Sources of relative clause processing difficulty: Evidence from Russian
This study investigates the sources of processing difficulty in complex sentences involving relative clauses (RCs). Self-paced reading and eye tracking were used to test the comprehension of Russian subject- and object-extracted RCs (SRCs and ORCs) that had the same word-order configuration, but different noun phrase (NP) types (full NPs vs. pronouns) in the embedded clause. In both SRCs and ORCs, this NP intervened between the modified noun and the RC verb. A corpus analysis and acceptability rating experiment indicated different frequency/preference profiles for this word order depending on RC type and embedded NP type. In line with these profiles, processing difficulty was revealed early in the embedded clause for less frequent/dispreferred constructions. Later in the embedded clause, the processing of the RC verb was comparable for both SRCs and ORCs when the same number of NP arguments was available for integration. While there were no indications of an ORC penalty at or after this verb, late-stage comprehension difficulty was found for full-NP ORCs, but not for their pronominal counterparts, suggesting that similarity-based interference in combination with ORC structure influences the overall comprehension of these sentences. Taken together, these findings support a hybrid model under which independent sources of processing difficulty affect different stages of RC comprehension.
Altered levels and function of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons that coexpress the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) are consistently found in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review, Fee et al. (pages 549--559) highlight evidence linking SST cell deficits to cortical inhibitory deficits underlying emotion and cognitive disruptions in MDD, f ocusing on recent insights into SST cell roles in cortical microcircuits. They then discuss the putative origins of SST cell deficits and implications for targeting this cellular pathology in the development of antidepressant therapies.
Pain insists upon being attended to. God whispers to us in our pleasures, speaks in our consciences, but shouts in our pains. It is his megaphone to rouse a deaf world.
Allostasis (1), a stress-related dysfunction of the brain –body connection that is closely related to interoception (i.e., processing and integrating body-relevant signals together with external stimuli to affect motivated behavior) (2,3), plays a major role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders (4,5). However, our understanding of the com putational processes associated with the disruption of the brain–body connection is still developing (6). Thus, examining how stress affects the computational processes underlying functional and dysfunctional adaptation is important for bringing allostasis into...
Trauma- and stressor-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cost billions of dollars in health care every year. Symptoms of these disorders vary dramatically among individuals, and many individuals that experience a traumatic event never develop PTSD (1). This suggests that individuals vary in their fear responses and propensity to develop PTSD. Despite this evidence, most research into the neurobiology of fear and the underlying mechanisms of PTSD combines individuals into group averages to improve analytical power.
Major depressive disorder involves aberrant affective processing, the normalization of which has been associated with treatment in both pharmacological and cognitive behavioral interventions (1,2). In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Young et al. (3) present data suggesting that the normalization of affective processing via a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback intervention may be the mechanism underlying treatment response. A randomized trial of neurofeedback training patients with major depressive disorder to upregulate their amygdala activity during positive autobiographical memory r...
Slightly more than 10% of pregnant women experience a major depressive episode (MDE) in pregnancy and slightly less than 10% of women have a MDE in the year postdelivery (1,2). Many women do not receive treatment because of concerns about the safety of antidepressant medication in pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Others find behavioral approaches too costly or time-consuming and do not access these treatments. Thus, understanding the biology and factors that can trigger an MDE or sustain it among vulnerable women may help women avoid or manage the condition.