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Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia

AbstractDisorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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If it disagrees with experiment it is wrong. In that simple statement is the key to science. It does not make any difference how beautiful your guess is. It does not make any difference how smart you are, who made the guess, or what his name is – if it disagrees with experiment it is wrong. That is all there is to it.—Richard Feynman (1)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Hartz et  al. (1) report evidence for common genetic origins of schizophrenia and addiction using a relatively new method, the polygenic risk score (PRS). Genome-wide association (GWA) has implicated many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes in psychiatric disease, but identified few functional loci, with notable exceptions, such as the CHRNA5 Asn398Asp locus in smoking, nearly simultaneously implicated by pathway analysis (2). Discovery of circuits, cells, and molecules integral to psychiatric diseases has been accomplished largely without the aid of GWA.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Conclusion: The survivors were relatively young and discharged with good functional status (i.e., enhancing quality-adjusted life-years-saved). Our experience shows that even a relatively new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation program can play an important role in that capacity and provide excellent outcomes for the sickest patients.
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
Conclusion: The quantitative technique was more effective than the qualitative technique for the detection of biofilm production. For the bacterial population analyzed, biofilm production was independent of the susceptibility profile of the bacteria, demonstrating that the therapeutic failure could be related to biofilm production, as it prevented the destruction of the bacteria present in this structure, causing complications of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation, including extrapulmonary infections, and making it difficult to treat the infection.
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial agents of VAT in ICUs in Hamedan, Iran. METHODS: During a 12-month period, all patients with VAT in a medical and a surgical ICU were included. The criteria for the diagnosis of VAT were fever, mucus production, a positive culture of tracheal secretions, and the absence of lung infiltration. Clinical course, including changes in temperature and tracheal secretions, and outcomes were followed. The endotracheal aspirates were cultured on blood agar and chocolate agar, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of i...
Source: Oman Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Oman Med J Source Type: research
Previous research on moral judgement in healthy adults suggests a complex interplay of automatic, emotional and deliberative processing. We aimed to advance understanding of these processes by examining moral judgement in individuals with schizophrenia, a ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Risk Factor Prevalence, Injury Occurrence Source Type: news
This article aims to examine the effect of writing when used as self-medication in psychosis and particularly in schizophrenia. It is based on the work of Antonin Artaud, who engaged in writing to reduce his physical and psychological dissociation and intr...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Risk Factor Prevalence, Injury Occurrence Source Type: news
Compared with those admitted for other medical conditions, patients admitted for epilepsy show increases in subsequent schizophrenia readmissions, a new study suggests.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news
Jaks Cotten, 28, from Plymouth, has suffered breathing difficulties, bouts of pneumonia, flu, anxiety, depression, aches, and fatigue in the past 13 years. It has cost her nine jobs.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Gustinetti G, Cangemi G, Bandettini R, Castagnola E Abstract In the last years, there has been a tremendous increase in the incidence of bacterial infections due to resistant strains, especially multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In Europe, a north to south and a west to east gradient was noticed, with more than one third of the K. pneumonia isolates being resistant to carbapenems in few countries. New antibiotics are lacking and, as a consequence, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, normalized to pathogen minimal inhibitory concentration, are used with increased frequency to treat infecti...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research
More News: Dyskinesia | Dystonia | Pneumonia | Schizophrenia | Speech-Language Pathology | Xerostomia