Genomic determinants of cancer immunotherapy.

Genomic determinants of cancer immunotherapy. Curr Opin Immunol. 2016 May 30;41:32-38 Authors: Miao D, Van Allen EM Abstract Cancer immunotherapies - including therapeutic vaccines, adoptive cell transfer, oncolytic viruses, and immune checkpoint blockade - yield durable responses in many cancer types, but understanding of predictors of response is incomplete. Genomic characterization of human cancers has already contributed to the success of targeted therapies; in cancer immunotherapy, identification of tumor-specific antigens through whole-exome sequencing may be key to designing individualized, highly immunogenic therapeutic vaccines. Additionally, pre-treatment tumor mutational and gene expression signatures can predict which patients are most likely to benefit from cancer immunotherapy. Continued work in harnessing genomic, transcriptomic, and immunological data from clinical cohorts of immunotherapy-treated patients will bring the promises of precision medicine to immuno-oncology. PMID: 27254251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

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In this study, we took advantage of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce immunogenic cell death to generate mesothelioma cell lysates for DC priming and evaluated such a vaccine to treat peritoneal mesothelioma. We found that the white light in vitro activation of the photosensitizer OR141 led to mesothelioma cell death, together with the release of bona fide danger signals that promote DC maturation. The administration of a PDT-based DC vaccine to mice bearing peritoneal mesothelioma led to highly significant survival when compared with sham or control animals treated with anti-CTLA4 antibodies. This was further supported...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Phenotyping of immune cell subsets in clinical trials is limited to well-defined phenotypes, due to technological limitations of reporting flow cytometry multi-dimensional phenotyping data. We developed a multi-dimensional phenotyping analysis tool and applied it to detect nitric oxide (NO) levels in peripheral blood immune cells before and after adjuvant ipilimumab co-administration with a peptide vaccine in melanoma patients. We analyzed inhibitory and stimulatory markers for immune cell phenotypes that were felt to be important in the NO analysis. The pipeline allows visualization of immune cell phenotypes without knowl...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, TLR-P matured DCs might be optimal presenters of antigens not requiring processing such as short peptides. However, PGE2 seems less favorable for maturation of DCs intended to process and cross-present more complex vaccine antigens such as lysates, proteins or long peptides.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Immunotherapy,Volume 12, Issue 2, Page 151-159, February 2020.
Source: Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, taller body height at the entry to adulthood, supposed to be a marker of early-life environment, is associated with lower risk of dementia diagnosis later in life. The association persisted when adjusted for educational level and intelligence test scores in young adulthood, suggesting that height is not just acting as an indicator of cognitive reserve. A Comparison of Biological Age Measurement Approaches Researchers here assess the performance of a range of approaches to measuring biological...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ard I Abstract Ovarian cancers express highly immunogenic tissue-specific antigens. The resulting immune infiltration is a major prognostic factor. There is therefore a strong biological rationale for the development of immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. However, based on Phase I and II clinical trials data, the efficacy of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) remains limited in monotherapy in heavily pre-treated patients. Currently, the identification of predictive biomarkers of response and resistance is one of the major areas of research. Identifying effective combination of anti-PD-1 or ...
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
This study provides evidence supporting a novel therapeutic approach using miRNA-5119 mimic-engineered DC vaccines to regulate inhibitory receptors and enhance anti-tumor immune response in a mouse model of breast cancer. miRNA/DC-based immunotherapy has potential for advancement to the clinic as a new strategy for DC-based anti-breast cancer immunotherapy.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We report antigen-specific T cell responses in patients immunized with dendritic cell vaccines pulsed with personalized TAA panels. Tumor samples from patients were first analyzed to identify overexpressed TAAs. Autologous DCs were then transfected with pre-manufactured mRNAs encoding the full-length TAAs, overexpressed in the patients' tumors. Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or advanced lung cancer received DC vaccines transfected with personalized TAA panels, in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide, poly I:C, imiquimod and anti-PD-1 antibody. Antigen-specific T cell responses were measured. Safety and e...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Cryoablation is a hypothermic modality exercised as a focal therapy for annihilating cancer lesions. Its application leaves the ablated tumor in situ, allowing multifarious tumor antigens to be available to the host's immune system. This ensues the activation of innate and adaptive immunity against the tumor antigens. Therefore, cryoablation can be employed as an in vivo vaccination tool to fortify the impact of immunotherapies. Application of checkpoint inhibitors, toll-like receptor agonists, adoptive cell therapies and epigenetic modulators has been shown to galvanize the immune system against tumors. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Biotechnol Source Type: research
Abstract Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), broadly expressed by tumor cells from human multiple myeloma (MM) and other cancers but absent from most normal tissues, may be an ideal target for immunotherapy. Our previous studies have shown that DKK1 (peptide)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes can effectively lyse primary MM cells in vitro. To develop DKK1-based vaccines that can be easily and inexpensively made and used by all patients, we identified a DKK1 long peptide (LP), DKK13-76-LP, that contains 74 amino acids and epitopes that can potentially bind to all major MHC class I and II molecules. Using HLA-A*0201- and HLA-DR*4-tra...
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
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