How do we recognize the child with OSAS?

Summary Obstructive sleep‐disordered breathing includes a spectrum of clinical entities with variable severity ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The clinical suspicion for OSAS is most often raised by parental report of specific symptoms and/or abnormalities identified by the physical examination which predispose to upper airway obstruction (e.g., adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders). Symptoms and signs of OSAS are classified into those directly related to the intermittent pharyngeal airway obstruction (e.g., parental report of snoring, apneic events) and into morbidity resulting from the upper airway obstruction (e.g., increased daytime sleepiness, hyperactivity, poor school performance, inadequate somatic growth rate or enuresis). History of premature birth and a family history of OSAS as well as obesity and African American ethnicity are associated with increased risk of sleep‐disordered breathing in childhood. Polysomnography is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of OSAS but may not be always feasible, especially in low‐income countries or non‐tertiary hospitals. Nocturnal oximetry and/or sleep questionnaires may be used to identify the child at high risk of OSAS when polysomnography is not an option. Endoscopy and MRI of the upper airway may help to identify the level(s) of upper airway obstruction and to evaluate the dynamic mechanics of the upper airway, especial...
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: State of the Art Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The constantly increasing prevalence of NAFLD in the general population can contribute to a growing role of NAFLD/NASH in HCC epidemiology. Moreover, some particular challenges specific for patients with liver steatosis may impede proper HCC diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID: 31631714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
Authors: special issue: “Focus on pediatric nephrology”, Passanisi S, D'Angelo G, Marseglia L, De Cola C, Granese R, Conti G, Betta P, Cutrupi MC, Fede C, Chimenz R, Salpietro C, Gitto E Abstract Nocturnal enuresis (NE) was defined by the World Health Organization (ICD-10) and the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) as bed-wetting in children aged>5 years. In cases of mental retardation, the developmental age may be equivalent to 5 years. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about the etiology of enuresis and the most recent therapeutical options. Both non-pharmacological and pharma...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
Authors: special issue: “Focus on pediatric nephrology”, Chimenz R, Spinuzza A, Cannavò L, Di Benedetto V, Scuderi MG, Concolino D, D'Angelo G, Sallemi A, Fusco M, Cucinotta U, Fede C, Arrigo T, Cuppari C Abstract Nocturnal enuresis (NE) was defined by the World Health Organization (ICD-10) and the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) as bed-wetting in children aged>5 years. In cases of mental retardation, the developmental age may be equivalent to 5 years. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about the etiology of enuresis and the most recent therapeutical options. Both non-p...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
This study aims to verify if clinical parameters, such as waist circumference and/or body mass index and biohumoral and inflammatory parameters can help predict cardiac structural and functional alterations, through an echocardiogram test in obese children and adolescents. Children were prospectively enrolled at the AUOC outpatients' department of Emergency Paediatrics, University Hospital, Messina, from June to December 2017. Clinical, metabolic parameters and an inflammation marker (HMGB1) were evaluated and a transthoracic echocardiogram was carried out. Twenty-two obese subjects were prospectively enrolled.HMGB1 values...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
In this study, a new approach is proposed based on the combination of some non-linear features to distinguish ADHD from normal children. Lyapunov exponent, fractal dimension, correlation dimension and sample, fuzzy and approximate entropies are the non-linear extracted features. For computing, the chaotic time series of obtained EEG in the brain frontal lobe (FP1, FP2, F3, F4, and Fz) need to be analysed. Experiments on a set of EEG signal obtained from 50 ADHD and 26 normal cases yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 98, 92.31, and 96.05%, respectively. The obtained accuracy provides a significant improvemen...
Source: IET Systems Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Authors: Li J, Zhu L, Shi Y, Liu J, Lin L, Chen X Abstract N6-methyladenosine (m6A) acts as the most common mRNA modification in mammal cells. Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein (FTO) is the firstly identified demethylase in the m6A modification. This research tries to discover the potential roles of FTO in the m6A modification in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). FTO level was found to be up-regulated in the HCC tissue and cells. The over-expression of FTO was correlated to the poor prognosis of HCC individuals. Knockdown of FTO suppressed the proliferation and in vivo tumor growth, and induced the G0/G1 ph...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
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