Polyvinyl alcohol, but not bovine serum albumin, promotes the induction of full ‐type hyperactivation in boar cyclic AMP analog‐treated spermatozoa
This study aimed to verify the effects of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the induction of full-type hyperactivation in boar spermatozoa treated with a cyclic AMP analog (cBiMPS). Washed spermatozoa were treated with cBiMPS (100 μM) for 180 min. As shown in the assessment of sperm motility, PVA (0.05%–0.4%) significantly promoted the induction of full-type hyperactivation, whereas BSA (0.025%–0.4%) did not affect the induction. In comparative experiments, BSA (0.4%) effectively promoted the induction of full-type hyperactivation in bovine spermatozoa treated with cBiMPS, calyculin A (a protein phosphatase inhibitor), and digoxin (a Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor), while PVA (0.1%) did not affect the induction. Western blotting showed that protein tyrosine phosphorylation states of>50 kDa sperm proteins were effectively enhanced by treatment with cBiMPS in the PVA/BSA-free medium and not affected by the addition of PVA (0.1%). The assessment of plasma membrane integrity indicated that BSA (0.4%) significantly decreased spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes. These results in dicate that PVA (0.1%) promotes the induction of full-type hyperactivation and does not influence the protein tyrosine phosphorylation states in boar cBiMPS-treated spermatozoa. They also suggest that BSA should not be added to medium containing cBiMPS for boar spermatozoa.