Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography REVIEW ARTICLES

Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multina...
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

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Cellular Analytics, a biotechnology company in Ontario, Canada, has unveiled a novel liquid biopsy test for mesothelioma that could lead to more effective management of this rare cancer. The test has the potential to produce a much-earlier diagnosis of disease and the ability to personalize treatment and better predict a patient’s response to specific therapies. “We could change completely how this disease is viewed,” Dr. Brent Zanke, a specialist in diagnostic oncology and chief executive officer of Cellular Analytics, told The Mesothelioma Center at Asbestos.com. “It’s a proactive way to get...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
In this study, we investigated the effects of CMR against human non-small cell lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. We found that CMR dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of human lung cancer H460, A549 and PC-9 cells. Furthermore, exposure to low and median doses of CMR induced paraptosis but not apoptosis, which was presented as the formation of extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation with increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, Bip and Chop, as well as activation of MAPK pathway in the lung cancer cells. Knockdown of Bip with siRNA not only reduced the cell-killing effect of CMR, but ...
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
This study aims to investigate the expression and biological function of it in retinoblastoma (RB), and explore its regulatory role for miR-199a-5p and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α).MethodsPaired RB samples were collected, and the expression levels of TMPO-AS1, miR-199a-5p and HIF-1α were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); TMPO-AS1 overexpressing plasmids and TMPO-AS1 shRNA were transfected into HXO-RB44 and SO-Rb50 cell lines respectively, and then proliferation, migration and invasion of RB cells were detected by CCK-8 assay and Transwell method. qRT-PCR and w...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur results suggest that RT for HD patients is clinically tolerable. However, some patients can experience severe infections related to treatment.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
After the Twin Towers fell on Sept. 11, 2001, the thousands of people involved in rescue-and-cleanup efforts were exposed to carcinogens and other toxins as they breathed in contaminated air and dug through industrial rubble. Studies completed since then have shown elevated rates of conditions including multiple myeloma, prostate cancer and thyroid cancer among 9/11 responders and those who worked near the site. A new study published Jan. 14 in the journal JNCI Cancer Spectrum adds another to that list: leukemia. “After about 12 years of follow-up, there was an increase in the rate of all cancers combined, and separa...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Cancer Research Source Type: news
Abstract In our search for novel small molecules activating procaspase-3, we have designed and synthesized a series of novel acetohydrazides incorporating both 2-oxoindoline and 4-oxoquinazoline scaffolds (5a-t). Biological evaluation showed that a number of these acetohydrazides were comparably or even more cytotoxic against three human cancer cell lines (SW620, colon cancer; PC-3, prostate cancer; NCI-H23, lung cancer) in comparison to PAC-1, a first procaspase-3 activating compound, which was used as a positive control. Compound 5k activated the caspase-3 activity in U937 human lymphoma cells by 5-fold higher t...
Source: Chemistry and Biodiversity - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Biodivers Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results demonstrate the success of a Military Treatment Facility (MTF)-based LCS Program in the detection of early stage lung cancer. Earlier stage detection may result in better health outcomes for affected patients. In the population studied, duration of smoking proved to be more significant than pack-years in predicting lung cancer risk. These results validate the newly dedicated resources and continued efforts to strengthen the LCS program at NMCSD and across MTFs. PMID: 31925432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
Conclusions: The present study reports delayed treatment for lung and breast cancer among immigrants from non-Western countries in Norway. Systematic differences in cancer treatment were not detected. However, less breast-conserving surgery among breast cancer patients from Asia compared to Norwegians was observed. PMID: 31920119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
For most of the years while I was coming up in the world of public health and social policy, it was accepted truth that medical intervention made only a small contribution to population health. Quantifying " population health " as a single entity is obviously highly problematic. There are many components that people will value differently. There is mean life expectancy at birth, which is a common measure that is not terribly difficult to calculate; although as I have explained here before and won't bother to do again right now it's a fictitious construct that does not predict how long you actually have to live. R...
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
Breakthrough treatments for lung cancer and melanoma have driven down cancer mortality overall — and from 2016 to 2017 spurred the largest-ever decline.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Cancer Smoking and Tobacco Lung Cancer Colon and Colorectal Cancer Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Prostate Cancer Obesity American Cancer Society your-feed-healthcare Source Type: news
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