Mono-Causal and Multi-Causal Theories of Disease: How to Think Virally and Socially about the Aetiology of AIDS

AbstractIn this paper, I utilise the tools of analytic philosophy to amalgamate mono-causal and multi-causal theories of disease. My aim is to better integrate viral and socio-economic explanations of AIDS in particular, and to consider how the perceived divide between mono-causal and multi-causal theories played a role in the tragedy of AIDS denialism in South Africa in the early 2000s. Currently, there is conceptual ambiguity surrounding the relationship between mono-causal and multi-causal theories in biomedicine and epidemiology. Mono-causal theories focus on single, typically microbial, sources of illness and are most concerned with infectious diseases. By contrast, multi-causal theories allow for multiple factors to underpin a disease ’s aetiology, including socio-economic and behavioural factors, and they usually focus on chronic non-communicable diseases. However, if these theories are taken to be strictly distinct, this prevents the inclusion of both microbial and socio-economic factors in a single explanation of any particu lar disease. This strict distinction became a problem when trying to explain the disproportionate prevalence of AIDS in southern Africa and ultimately contributed to the tragedy of AIDS denialism in South Africa. In tandem with viewing how the perceived divide between multi-causal and mono-causal th eories underpinned AIDS denialism, I examine Thabo Mbeki’s specific role, while acknowledging that AIDS is being deprioritised on a broad...
Source: Journal of Medical Humanities - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). With increasing awareness of AIDS emerging as a global public health threat, different HIV testing kits have been developed to detect antibodies (Ab) directed toward different parts of HIV. A great limitation of these tests is that they can not detect HIV antibodies during early virus infection. Therefore, to overcome this challenge, a wide range of biosensors have been developed for early diagnosis of HIV infection. A significant amount of these studies have been focused on the application of nanom...
Source: Talanta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Talanta Source Type: research
Conclusions: While adolescents and young people living with HIV are living longer and ageing into adulthood, if current trends continue, the number of new HIV infections is not projected to decline fast enough to end AIDS as a health threat in this age group. Regional variations suggest that while progress in Eastern and Southern Africa could reduce the size of the epidemic by 2050, other regions exhibit slower rates of decline among adolescents and young people. PMID: 31510887 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Global Health Action - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Glob Health Action Source Type: research
We describe demographic, socioeconomic and clinical characteristics of patients randomized to the same-day initiation arm for both studies. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 240 and 296 participants were enrolled in Kenya and South Africa. The majority were female (59% and 64% respectively), with a median age of 35 years. In both countries, most subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV on the day of enrolment (62%, 55%), believed they already had adequate knowledge to begin ART (78%, 68%), and preferred to start ART immediately (same-day) (98% in both countries). About 40% of all patients had at least one symptom r...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Providing sample transport services to the most remote clinics in low- and middle-income countries is likely to be cost-prohibitive. Other strategies are needed to reduce the cost and increase the feasibility of making viral load monitoring available to the last 10% of patients. The cost of alternative methods, such as optimal point-of-care viral load equipment placement and usage, dried blood/plasma spot specimen utilization, or use of drones in geographically remote facilities, should be evaluated. PMID: 31515967 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
A negative status following confirmatory Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) is the desired pediatric outcome of prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs. EID impacts epidemic control by confirming...
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: NeuroImage, Volume 202Author(s): Xiangbin Teng, Gregory B. Cogan, David PoeppelAbstractSegmenting the continuous speech stream into units for further perceptual and linguistic analyses is fundamental to speech recognition. The speech amplitude envelope (SE) has long been considered a fundamental temporal cue for segmenting speech. Does the temporal fine structure (TFS), a significant part of speech signals often considered to contain primarily spectral information, contribute to speech segmentation? Using magnetoencephalography, we show that the TFS entrains cortical responses betw...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Manufacturers are stepping up efforts to integrate hearing assistive technology with smart phones and Bluetooth technology, according to a recent article from NextAvenue—a PBS media outlet for older adults. The article describes apps that work directly with hearing aids from Audibel, NuEar, Oticon, Phonak, Starkey, and others. The apps allow users to stream sound directly to their hearing aids, translate calls into text, and sync with smart home systems. Others automatically turn off the lights when you turn off your hearing aid at night, alert you when someone rings the doorbell, or use your phone as a microphone to...
Source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Press Releases - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: Academia & Research Audiology Health Care News Private Practice Schools Slider Hearing Assistive Technology hearing loss Source Type: blogs
Chinese researchers used the tool to give a patient blood cells that were altered to resist the AIDS-causing virus, the Associated Press reported.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
R, Kramer M Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope, via a key extracellular amino acid sequence, may simulate the functionality of native undecapeptide substance P (SP) acting through the host's neurokinin 1 (SP preferring) receptor (NK-1R). Human monocytes and macrophages express both NK-1Rs and SP. In HIV/AIDS the NK-1R may function as a chemokine-like G-protein coupled co-receptor that: 1) fuses to the outer envelope of HIV; 2) enables intracellular entry of the envelope-capsid-NK-1R complex; 3) co-opts immune defence via its physiological interaction with the SP-like envelope; 4) may con...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
By The Editorial Team, IntraHealth InternationalSeptember 13, 2019Over the course of our 40-year history, IntraHealth International has consistently designed creative solutions to health workforce challenges. From new technologies to old-fashioned human storytelling, we find new solutions to longstanding problems.  In a new technical publication, we highlight seven examples of how and why we look for new ways to get results. Here’s a sneak peak of what’s inside The Future of Global Health Starts Here: 7 Creative Approaches to Health Workforce Challenges. Funding the Nex...
Source: IntraHealth International - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Family Planning & Reproductive Health HIV AIDS Noncommunicable Diseases Digital Health Education Performance Policy Advocacy Health Workforce Systems Health Workers Source Type: news
More News: African Health | Epidemiology | HIV AIDS | Infectious Diseases | Medical Ethics