patients at high risk or with symptoms of injury.
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

The logistical burdens of appointment scheduling and travel add to the psychological and emotional distress among patients with a new cancer diagnosis. This may be heightened among patients needing radiation therapy (RT), who must travel to and from a treatment facility daily for several weeks. Here, we studied the association between RT appointment waiting time and patient-reported pain and anxiety and explored additional factors that may influence daily waiting time.
Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsUse of Decipher postradical prostatectomy test was associated with postoperative treatment decisions. Overall, high Decipher risk was associated with an increase in treatment intensity whereas low risk scores were associated with a decrease in therapy administered independent of clinical and pathologic risk factors.
Source: Practical Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
To ensure precision of treatment, patients requiring radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) are stabilized using a fitted thermoplastic immobilization mask. Despite evidence that many patients experience significant anxiety when restrained in the mask, there is a lack of proven interventions to prevent or manage mask-related anxiety. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services implementation framework promotes consideration of context and culture when developing interventions to ensure successful implementation if proven effective.
Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
This study investigates whether Kyung-Ok-Ko can alleviate CRF in lung cancer patients. The results of this study will provide clinical evidence for the application of Kyung-Ok-Ko in the treatment of CRF in lung cancer patients. Trial registration: Korean Clinical Trial Registry (http://cris.nih.go.kr; registration number: KCT000666). Trial status: Currently, participant recruitment is ongoing.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Study Protocol Clinical Trial Source Type: research
t S Abstract Prenatal brain development is a complex and sensitive process, highly susceptible to environmental influences such as pollutants, stress, malnutrition, drugs, tobacco exposure, or ionizing radiation (IR). Disturbances in development may cause life-long disabilities and diseases, such as ADHD, childhood cancers, cognitive problems, depression, anxiety and more severe developmental disabilities. Due to increasing medical imaging, radiation therapy, natural terrestrial radiation, radioactive pollution and long-distance flights, humans are increasingly exposed to IR. However, data on impact of IR on very ...
Source: Archives of Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Arch Toxicol Source Type: research
Conditions:   Anxiety;   Stress;   Satisfaction, Patient;   Preparedness;   Informational Needs Interventions:   Other: Video Education;   Other: VR-based Education Sponsors:   Medical College of Wisconsin;   Marquette University;   Froedtert Hospital Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety significantly influences the number of revisions after autologous breast reconstruction. Further research is necessary to better understand the interplay among mental health, patient preference, and outcomes in breast reconstruction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Breast: Original Articles Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and fidelity of a psychoeducational intervention to improve family caregiver technical and communication skills using structured simulations. SAMPLE & SETTING: 18 family caregivers of adult patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer at University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center in Cleveland, Ohio. METHODS & VARIABLES: A two-group, randomized pilot trial design was used. The intervention consisted of four one-on-one sessions between the caregiver and nurse interventionist during the patient's first, second,...
Source: Oncology Nursing Forum - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Oncol Nurs Forum Source Type: research
This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant RT. METHODS: Patients with non-metastatic breast cancer receiving RT at the Odette Cancer Centre from 2011 to 2017 were included in our study if they completed at least one ESAS pre- and post-RT. Information regarding patient, disease and treatment characteristics was retrieved from chart review. To identify variables associated with fatigue scores pre-RT, post-RT and changes in fatigue scores, a univariate and multivariate general linear regression analysis was conducted; p 
Source: Breast - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Breast Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Educators should be aware of students' educational obstacles, including the influence of nonacademic stressors, and advocate for resources to improve student emotional well-being. Helping students maintain high levels of emotional health is beneficial for their education. Future research on the development and effectiveness of stress management interventions among radiologic science students is warranted. PMID: 31088946 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Radiologic Technology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiol Technol Source Type: research
More News: Anxiety | Brain | Cancer & Oncology | Neurology | Neuroscience | Radiation Therapy | Toxicology