Bioinformatics of thymidine metabolism in Trypanosoma evansi: exploring nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT) as a drug target
In this study, the thymidine metabolic pathways in camel and T. evansi were compared by analyzing their metabolic maps, protein sequences, domain and motif contents, phylogenetic relationships, and 3D structure models. The two organisms were revealed to recycle thymidine differently: performed by thymidine phosphorylase in camels (Camelus genus), this role in T. evansi was associated with nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT), a unique trypanosomal enzyme absent in camels. Thymidine in T. evansi seems to be governed by thymine through NDRT, whereas in camels, thymidine can be produced from thymidylate via 5'-nucleotida...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M Kandeel M N Alhumam A Al-Taher Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Sarawak Borneo: Prevalence, risk factors, and farming practices
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in buffaloes from various areas of Sarawak, and to assess current management practices of GI parasites among farmers. Faecal samples were collected from 15 farms and 129 animals, as well as data on farm and animal-based characteristics. A total of 129 faecal samples were examined for GI parasites using a modified McMaster and sedimentation. Association between potential risk factors and the prevalence of GI parasites was investigated using Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of Paramphistomum sp....
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A M Harizt M Malahubban S S Syed-Hussain S Z Ramanoon M B Sadiq S R Sarbini M N Hassan S Mustafa N A A Aziz N M M Isa W R Nating R Asut J Kamaludeen Source Type: research

Bioefficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers and associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in Selangor, Malaysia: A statewide assessment
This study aims to examine the efficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers on Aedes aegypti and their associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms. For this purpose, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) was collected from nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia and tested with mosquito vaporizing mat bioassays. The same populations were also subjected to biochemical assays to investigate activities of detoxifying enzymes, namely non-specific esterase (EST), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO). The efficacy of Ae. aegypti on the active ingredients tested in decreasing order were d- allethrin> dimefluthrin> prall...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: T Azratul-Hizayu C D Chen K W Lau N Azrizal-Wahid T K Tan Y A L Lim M Sofian-Azirun V L Low Source Type: research

Morphological alterations of Thymus during the early murine leishmaniasis
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):338-342. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.075.ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. Thymus provides an essential complex environment for T cell maturation and differentiation during leishmania infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of the Thymus during early Leishmania amazonensis murine infection. BALB/c mice were infected with 105 amastigotes for 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days or 30 days. At different times of infection, the relative weight of the Thymus was obtained, and the Thym...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: C Arrais-Lima L R Lima M G B F Faria A Degrossoli W W Arrais-Silva P C S Souto Source Type: research

Diverse effects of clarithromycin and proposal of its clinical application for treating COVID-19 as a repurposing drug
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):343-352. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.077.ABSTRACTOutbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a pandemic, which is a serious threat to human health. The disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, several vaccines and a few drugs have been approved for the prevention and treatment for COVID-19. Recently, the effect of some macrolides including clarithromycin (CAM) on COVID-19 has attracted attention. CAM is known to have diverse effects including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, autophagy inhibition, steroid sparing effect, reversibility of drug resistance, antineopl...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: N Takemori H K Ooi G Imai M Saio Source Type: research

Elucidating antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9 N2 influenza virus using embryonated chicken egg model
This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: S I A Shah M Y Tipu A Aslam A U Khan M Shafee S A Khan N U Khan A Akbar Source Type: research

Potential role of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhea
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):360-365. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.079.ABSTRACTCOVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can lead to massive inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract causing severe clinical symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infects lungs after binding its spike proteins with alveolar angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and it also triggers inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. SARS-CoV-2 invades the gastrointestinal tract by interacting with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) that induces the expression of ACE2. The influx of ACE2 facilitates cellular binding of more SARS-CoV-2 and causes massive gastrointestinal inflamm...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A K Paul R Jahan T A Bondhon K Jannat A Hasan M Rahmatullah V Nissapatorn M L Pereira C Wiart Source Type: research

The predictive role of biomarkers for mortality in COVID-19 patients
This study aims to determine WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, D-dimer, CRP, AST, ALT, LDH, PT, APTT, INR, urea, creatinine, lactate, and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients and the effect of their changes on mortality rate. The study was conducted between 11 March 2020 and 31 August 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). A total of 502 patients older than 18 years who presented with suspected COVID-19 were included in the study. Of these 502 patients who applied to the hospital, 229(45.6%) were male and 273(54%) were female. 301(60%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 through computed tomography and PCR tests. 201(...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A Savrun I E Aydin S T Savrun U Karaman Source Type: research

Characteristics of severe malaria in hospitalized children in Ho Chi Minh City from 2012 to 2019
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):371-376. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.082.ABSTRACTIn Vietnam, severe malaria is currently rare but is a life-threatening disease. It may be misdiagnosed with other common diseases. This descriptive study aimed to characterize severe malaria and its clinical aspects, as well as outcomes of infected pediatric patients to improve case management. The case-series study was carried out based on medical records of children aged between one month and 15 years with malaria diagnosed by blood smear or rapid diagnostic test. Chi-squared test with the p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically signif...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M T Ha T A T Ho A N Nguyen T A Nguyen Source Type: research

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasites in Sarawak, East Malaysia: A review
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):377-386. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.083.ABSTRACTIntestinal parasitic infections are endemic in rural settings and may account for asymptomatic infections to various health complications. These infections are a cause of concern for communities of lower economic status, especially in developing countries. In Sarawak, indigenous populations residing in geographically inaccessible areas are socially and economically disadvantaged. Through close association with nature, these populations are prone to intestinal parasitism. Currently, scattered information has led to a continual state of neglect at each ...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A S Tahar L M Bilung K Apun R L Richard Y A L Lim Source Type: research

Bioinformatics of thymidine metabolism in Trypanosoma evansi: exploring nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT) as a drug target
In this study, the thymidine metabolic pathways in camel and T. evansi were compared by analyzing their metabolic maps, protein sequences, domain and motif contents, phylogenetic relationships, and 3D structure models. The two organisms were revealed to recycle thymidine differently: performed by thymidine phosphorylase in camels (Camelus genus), this role in T. evansi was associated with nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT), a unique trypanosomal enzyme absent in camels. Thymidine in T. evansi seems to be governed by thymine through NDRT, whereas in camels, thymidine can be produced from thymidylate via 5'-nucleotida...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M Kandeel M N Alhumam A Al-Taher Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Sarawak Borneo: Prevalence, risk factors, and farming practices
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in buffaloes from various areas of Sarawak, and to assess current management practices of GI parasites among farmers. Faecal samples were collected from 15 farms and 129 animals, as well as data on farm and animal-based characteristics. A total of 129 faecal samples were examined for GI parasites using a modified McMaster and sedimentation. Association between potential risk factors and the prevalence of GI parasites was investigated using Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of Paramphistomum sp....
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A M Harizt M Malahubban S S Syed-Hussain S Z Ramanoon M B Sadiq S R Sarbini M N Hassan S Mustafa N A A Aziz N M M Isa W R Nating R Asut J Kamaludeen Source Type: research

Bioefficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers and associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in Selangor, Malaysia: A statewide assessment
This study aims to examine the efficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers on Aedes aegypti and their associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms. For this purpose, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) was collected from nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia and tested with mosquito vaporizing mat bioassays. The same populations were also subjected to biochemical assays to investigate activities of detoxifying enzymes, namely non-specific esterase (EST), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO). The efficacy of Ae. aegypti on the active ingredients tested in decreasing order were d- allethrin> dimefluthrin> prall...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: T Azratul-Hizayu C D Chen K W Lau N Azrizal-Wahid T K Tan Y A L Lim M Sofian-Azirun V L Low Source Type: research

Morphological alterations of Thymus during the early murine leishmaniasis
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):338-342. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.075.ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. Thymus provides an essential complex environment for T cell maturation and differentiation during leishmania infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of the Thymus during early Leishmania amazonensis murine infection. BALB/c mice were infected with 105 amastigotes for 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days or 30 days. At different times of infection, the relative weight of the Thymus was obtained, and the Thym...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: C Arrais-Lima L R Lima M G B F Faria A Degrossoli W W Arrais-Silva P C S Souto Source Type: research

Diverse effects of clarithromycin and proposal of its clinical application for treating COVID-19 as a repurposing drug
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):343-352. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.077.ABSTRACTOutbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a pandemic, which is a serious threat to human health. The disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, several vaccines and a few drugs have been approved for the prevention and treatment for COVID-19. Recently, the effect of some macrolides including clarithromycin (CAM) on COVID-19 has attracted attention. CAM is known to have diverse effects including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, autophagy inhibition, steroid sparing effect, reversibility of drug resistance, antineopl...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: N Takemori H K Ooi G Imai M Saio Source Type: research

Elucidating antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9 N2 influenza virus using embryonated chicken egg model
This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: S I A Shah M Y Tipu A Aslam A U Khan M Shafee S A Khan N U Khan A Akbar Source Type: research

Potential role of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhea
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):360-365. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.079.ABSTRACTCOVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can lead to massive inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract causing severe clinical symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infects lungs after binding its spike proteins with alveolar angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and it also triggers inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. SARS-CoV-2 invades the gastrointestinal tract by interacting with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) that induces the expression of ACE2. The influx of ACE2 facilitates cellular binding of more SARS-CoV-2 and causes massive gastrointestinal inflamm...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A K Paul R Jahan T A Bondhon K Jannat A Hasan M Rahmatullah V Nissapatorn M L Pereira C Wiart Source Type: research

The predictive role of biomarkers for mortality in COVID-19 patients
This study aims to determine WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, D-dimer, CRP, AST, ALT, LDH, PT, APTT, INR, urea, creatinine, lactate, and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients and the effect of their changes on mortality rate. The study was conducted between 11 March 2020 and 31 August 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). A total of 502 patients older than 18 years who presented with suspected COVID-19 were included in the study. Of these 502 patients who applied to the hospital, 229(45.6%) were male and 273(54%) were female. 301(60%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 through computed tomography and PCR tests. 201(...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A Savrun I E Aydin S T Savrun U Karaman Source Type: research

Characteristics of severe malaria in hospitalized children in Ho Chi Minh City from 2012 to 2019
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):371-376. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.082.ABSTRACTIn Vietnam, severe malaria is currently rare but is a life-threatening disease. It may be misdiagnosed with other common diseases. This descriptive study aimed to characterize severe malaria and its clinical aspects, as well as outcomes of infected pediatric patients to improve case management. The case-series study was carried out based on medical records of children aged between one month and 15 years with malaria diagnosed by blood smear or rapid diagnostic test. Chi-squared test with the p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically signif...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M T Ha T A T Ho A N Nguyen T A Nguyen Source Type: research

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasites in Sarawak, East Malaysia: A review
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):377-386. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.083.ABSTRACTIntestinal parasitic infections are endemic in rural settings and may account for asymptomatic infections to various health complications. These infections are a cause of concern for communities of lower economic status, especially in developing countries. In Sarawak, indigenous populations residing in geographically inaccessible areas are socially and economically disadvantaged. Through close association with nature, these populations are prone to intestinal parasitism. Currently, scattered information has led to a continual state of neglect at each ...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A S Tahar L M Bilung K Apun R L Richard Y A L Lim Source Type: research

Bioinformatics of thymidine metabolism in Trypanosoma evansi: exploring nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT) as a drug target
In this study, the thymidine metabolic pathways in camel and T. evansi were compared by analyzing their metabolic maps, protein sequences, domain and motif contents, phylogenetic relationships, and 3D structure models. The two organisms were revealed to recycle thymidine differently: performed by thymidine phosphorylase in camels (Camelus genus), this role in T. evansi was associated with nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT), a unique trypanosomal enzyme absent in camels. Thymidine in T. evansi seems to be governed by thymine through NDRT, whereas in camels, thymidine can be produced from thymidylate via 5'-nucleotida...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M Kandeel M N Alhumam A Al-Taher Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Sarawak Borneo: Prevalence, risk factors, and farming practices
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in buffaloes from various areas of Sarawak, and to assess current management practices of GI parasites among farmers. Faecal samples were collected from 15 farms and 129 animals, as well as data on farm and animal-based characteristics. A total of 129 faecal samples were examined for GI parasites using a modified McMaster and sedimentation. Association between potential risk factors and the prevalence of GI parasites was investigated using Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of Paramphistomum sp....
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A M Harizt M Malahubban S S Syed-Hussain S Z Ramanoon M B Sadiq S R Sarbini M N Hassan S Mustafa N A A Aziz N M M Isa W R Nating R Asut J Kamaludeen Source Type: research

Bioefficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers and associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in Selangor, Malaysia: A statewide assessment
This study aims to examine the efficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers on Aedes aegypti and their associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms. For this purpose, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) was collected from nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia and tested with mosquito vaporizing mat bioassays. The same populations were also subjected to biochemical assays to investigate activities of detoxifying enzymes, namely non-specific esterase (EST), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO). The efficacy of Ae. aegypti on the active ingredients tested in decreasing order were d- allethrin> dimefluthrin> prall...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: T Azratul-Hizayu C D Chen K W Lau N Azrizal-Wahid T K Tan Y A L Lim M Sofian-Azirun V L Low Source Type: research

Morphological alterations of Thymus during the early murine leishmaniasis
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):338-342. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.075.ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. Thymus provides an essential complex environment for T cell maturation and differentiation during leishmania infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of the Thymus during early Leishmania amazonensis murine infection. BALB/c mice were infected with 105 amastigotes for 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days or 30 days. At different times of infection, the relative weight of the Thymus was obtained, and the Thym...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: C Arrais-Lima L R Lima M G B F Faria A Degrossoli W W Arrais-Silva P C S Souto Source Type: research

Diverse effects of clarithromycin and proposal of its clinical application for treating COVID-19 as a repurposing drug
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):343-352. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.077.ABSTRACTOutbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a pandemic, which is a serious threat to human health. The disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, several vaccines and a few drugs have been approved for the prevention and treatment for COVID-19. Recently, the effect of some macrolides including clarithromycin (CAM) on COVID-19 has attracted attention. CAM is known to have diverse effects including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, autophagy inhibition, steroid sparing effect, reversibility of drug resistance, antineopl...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: N Takemori H K Ooi G Imai M Saio Source Type: research

Elucidating antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9 N2 influenza virus using embryonated chicken egg model
This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: S I A Shah M Y Tipu A Aslam A U Khan M Shafee S A Khan N U Khan A Akbar Source Type: research

Potential role of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhea
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):360-365. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.079.ABSTRACTCOVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can lead to massive inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract causing severe clinical symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infects lungs after binding its spike proteins with alveolar angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and it also triggers inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. SARS-CoV-2 invades the gastrointestinal tract by interacting with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) that induces the expression of ACE2. The influx of ACE2 facilitates cellular binding of more SARS-CoV-2 and causes massive gastrointestinal inflamm...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A K Paul R Jahan T A Bondhon K Jannat A Hasan M Rahmatullah V Nissapatorn M L Pereira C Wiart Source Type: research

The predictive role of biomarkers for mortality in COVID-19 patients
This study aims to determine WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, D-dimer, CRP, AST, ALT, LDH, PT, APTT, INR, urea, creatinine, lactate, and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients and the effect of their changes on mortality rate. The study was conducted between 11 March 2020 and 31 August 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). A total of 502 patients older than 18 years who presented with suspected COVID-19 were included in the study. Of these 502 patients who applied to the hospital, 229(45.6%) were male and 273(54%) were female. 301(60%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 through computed tomography and PCR tests. 201(...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A Savrun I E Aydin S T Savrun U Karaman Source Type: research

Characteristics of severe malaria in hospitalized children in Ho Chi Minh City from 2012 to 2019
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):371-376. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.082.ABSTRACTIn Vietnam, severe malaria is currently rare but is a life-threatening disease. It may be misdiagnosed with other common diseases. This descriptive study aimed to characterize severe malaria and its clinical aspects, as well as outcomes of infected pediatric patients to improve case management. The case-series study was carried out based on medical records of children aged between one month and 15 years with malaria diagnosed by blood smear or rapid diagnostic test. Chi-squared test with the p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically signif...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M T Ha T A T Ho A N Nguyen T A Nguyen Source Type: research

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasites in Sarawak, East Malaysia: A review
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):377-386. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.083.ABSTRACTIntestinal parasitic infections are endemic in rural settings and may account for asymptomatic infections to various health complications. These infections are a cause of concern for communities of lower economic status, especially in developing countries. In Sarawak, indigenous populations residing in geographically inaccessible areas are socially and economically disadvantaged. Through close association with nature, these populations are prone to intestinal parasitism. Currently, scattered information has led to a continual state of neglect at each ...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A S Tahar L M Bilung K Apun R L Richard Y A L Lim Source Type: research

Bioinformatics of thymidine metabolism in Trypanosoma evansi: exploring nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT) as a drug target
In this study, the thymidine metabolic pathways in camel and T. evansi were compared by analyzing their metabolic maps, protein sequences, domain and motif contents, phylogenetic relationships, and 3D structure models. The two organisms were revealed to recycle thymidine differently: performed by thymidine phosphorylase in camels (Camelus genus), this role in T. evansi was associated with nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT), a unique trypanosomal enzyme absent in camels. Thymidine in T. evansi seems to be governed by thymine through NDRT, whereas in camels, thymidine can be produced from thymidylate via 5'-nucleotida...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M Kandeel M N Alhumam A Al-Taher Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Sarawak Borneo: Prevalence, risk factors, and farming practices
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in buffaloes from various areas of Sarawak, and to assess current management practices of GI parasites among farmers. Faecal samples were collected from 15 farms and 129 animals, as well as data on farm and animal-based characteristics. A total of 129 faecal samples were examined for GI parasites using a modified McMaster and sedimentation. Association between potential risk factors and the prevalence of GI parasites was investigated using Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of Paramphistomum sp....
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A M Harizt M Malahubban S S Syed-Hussain S Z Ramanoon M B Sadiq S R Sarbini M N Hassan S Mustafa N A A Aziz N M M Isa W R Nating R Asut J Kamaludeen Source Type: research

Bioefficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers and associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in Selangor, Malaysia: A statewide assessment
This study aims to examine the efficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers on Aedes aegypti and their associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms. For this purpose, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) was collected from nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia and tested with mosquito vaporizing mat bioassays. The same populations were also subjected to biochemical assays to investigate activities of detoxifying enzymes, namely non-specific esterase (EST), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO). The efficacy of Ae. aegypti on the active ingredients tested in decreasing order were d- allethrin> dimefluthrin> prall...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: T Azratul-Hizayu C D Chen K W Lau N Azrizal-Wahid T K Tan Y A L Lim M Sofian-Azirun V L Low Source Type: research

Morphological alterations of Thymus during the early murine leishmaniasis
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):338-342. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.075.ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. Thymus provides an essential complex environment for T cell maturation and differentiation during leishmania infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of the Thymus during early Leishmania amazonensis murine infection. BALB/c mice were infected with 105 amastigotes for 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days or 30 days. At different times of infection, the relative weight of the Thymus was obtained, and the Thym...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: C Arrais-Lima L R Lima M G B F Faria A Degrossoli W W Arrais-Silva P C S Souto Source Type: research

Diverse effects of clarithromycin and proposal of its clinical application for treating COVID-19 as a repurposing drug
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):343-352. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.077.ABSTRACTOutbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a pandemic, which is a serious threat to human health. The disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, several vaccines and a few drugs have been approved for the prevention and treatment for COVID-19. Recently, the effect of some macrolides including clarithromycin (CAM) on COVID-19 has attracted attention. CAM is known to have diverse effects including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, autophagy inhibition, steroid sparing effect, reversibility of drug resistance, antineopl...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: N Takemori H K Ooi G Imai M Saio Source Type: research

Elucidating antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9 N2 influenza virus using embryonated chicken egg model
This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: S I A Shah M Y Tipu A Aslam A U Khan M Shafee S A Khan N U Khan A Akbar Source Type: research

Potential role of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhea
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):360-365. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.079.ABSTRACTCOVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can lead to massive inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract causing severe clinical symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infects lungs after binding its spike proteins with alveolar angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and it also triggers inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. SARS-CoV-2 invades the gastrointestinal tract by interacting with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) that induces the expression of ACE2. The influx of ACE2 facilitates cellular binding of more SARS-CoV-2 and causes massive gastrointestinal inflamm...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A K Paul R Jahan T A Bondhon K Jannat A Hasan M Rahmatullah V Nissapatorn M L Pereira C Wiart Source Type: research

The predictive role of biomarkers for mortality in COVID-19 patients
This study aims to determine WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, D-dimer, CRP, AST, ALT, LDH, PT, APTT, INR, urea, creatinine, lactate, and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients and the effect of their changes on mortality rate. The study was conducted between 11 March 2020 and 31 August 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). A total of 502 patients older than 18 years who presented with suspected COVID-19 were included in the study. Of these 502 patients who applied to the hospital, 229(45.6%) were male and 273(54%) were female. 301(60%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 through computed tomography and PCR tests. 201(...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A Savrun I E Aydin S T Savrun U Karaman Source Type: research

Characteristics of severe malaria in hospitalized children in Ho Chi Minh City from 2012 to 2019
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):371-376. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.082.ABSTRACTIn Vietnam, severe malaria is currently rare but is a life-threatening disease. It may be misdiagnosed with other common diseases. This descriptive study aimed to characterize severe malaria and its clinical aspects, as well as outcomes of infected pediatric patients to improve case management. The case-series study was carried out based on medical records of children aged between one month and 15 years with malaria diagnosed by blood smear or rapid diagnostic test. Chi-squared test with the p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically signif...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M T Ha T A T Ho A N Nguyen T A Nguyen Source Type: research

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasites in Sarawak, East Malaysia: A review
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):377-386. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.083.ABSTRACTIntestinal parasitic infections are endemic in rural settings and may account for asymptomatic infections to various health complications. These infections are a cause of concern for communities of lower economic status, especially in developing countries. In Sarawak, indigenous populations residing in geographically inaccessible areas are socially and economically disadvantaged. Through close association with nature, these populations are prone to intestinal parasitism. Currently, scattered information has led to a continual state of neglect at each ...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A S Tahar L M Bilung K Apun R L Richard Y A L Lim Source Type: research

Bioinformatics of thymidine metabolism in Trypanosoma evansi: exploring nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT) as a drug target
In this study, the thymidine metabolic pathways in camel and T. evansi were compared by analyzing their metabolic maps, protein sequences, domain and motif contents, phylogenetic relationships, and 3D structure models. The two organisms were revealed to recycle thymidine differently: performed by thymidine phosphorylase in camels (Camelus genus), this role in T. evansi was associated with nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT), a unique trypanosomal enzyme absent in camels. Thymidine in T. evansi seems to be governed by thymine through NDRT, whereas in camels, thymidine can be produced from thymidylate via 5'-nucleotida...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M Kandeel M N Alhumam A Al-Taher Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Sarawak Borneo: Prevalence, risk factors, and farming practices
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in buffaloes from various areas of Sarawak, and to assess current management practices of GI parasites among farmers. Faecal samples were collected from 15 farms and 129 animals, as well as data on farm and animal-based characteristics. A total of 129 faecal samples were examined for GI parasites using a modified McMaster and sedimentation. Association between potential risk factors and the prevalence of GI parasites was investigated using Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of Paramphistomum sp....
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A M Harizt M Malahubban S S Syed-Hussain S Z Ramanoon M B Sadiq S R Sarbini M N Hassan S Mustafa N A A Aziz N M M Isa W R Nating R Asut J Kamaludeen Source Type: research

Bioefficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers and associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in Selangor, Malaysia: A statewide assessment
This study aims to examine the efficacy of mosquito mat vaporizers on Aedes aegypti and their associated metabolic detoxication mechanisms. For this purpose, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) was collected from nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia and tested with mosquito vaporizing mat bioassays. The same populations were also subjected to biochemical assays to investigate activities of detoxifying enzymes, namely non-specific esterase (EST), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO). The efficacy of Ae. aegypti on the active ingredients tested in decreasing order were d- allethrin> dimefluthrin> prall...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: T Azratul-Hizayu C D Chen K W Lau N Azrizal-Wahid T K Tan Y A L Lim M Sofian-Azirun V L Low Source Type: research

Morphological alterations of Thymus during the early murine leishmaniasis
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):338-342. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.075.ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. Thymus provides an essential complex environment for T cell maturation and differentiation during leishmania infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of the Thymus during early Leishmania amazonensis murine infection. BALB/c mice were infected with 105 amastigotes for 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days or 30 days. At different times of infection, the relative weight of the Thymus was obtained, and the Thym...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: C Arrais-Lima L R Lima M G B F Faria A Degrossoli W W Arrais-Silva P C S Souto Source Type: research

Diverse effects of clarithromycin and proposal of its clinical application for treating COVID-19 as a repurposing drug
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):343-352. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.077.ABSTRACTOutbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a pandemic, which is a serious threat to human health. The disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, several vaccines and a few drugs have been approved for the prevention and treatment for COVID-19. Recently, the effect of some macrolides including clarithromycin (CAM) on COVID-19 has attracted attention. CAM is known to have diverse effects including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, autophagy inhibition, steroid sparing effect, reversibility of drug resistance, antineopl...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: N Takemori H K Ooi G Imai M Saio Source Type: research

Elucidating antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9 N2 influenza virus using embryonated chicken egg model
This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: S I A Shah M Y Tipu A Aslam A U Khan M Shafee S A Khan N U Khan A Akbar Source Type: research

Potential role of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhea
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):360-365. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.079.ABSTRACTCOVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can lead to massive inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract causing severe clinical symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infects lungs after binding its spike proteins with alveolar angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and it also triggers inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. SARS-CoV-2 invades the gastrointestinal tract by interacting with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) that induces the expression of ACE2. The influx of ACE2 facilitates cellular binding of more SARS-CoV-2 and causes massive gastrointestinal inflamm...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A K Paul R Jahan T A Bondhon K Jannat A Hasan M Rahmatullah V Nissapatorn M L Pereira C Wiart Source Type: research

The predictive role of biomarkers for mortality in COVID-19 patients
This study aims to determine WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, D-dimer, CRP, AST, ALT, LDH, PT, APTT, INR, urea, creatinine, lactate, and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients and the effect of their changes on mortality rate. The study was conducted between 11 March 2020 and 31 August 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). A total of 502 patients older than 18 years who presented with suspected COVID-19 were included in the study. Of these 502 patients who applied to the hospital, 229(45.6%) were male and 273(54%) were female. 301(60%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 through computed tomography and PCR tests. 201(...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A Savrun I E Aydin S T Savrun U Karaman Source Type: research

Characteristics of severe malaria in hospitalized children in Ho Chi Minh City from 2012 to 2019
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):371-376. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.082.ABSTRACTIn Vietnam, severe malaria is currently rare but is a life-threatening disease. It may be misdiagnosed with other common diseases. This descriptive study aimed to characterize severe malaria and its clinical aspects, as well as outcomes of infected pediatric patients to improve case management. The case-series study was carried out based on medical records of children aged between one month and 15 years with malaria diagnosed by blood smear or rapid diagnostic test. Chi-squared test with the p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically signif...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M T Ha T A T Ho A N Nguyen T A Nguyen Source Type: research

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasites in Sarawak, East Malaysia: A review
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):377-386. doi: 10.47665/tb.38.3.083.ABSTRACTIntestinal parasitic infections are endemic in rural settings and may account for asymptomatic infections to various health complications. These infections are a cause of concern for communities of lower economic status, especially in developing countries. In Sarawak, indigenous populations residing in geographically inaccessible areas are socially and economically disadvantaged. Through close association with nature, these populations are prone to intestinal parasitism. Currently, scattered information has led to a continual state of neglect at each ...
Source: Tropical Biomedicine - September 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A S Tahar L M Bilung K Apun R L Richard Y A L Lim Source Type: research