What About the Flu?
PMID: 32275757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hageman JR Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Pediatric Hypertension.
Abstract Hypertension is an important and often overlooked problem in the pediatric population. In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated their guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. The new guidelines include a refined definition of the blood pressure stages and also a new diagnostic reference table with updated data excluding those with overweight or obesity. It also simplified the diagnostic criteria for adolescents and provided a screening table for easier use in the clinical setting. Along with the simplified diagnostic criteria, the new guidelines stress the importance of accu...
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Khan L Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Essential Topics in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology.
PMID: 32275759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Talib HJ Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescent Girls.
Abstract Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common complaint among adolescent girls. It reflects an abnormal volume of blood loss during the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding can manifest as HMB but includes menstrual irregularity. In many cases, immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis or hormonal conditions like polycystic ovarian syndrome leading to anovulatory cycles are the underlying cause for heavy menses. However, in girls with HMB, especially those not responding to the usual hormonal attempts to manage HMB, an underlying bleeding disorder should be considered. Up to 62% of adolesce...
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Davila J, Alderman EM Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Prepubertal and Adolescent Vulvovaginitis: What to Do When a Girl Reports Vaginal Discharge.
Abstract Vaginitis presents with vaginal discharge, odor, pruritis, and/or discomfort and affects up to 75% of girls and women over the course of their lifetimes, with most women experiencing their first episode during adolescence. Given the prevalence of this disorder, this article aims to provide an overview of vaginitis for the general pediatrician. We start with prepubertal etiologies of vaginitis, then discuss pubertal and normal physiologic discharge, and then focus on the most common etiologies of adolescent vulvovaginitis. The three most common microbial etiologies of vaginitis (bacterial vaginosis, vulvov...
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lanis A, Talib HJ, Dodson N Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Painful Periods in the Adolescent Girl.
Abstract Up to two-thirds of adolescent girls report painful periods but few seek medical care for their dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is associated with multiple physical and psychological symptoms, and the delayed evaluation and treatment of dysmenorrhea contributes to a poor quality of life and can result in lifelong health problems, including chronic pelvic pain and infertility. It is recommended that an assessment of patients' menstrual cycles be performed regularly, as identification of abnormally painful menstrual cycles may reveal potential health problems, including pelvic diseases such as endometriosis and ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Myszko O, Al-Husayni N, Talib HJ Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Adnexal Masses in Adolescents.
Abstract Adnexal masses in adolescents, such as functional cysts, are often benign and can usually be managed expectantly since they typically regress on their own. The most common ovarian neoplasm in adolescents is a benign cystic teratoma. Both functional cysts and benign cystic teratomas are associated with ovarian torsion. Of concern, ovarian torsion requires a high level of suspicion when adolescents present with acute abdominal pain, as almost one-half of cases have no associated adnexal masses. The most common malignant adnexal masses in this age group include germ cell tumors, followed by epithelial cell t...
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Northridge JL Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

A Practical Approach to Congenital Urogenital Anomalies in Female Pediatric Patients.
Abstract Congenital anomalies of the female reproductive tract are relatively common and can be both confusing to understand as well as challenging to diagnose and manage in a busy pediatric clinical practice. Here, we lay out some of the most common genitourinary tract anomalies in female pediatric patients. We highlight the key embryologic development, present case examples, and discuss appropriate testing, treatment, and counseling for patients and their families regarding congenital disorders of the vulva, vagina, uterus, ovaries, and associated pathology. The goal of this review is to demystify these conditio...
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kirschen GW, Wood LF, Semenyuk N Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

General Pediatric Clinical Applications of POCUS: Part 2.
Abstract The use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) performed by non-radiologists has become more widespread and is entering new arenas of clinical care, particularly in the world of pediatrics. Children are prime candidates for ultrasound because they are more at risk to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation than adults. This is the second part of a two-part article reviewing 10 uses of POCUS that pediatricians can apply to their practice in both inpatient and outpatient settings. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(4):e196-e200.]. PMID: 32275765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Finkel L, Ghelani S, Paladugu K, Sanyal S, Colla JS Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
PMID: 32155273 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hageman JR Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Sleep Training.
This article aims to provide clinicians with a basic knowledge of sleep physiology, sleep patterns and development, and current guidelines and options available for parents to address these issues. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(3):e101-e105.]. PMID: 32155274 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Liu A Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Pediatric Dermatology-A Review for the Pediatric Provider.
PMID: 32155275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mancini AJ Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Acne Vulgaris: Treatment Made Easy for the Primary Care Physician.
This article provides treatment rationale and guidelines-based recommendations for the initial treatment of acne, tips for troubleshooting any side effects, and a plan for subsequent follow-up to maintain good control. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(3):e109-e115.]. PMID: 32155276 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Berry K, Lim J, Zaenglein AL Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Exanthematous Eruptions in Children.
Abstract Childhood exanthems are commonly encountered by pediatricians in the hospital and the office. In the last several decades, we have seen a shift in the epidemiology of many of these diseases. After being deemed eliminated at the turn of 21st century, measles has experienced a resurgence secondary to falling vaccination rates, raising public health concerns. A new variant of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6 has been associated with more widespread and atypical disease, which can present diagnostic challenges to clinicians. Parvovirus B19, which is traditionally associated with fifth...
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Young TK, Oza VS Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Infestations, Bites, and Insect Repellents.
Abstract Infestations and arthropod bite reactions in children are common reasons for presentation to pediatric health care providers. Infestations in children include head lice, scabies, and other mites. Fleas and bed bugs are common causes of bite reactions in children, and papular urticaria is a chronic, recurrent eruption resulting from delayed hypersensitivity to a variety of insect bites. Both infestations and bite reactions may result in severe pruritus with associated sleep disturbance and can be a source of significant distress for patients and families. In this review, we discuss infestations and bite re...
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kamath S, Kenner-Bell B Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Cutaneous Drug Eruptions in Pediatrics-A Primer.
Abstract Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are commonly seen in the pediatric population in both inpatient and outpatient settings and are important to identify, evaluate, and appropriately manage. Early recognition and proper classification of a cutaneous drug reaction allows the clinician the ability to narrow in on a culprit drug and determine whether the medication is safe to continue. This review discusses the clinical presentation, categorization, and management of cutaneous ADRs in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(3):e132-e139.]. PMID: 32155279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (...
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Perez CE, Dyer JA Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Atopic Dermatitis: Update on Pathogenesis and Therapy.
Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin condition in pediatric patients. AD has long been associated with comorbidities including food allergies, asthma, and allergic rhinitis, but recent literature has expanded this list to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression. AD has tremendous impact on quality of life for both affected children and their families. Improved understanding of AD pathogenesis, particularly regarding skin barrier dysfunction, the role of the cutaneous microbiome, and immune dysregulation, has spawned exciting new therapeutic directions. Althou...
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: de la O-Escamilla NO, Sidbury R Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

General Pediatric Clinical Applications of POCUS: Part 1.
Abstract The use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) performed by non-radiologists has become more widespread and is entering new arenas of clinical care. Children in particular are prime candidates for ultrasound, as they are both usually thinner than adults and are particularly at risk from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. In this two-part article, we propose 10 uses of POCUS that pediatricians can apply to their practice in both inpatient and outpatient settings. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(3):e147-e152.]. PMID: 32155281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Finkel L, Paladugu K, Sanyal S, Ghelani S, Colla JS Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

The Care of the Infant Being Placed for Adoption.
Abstract Adoption in the United States is a way for families to grow, and pediatricians will invariably take care of infants being placed for adoption. Reasons why an infant will be adopted are highly variable, as are the types of relationships that birth parents have with their infants. Care of the infant being placed for adoption in the nursery involves close attention to detail to ensure appropriate continuity of care and information as the infant transitions into their eventual medical home. Adoptive parents often seek additional information from their child's health care providers, and pediatricians should be...
Source: Pediatric Annals - February 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kornfeld B, Wild BM Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

A Review of Benign Congenital Anomalies.
Abstract Benign congenital anomalies are common in neonates. Some of these common benign congenital anomalies include preauricular pits, sacral dimples, supernumerary digits, accessory nipple, and natal teeth. It is important for health care providers who take care of newborns to recognize these benign anomalies so that unnecessary evaluations and investigations are not performed. However, some of these anomalies may be associated with clinically significant conditions. In this article, we discuss when further evaluation should be performed in babies presenting with these common benign congenital anomalies. [Pedia...
Source: Pediatric Annals - February 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wu W, Kamat D Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

A Guide to Feeding Term and Preterm Newborns.
This article's aim is to outline general recommendations on evidence-based feeding practices in term and preterm infants with a goal to help guide pediatricians create an optimal individualized feeding regimen and address some known hurdles. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(2):e71-e76.]. PMID: 32045485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - February 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kolnik SE, Billimoria ZC Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Assessment and Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux in The Newborn.
Abstract Gastroesophageal reflux is the involuntary retrograde passage of gastric contents into the esophagus with or without regurgitation and is considered a normal physiologic process, occurring daily in greater than one-third of all infants. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is pathologic reflux associated with poor weight gain, irritability, dysphagia and often requires evaluation and treatment. No gold-standard testing for GERD exists. Measurements made by pH probe or multichannel intraesophageal impedance may provide insight into the quantity and character of reflux. Those events do not correlate well ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - February 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chabra S, Peeples ES Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Newborn Sleep: Patterns, Interventions, and Outcomes.
This article aims to provide a primer on sleep development from fetal life into the neonatal period, discuss sleep in both the home and hospital settings, explore the tools used to measure sleep, and review common interventions applied to those infants experiencing poor sleep. Lastly, there is a mention of long-term outcomes and how early recognition and implementation of measures could help to improve overall growth and development throughout childhood. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(2):e82-e87.]. PMID: 32045487 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - February 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: De Beritto TV Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Monitoring of Infants Discharged Home with Medical Devices.
Abstract Preterm infants and term infants with complex medical conditions are often discharged home with technological support. There is a scarcity of evidence-based guidelines for post-discharge management of these infants at high risk. Common diagnoses necessitating the need for respiratory support and/or monitoring devices include apnea of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for preterm infants, and upper airway anomalies, central nervous system disorders, and neuromuscular disorders for term infants. Some infants who are unable to receive complete oral feeds for various reasons are sometimes discharged ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - February 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Velumula P, Jani S, Kanike N, Chawla S Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Lung Injury Associated with E-Cigarette or Vaping Product Use.
This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiographic appearance, diagnostic approach, and treatment regimens for patients with vaping-induced lung disease as noted in multiple patients and the current literature. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(2):e93-e98.]. PMID: 32045489 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - February 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Griffiths A, Rauzi A, Stadheim K, Wheeler W Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

The SIDS Summit.
PMID: 31930415 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hageman JR Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.
Abstract Opioid use and abuse have skyrocketed in the United States over the last decade. As a result, we have seen a substantial increase in neonates who are exposed to opioids in-utero. Anywhere from 55% to 94% of infants exposed to opioids will experience withdrawal, known as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), and will require management of their symptoms in the hospital. It is important to know what to look for in an infant who is experiencing NAS, how to determine if treatment is needed and what type of treatment is indicated, and how to prepare the infant for discharge once they are stable. Unfortunately, t...
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Khan L Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Approach to Common Hematological Problems for the Pediatrician.
;n PA PMID: 31930417 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: de Alarcón PA Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

A General Pediatrician's Approach to Anemia in Childhood.
Abstract Anemia may be defined as a reduction in red blood cell mass or blood hemoglobin concentration. Physiologically, this represents a hemoglobin level that is too low to meet cellular oxygen demands. Practically, the lower limit of normal is set at 2 standard deviations below the mean based on age, gender, and ethnicity/race. Anemia can lead to impaired growth, development, and poor neurocognitive outcome. As such, it is essential for pediatricians to recognize and conduct appropriate testing for a child with anemia. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(1):e10-e16.]. PMID: 31930418 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: D'Souza AM Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Leukocyte-Related Disorders: A Review for the Pediatrician.
Abstract Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are part of the innate immune system that defends against infectious and foreign agents. In pediatrics, it is important to use age-specific laboratory values when interpreting results. Infections are the most common cause of leukocytosis or leukopenia in children. Symptoms suggestive of more serious etiologies include persistent fevers, weight loss, bruising, fatigue, and adenopathy. Neutropenia is of special importance in pediatrics due to associations of severe neutropenia with genetic syndromes and overlapping presentations with primary immunodeficiencies. Although the...
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mehta B Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

The General Pediatrician's Guide to Isolated Thrombocytopenia.
Abstract Platelets are an essential component of the hemostatic pathway; therefore, it is important to identify and diagnose patients with low platelet counts. This can be challenging, however, because thrombocytopenia can be relatively common and the differential diagnosis can be broad. Furthermore, because platelets can be affected both in form and function in a variety of medical conditions, platelet abnormalities can be the principal driver in some disorders but only a consequence in others. Critical factors in identifying the etiology of the thrombocytopenia include the severity and acuity of the patient's in...
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kumar P Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Evaluation of Abnormal Bleeding in Children.
Abstract Abnormal bleeding or bruising is a relatively common clinical concern, frequently causing parents to seek care from their children's primary care provider. Although ecchymosis from playful trauma, occasional epistaxis, and heavy menstrual bleeding around the time of menarche and beyond are common occurrences, it can be difficult for pediatricians and other primary care providers to determine if their patient has age-appropriate symptoms versus abnormal or excessive bleeding. This review discusses considerations for abnormal bleeding in pediatrics and discusses an initial approach for evaluation of hemosta...
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Roberts JC Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Sickle Cell Disease: A Primer for Primary Care Providers.
Abstract Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with significant global impact. This disorder causes the production of a dysfunctional hemoglobin, which leads to sickling of erythrocytes and ultimately hemolysis, endothelial dysfunction, vaso-occlusion, and sterile inflammation. These cellular level processes produce end-organ changes that ultimately result in specific risks and preventive care needs, unique emergency situations, and long-term complications for patients. Options for the treatment of sickle cell disease are increasing. Thus far, hydroxyurea is the most proven treatment and has been ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kimrey S, Saving KL Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Food Allergy: A Review.
This article highlights risk factors, natural history, diagnosis, and management of food allergy. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(1):e50-e58.]. PMID: 31930423 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - January 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Seth D, Poowutikul P, Pansare M, Kamat D Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Gun Safety Education.
PMID: 31830282 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hageman JR Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

The Relevance of Parental Adverse Childhood Experiences in Pediatric Practice.
This article reviews new research investigating the relationship between parental ACEs and children, and its implications for pediatric practice. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(12):e463-e465.]. PMID: 31830283 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dowd MD Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Pediatric Allergy and Immunology.
PMID: 31830284 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Makhija MM, Ciaccio CE Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Emerging Food Allergy Treatments.
This article focuses on emerging therapies including oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, epicutaneous immunotherapy, and possible adjunct therapies for the treatment and desensitization of IgE-mediated food allergy. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(12):e468-e472.]. PMID: 31830285 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Robison RG Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Angioedema.
Abstract Angioedema is a localized swelling of the skin and submucosal tissues and is generally benign and self-limiting. However, it can be life threatening if angioedema involves the upper airway, resulting in airway obstruction. Airway protection would be critical and lifesaving in patients with angioedema irrespective of the underlying etiology. Detailed history and physical examination can help identify the underlying mechanism of angioedema in an individual patient (ie, mast-cell versus bradykinin-mediated angioedema). Treatment of angioedema depends on the underlying etiology. Mast cell-mediated angioedema ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Seth D, Kamat D Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Telemedicine for General Pediatrics.
Abstract The use of telemedicine (TM) to deliver health care has been growing throughout the United States and internationally through asynchronous and synchronous technology. It has proven to be an effective way of delivering health care at a distance. There are multiple ways that a practice can offer these services, from direct-to-consumer to consultations in ambulatory or inpatient services. TM can be used to deliver care in homes, schools, and virtually anywhere that a patient and provider can access technology. For rural communities, emergency departments and inpatient specialty consults that were not availab...
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Taylor L, Portnoy JM Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Children.
This article reviews classification of this condition as well as its pathophysiology, mediated by a Th2 lymphocyte response. Methods of diagnosis via elicitation of a thorough history, focused physical examination, and testing for specific allergen sensitization are discussed. Treatment of this condition is examined, focusing on allergen avoidance and a variety of available pharmacotherapies. Finally, allergen immunotherapy modalities and their potential for disease-modifying effects as well as their potential risks and benefits are outlined. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(12):e485-e488.]. PMID: 31830288 [PubMed - in process] ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Brown T Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

The Expanding Spectrum of Primary Immune Defects.
This article presents the general pediatrician with a broad overview of the rapidly expanding spectrum of primary immune deficiencies, which are diseases that go beyond the classic description of increased susceptibility to infections and also those with predisposition to autoimmunity, malignancy, and immune dysregulation. Readers are guided through the three proposed categories under the umbrella term of primary immune deficiencies. These categories are lack of function, inappropriate surveillance and clearance, and inadequate control immune dysregulation. This article presents an illustrative distribution of the interrel...
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Murguia-Favela L Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

A Phenotypic Female Adolescent with Primary Amenorrhea and Dysmorphic Features.
We report on a case of a 14-year-old phenotypic female with a microdeletion at 13q31.1-q31.3, dysmorphic facial and limb features, and neurologic symptoms. She presented to her pediatrician with concerns for delayed puberty, and laboratory analysis revealed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. She was found to have an XY karyotype and streak gonads. Further genetic studies did not reveal another cause for her gonadal dysgenesis and, to our knowledge, an association with her known 13q-microdeletion has not yet been reported. Given the risk of malignancy with XY gonadal dysgenesis, the patient had surgery to remove the gonads and...
Source: Pediatric Annals - December 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kanabolo D, Rodriguez J, Waggoner D, Tucker S, Deplewski D, Kaumeyer B, Lastra RR, Gundeti M Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Liquid Laundry Pods: An Innovation with Potential Toxic Consequences for Children and Adolescents.
PMID: 31710358 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - November 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hageman JR Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Substance Use in Adolescents: Latest Trends.
This article reviews the statistics regarding the most commonly used substances in the United States, and some important ways that we can reach out to the adolescent population that is so vulnerable to the harms of substance use. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(11):e418-e422.]. PMID: 31710359 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - November 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Khan L Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Essential Pediatric Nutrition.
PMID: 31710360 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - November 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sentongo T Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

A New Approach to Comprehensive Growth and Nutrition Assessment in Children.
Abstract A new approach to comprehensive growth and nutrition assessment of infants, children, and adolescents that is etiology based and relatively simple to implement is now available. It encompasses five domains: anthropometry (growth measurements), assessment of change in growth (growth dynamism), duration of the growth abnormalities, etiology of the nutritional imbalance, and impact of the nutritional state on functional outcomes. Its increased use will help to standardize the screening, diagnosis, and documentation of malnutrition in both ambulatory and hospitalized patients. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(11):e425-e...
Source: Pediatric Annals - November 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sentongo T Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

The ABCs of Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities.
This article reviews the basic sources, absorption, metabolism as well as the signs and symptoms that arise in deficient and toxic states of fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(11):e434-e440.]. PMID: 31710362 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - November 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Capone K, Sentongo T Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Pancreatic Malnutrition in Children.
Abstract Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in children can lead to lifelong complications related to malnutrition and poor growth. The clinical presentation can be subtle in the early stages of insufficiency as the large functional capacity of the pancreas is gradually lost. The pediatrician plays a crucial role in the early identification of these children to ensure a timely referral so that a diagnosis can be made and therapy initiated. Early nutritional therapy allows for prevention and correction of deficiencies, which leads to improved outcomes and survival. When insufficiency is suspected, the workup should ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - November 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Normatov I, Sentongo T Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Refeeding Syndrome.
Abstract Refeeding syndrome describes the metabolic disturbances and clinical sequelae that occur in response to nutritional rehabilitation of patients who are moderate to severely malnourished. When risk factors are not identified and nutrition therapy is not managed appropriately, devastating consequences such as electrolyte depletion and imbalances, fluid overload, arrhythmia, seizure, encephalopathy, and death may occur. As this entity is often unrecognized, especially in pediatrics, becoming familiar with the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management strategies will help clinicians caring for c...
Source: Pediatric Annals - November 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Runde J, Sentongo T Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research