Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia

AbstractDisorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: Neuroscience ResearchAuthor(s): Chisato Wakabayashi, Hiroshi KunugiAbstractIncreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in schizophrenia; however, their pathophysiological roles in abnormal brain dysfunctions remain unclear. We evaluated the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in the acoustic startle response. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a HFD for 3 weeks and then PPI was examined. HFD significantly induced PPI deficits and increased plasma IL-6, but not ...
Source: Neuroscience Research - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: These results replicated the BADE in a small French-speaking schizophrenic sample. The absence of a significant correlation between the BADE and the positive symptoms and measures of delusion was discussed with regard to both the small size of the sample and the explicative status of this bias. PMID: 30314674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: L Encephale - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Encephale Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Peter Moseley, Kaja J. Mitrenga, Amanda Ellison, Charles FernyhoughAbstractSource monitoring, or the ability to recall the origin of information, is a crucial aspect of remembering past experience. One facet of this, reality monitoring, refers to the ability to distinguish between internally generated and externally generated information, biases in which have previously been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that medial prefrontal and superior temporal (STG) regions may play a r...
Source: Neuropsychologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Jose Danilo B. Diestro, Mark Angelo C. Ang, Mark Willy L. Mondia, Paul Matthew D. Pasco
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractIntroductionAcute movement disorders (MD) are etiologically heterogeneous entities. Since studies on the relative frequency of different MD and their underlying diseases are limited, we performed a prospective study to investigate the spectrum of various MD and their causes in patients presenting with acute MD in an emergency room (ER) setting.ObjectiveTo describe the spectrum and outcomes of acute MD in a prospective cohort and to guide its management.MethodsWe investigated acute MD in 96 consecutive patients admitted to ERs between 2013 and 2017. Time of disease onset, type of MD according to published criteria, ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsImipenem/relebactam could provide an important treatment option against infections with P. aeruginosa isolates that are non-susceptible to several currently available antipseudomonal β-lactams.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
(Natural News) One of the scariest health problems that the world is facing today is the explosion of antibiotic-resistant superbugs like methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA. These bacteria can cause infections, pneumonia, and other problems. When left unchecked – which is often the case because it’s notoriously difficult to treat – it can lead to...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
ConclusionsA thorough understanding of the mechanisms involved in salivary gland is necessary in order to design effective therapies for regeneration of damaged salivary glands.
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This is an excellent result and is comparable to the only randomised control trial, with adult services, in the Australian context, which found a 42.5% employment rate possible under IPS compared with just 23.5% with referral to external employment services. SIGNIFICANCE: More extensive trialling of IPS across clinical services is required, in Australia and internationally, including fidelity protocols, for knowledge translation to be achieved. PMID: 30301392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy - Category: Occupational Health Tags: Scand J Occup Ther Source Type: research
This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN49141214, and the EU Clinical Trials register (EudraCT) number is 2010-022463-35I.FindingsBetween April 16, 2013, and April 30, 2015, we recruited 207 people and randomly assigned them to receive minocycline (n=104) or placebo (n=103). Compared with placebo, the addition of minocycline had no effect on ratings of negative symptoms (treatment effect difference −0·19, 95% CI −1·23 to 0·85; p=0·73). The primary biomarker outcomes did not change over time and were not affected by minocycline. ...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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