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Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia

AbstractDisorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: rTMS is helpful for acute and maintenance treatment for catatonic schizophrenia who both failed multiple pharmacologic interventions and had safety concerns with continuing maintenance ECT. Clinicians should consider rTMS as a potential treatment option for refractory catatonia. PMID: 29241672 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: L Encephale - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Encephale Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In 8.4% of cases, VAP was the leading cause of death in our study. This indicates that the patients died more frequently with VAP rather than because of it. PMID: 29239151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Deferring decisions to family members is common in Chinese families. The emphasis on autonomy in Western health care may need to be reconsidered in the treatment of Chinese consumers. Chinese families have a strong influence on treatment decisions, and providers must respect this style and remain nonjudgmental when dealing with situations or decisions that may be contradictory to their own culture and values. PMID: 29241439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychiatric Services - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Serv Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The present study showed overlapping anatomic and functional brain abnormalities mainly in the default mode (DMN) and auditory networks (AN) in drug-free patients with schizophrenia. However, the pattern of changes differed in these networks. Decreased grey matter was associated with decreased activation within the DMN, whereas it was associated with increased activation within the AN. These discrete patterns suggest different pathophysiological changes impacting structural and functional associations within different neural networks in patients with schizophrenia. PMID: 29244020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Psychiatry Neurosci Source Type: research
Abstract Schizophrenia is a debilitating disease that affects approximately 1% of the population. Negative symptoms are among the major determinants of the functional impairment and a significant proportion of patients with negative symptoms will continue to experience these symptoms despite antipsychotic medications. There are promising results in the application of brain stimulation, particularly transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for the reduction of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, findings are still controversial. This is a selective review of the literature published between 2011 and...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our data in HC are in line with the hypothesis that N2 amplitude reflects the impact of motivational salience on cognitive control. Our results in SCZ indicate a deficit in the discrimination of motivational salience to the service of cognitive control, independently of psychopathology and other cognitive deficits. PMID: 29243531 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
Abstract The avolition/apathy domain of negative symptoms includes motivation- and pleasure-related impairments. In people with schizophrenia, structural and functional abnormalities were reported in key regions within the motivational reward system, including ventral-tegmental area (VTA), striatum (especially at the level of the nucleus accumbens, NAcc), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as amygdala (Amy) and insular cortex (IC). However, the association of the reported abnormalities with avoliton-apathy is still controversial. In the present study, we investigated white matter connectivity patterns within thes...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
sen J Abstract Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and disease outcome. It is therefore important to investigate the pathophysiology underlying negative symptoms as this may aid the development of better treatment. In the current article, examples from studies investigating neural correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia are given. Investigations using both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging are presented at different levels of symptomatology descriptions, from the more heterogenous construct of negative symptoms to more single discrete sy...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
edil;ok A Abstract Negative symptoms are defined as loss or reduction of otherwise present behaviors or functions in illness situation, and they have constituted an important aspect of schizophrenia. Although negative symptoms have usually been considered as a single entity, neurobiological investigations yielded discrepant results. To overcome challenges that derive from this discrepancy, researchers have proposed several approaches to structure negative symptoms into more homogenous constructs. Concept of persistent negative symptoms (PNS) is one of the proposed approaches, and includes both primary and secondar...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
Has cabin fever struck you yet this winter? Find out ways to beat it, plus the latest on a new scientist-created version of oxytocin, how orange light therapy might help mental illness symptoms, why global teamwork might be helpful for psychological studies, and more in this week’s Psychology Around the Net! How to Beat Cabin Fever When You’re Stuck Inside This Winter: Try a couple — or all — of these ideas for combating cabin fever (or, in some of our cases, the funk that comes along with shorter days and less sunshine). Can Teamwork Solve One Of Psychology’s Biggest Problems? Psychologist ...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: ADHD and ADD Anxiety and Panic Bipolar Health-related Medications Psychology Around the Net Research Schizophrenia Technology amphetamines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder cabin fever Christopher Chartier Light therapy Source Type: blogs
More News: Dyskinesia | Dystonia | Pneumonia | Schizophrenia | Speech-Language Pathology | Xerostomia