Myths and Evidence Regarding Melatonin Supplementation for Occasional Sleeplessness in the Pediatric Population
This article summarizes the views expressed in a recent Consensus Panel meeting convened to evaluate the use of melatonin in children, as well as the published scientific literature related to the effectiveness and safety of melatonin, with a focus on occasional sleeplessness in healthy children. We provide an evidence-based framework for the implementation of a standard process to effectively manage occasional sleeplessness in children and adolescents. Unsubstantiated concerns in the past may have limited melatonin's use in children with conditions for which the supplement may support a better sleep pattern and, by doing ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ran D Goldman Peter B Bongiorno James M Olcese Paula A Witt-Enderby Jess P Shatkin Source Type: research

Gender-Affirmative Eating Disorder Care: Clinical Considerations for Transgender and Gender Expansive Children and Youth
This article presents an overview of current research on identified risk factors for the development of eating disorders for TGE children and youth; provides clinical considerations for professionals in providing gender-affirming, collaborative eating disorder care; outlines specific concepts for staff training and for developing gender-affirming systems of care including policies and practices; and identifies numerous resources for TGE children and youth and their families. The clinical considerations and suggested practices reflect current research and clinical practice. Both the gender-affirmative clinical field and the...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ben Geilhufe Oliver Tripp Scout Silverstein Lindsay Birchfield Marcella Raimondo Source Type: research

Affirming Pediatric Care for Transgender and Gender Expansive Youth
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e356-e358. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210818-04. Epub 2021 Sep 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34542336 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210818-04 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ilana Sherer Source Type: research

Clinician Advocacy and Intersex Health: A History of Intersex Health Care and the Role of the Clinician Advocate Past, Present, and Future
This article will focus on this history of intersex health care evolution, the role of clinician advocacy, and suggestions for how clinicians can become advocates for improving intersex health care. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e359-e365.].PMID:34542337 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210816-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gnendy Indig Mariana Serrano Katharine B Dalke Nwadiogo I Ejiogu Frances Grimstad Source Type: research

Medical Trauma in LGBTQIA Youth: Adapting Trauma-Informed Affirming Clinical Practices
This article presents foundational concepts pertaining to medical trauma and practice priorities for pediatric providers, who are uniquely positioned to mitigate medical traumatic stress experienced by LGBTQIA youth. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e379-e383.].PMID:34542338 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210818-02 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Natalia Ramos Source Type: research

Medical Care for Nonbinary Youth: Individualized Gender Care Beyond a Binary Framework
This article presents a paradigm shift in gender care, which addresses discrimination and stigma and outlines components of supportive and affirming care to gender expansive youth. Nonbinary youth are best served when providers use gender-affirming language and focus on embodiment goals. Medical interventions may include pubertal suppression, hormones, and surgeries, which are best reviewed by individual physical effects rather than with "masculinizing" or "feminizing" terminology. Individualized goals may be supported by estrogen, testosterone, or a combination of both. Providers should be prepared to ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jen Hastings Callum Bobb Michelle Wolfe Zo Amaro Jimenez Colt St Amand Source Type: research

COVID-19: Where Are We Now?
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e348-e349. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210826-01. Epub 2021 Sep 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34542340 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210826-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Joseph R Hageman Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Transgender and Gender Expansive Children and Youth
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e366-e370. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210818-01. Epub 2021 Sep 1.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has put strains on transgender and gender expansive (TGE) children and youth, with increased rates of anxiety and depression, lower access to medical and mental health services, and greater exposure to unaccepting home environments. At the same time, for some of these young people, particularly those with supportive living situations, sheltering in place and online schooling has afforded them the opportunity to freely explore and consolidate their gender, protected from the strains of soci...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Diane Ehrensaft Source Type: research

Tickborne Illnesses
This article reviews the most common tick-borne infections in the US, including epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e350-e355.].PMID:34542342 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210825-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amy Liu Source Type: research

Myths and Evidence Regarding Melatonin Supplementation for Occasional Sleeplessness in the Pediatric Population
This article summarizes the views expressed in a recent Consensus Panel meeting convened to evaluate the use of melatonin in children, as well as the published scientific literature related to the effectiveness and safety of melatonin, with a focus on occasional sleeplessness in healthy children. We provide an evidence-based framework for the implementation of a standard process to effectively manage occasional sleeplessness in children and adolescents. Unsubstantiated concerns in the past may have limited melatonin's use in children with conditions for which the supplement may support a better sleep pattern and, by doing ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ran D Goldman Peter B Bongiorno James M Olcese Paula A Witt-Enderby Jess P Shatkin Source Type: research

Gender-Affirmative Eating Disorder Care: Clinical Considerations for Transgender and Gender Expansive Children and Youth
This article presents an overview of current research on identified risk factors for the development of eating disorders for TGE children and youth; provides clinical considerations for professionals in providing gender-affirming, collaborative eating disorder care; outlines specific concepts for staff training and for developing gender-affirming systems of care including policies and practices; and identifies numerous resources for TGE children and youth and their families. The clinical considerations and suggested practices reflect current research and clinical practice. Both the gender-affirmative clinical field and the...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ben Geilhufe Oliver Tripp Scout Silverstein Lindsay Birchfield Marcella Raimondo Source Type: research

Affirming Pediatric Care for Transgender and Gender Expansive Youth
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e356-e358. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210818-04. Epub 2021 Sep 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34542336 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210818-04 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ilana Sherer Source Type: research

Clinician Advocacy and Intersex Health: A History of Intersex Health Care and the Role of the Clinician Advocate Past, Present, and Future
This article will focus on this history of intersex health care evolution, the role of clinician advocacy, and suggestions for how clinicians can become advocates for improving intersex health care. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e359-e365.].PMID:34542337 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210816-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gnendy Indig Mariana Serrano Katharine B Dalke Nwadiogo I Ejiogu Frances Grimstad Source Type: research

Medical Trauma in LGBTQIA Youth: Adapting Trauma-Informed Affirming Clinical Practices
This article presents foundational concepts pertaining to medical trauma and practice priorities for pediatric providers, who are uniquely positioned to mitigate medical traumatic stress experienced by LGBTQIA youth. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e379-e383.].PMID:34542338 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210818-02 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Natalia Ramos Source Type: research

Medical Care for Nonbinary Youth: Individualized Gender Care Beyond a Binary Framework
This article presents a paradigm shift in gender care, which addresses discrimination and stigma and outlines components of supportive and affirming care to gender expansive youth. Nonbinary youth are best served when providers use gender-affirming language and focus on embodiment goals. Medical interventions may include pubertal suppression, hormones, and surgeries, which are best reviewed by individual physical effects rather than with "masculinizing" or "feminizing" terminology. Individualized goals may be supported by estrogen, testosterone, or a combination of both. Providers should be prepared to ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jen Hastings Callum Bobb Michelle Wolfe Zo Amaro Jimenez Colt St Amand Source Type: research

COVID-19: Where Are We Now?
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e348-e349. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210826-01. Epub 2021 Sep 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34542340 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210826-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Joseph R Hageman Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Transgender and Gender Expansive Children and Youth
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e366-e370. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210818-01. Epub 2021 Sep 1.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has put strains on transgender and gender expansive (TGE) children and youth, with increased rates of anxiety and depression, lower access to medical and mental health services, and greater exposure to unaccepting home environments. At the same time, for some of these young people, particularly those with supportive living situations, sheltering in place and online schooling has afforded them the opportunity to freely explore and consolidate their gender, protected from the strains of soci...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Diane Ehrensaft Source Type: research

Tickborne Illnesses
This article reviews the most common tick-borne infections in the US, including epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e350-e355.].PMID:34542342 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210825-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amy Liu Source Type: research

Myths and Evidence Regarding Melatonin Supplementation for Occasional Sleeplessness in the Pediatric Population
This article summarizes the views expressed in a recent Consensus Panel meeting convened to evaluate the use of melatonin in children, as well as the published scientific literature related to the effectiveness and safety of melatonin, with a focus on occasional sleeplessness in healthy children. We provide an evidence-based framework for the implementation of a standard process to effectively manage occasional sleeplessness in children and adolescents. Unsubstantiated concerns in the past may have limited melatonin's use in children with conditions for which the supplement may support a better sleep pattern and, by doing ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ran D Goldman Peter B Bongiorno James M Olcese Paula A Witt-Enderby Jess P Shatkin Source Type: research

Gender-Affirmative Eating Disorder Care: Clinical Considerations for Transgender and Gender Expansive Children and Youth
This article presents an overview of current research on identified risk factors for the development of eating disorders for TGE children and youth; provides clinical considerations for professionals in providing gender-affirming, collaborative eating disorder care; outlines specific concepts for staff training and for developing gender-affirming systems of care including policies and practices; and identifies numerous resources for TGE children and youth and their families. The clinical considerations and suggested practices reflect current research and clinical practice. Both the gender-affirmative clinical field and the...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ben Geilhufe Oliver Tripp Scout Silverstein Lindsay Birchfield Marcella Raimondo Source Type: research

Affirming Pediatric Care for Transgender and Gender Expansive Youth
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e356-e358. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210818-04. Epub 2021 Sep 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34542336 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210818-04 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ilana Sherer Source Type: research

Clinician Advocacy and Intersex Health: A History of Intersex Health Care and the Role of the Clinician Advocate Past, Present, and Future
This article will focus on this history of intersex health care evolution, the role of clinician advocacy, and suggestions for how clinicians can become advocates for improving intersex health care. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e359-e365.].PMID:34542337 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210816-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gnendy Indig Mariana Serrano Katharine B Dalke Nwadiogo I Ejiogu Frances Grimstad Source Type: research

Medical Trauma in LGBTQIA Youth: Adapting Trauma-Informed Affirming Clinical Practices
This article presents foundational concepts pertaining to medical trauma and practice priorities for pediatric providers, who are uniquely positioned to mitigate medical traumatic stress experienced by LGBTQIA youth. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e379-e383.].PMID:34542338 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210818-02 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Natalia Ramos Source Type: research

Medical Care for Nonbinary Youth: Individualized Gender Care Beyond a Binary Framework
This article presents a paradigm shift in gender care, which addresses discrimination and stigma and outlines components of supportive and affirming care to gender expansive youth. Nonbinary youth are best served when providers use gender-affirming language and focus on embodiment goals. Medical interventions may include pubertal suppression, hormones, and surgeries, which are best reviewed by individual physical effects rather than with "masculinizing" or "feminizing" terminology. Individualized goals may be supported by estrogen, testosterone, or a combination of both. Providers should be prepared to ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jen Hastings Callum Bobb Michelle Wolfe Zo Amaro Jimenez Colt St Amand Source Type: research

COVID-19: Where Are We Now?
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e348-e349. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210826-01. Epub 2021 Sep 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34542340 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210826-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Joseph R Hageman Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Transgender and Gender Expansive Children and Youth
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Sep;50(9):e366-e370. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210818-01. Epub 2021 Sep 1.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has put strains on transgender and gender expansive (TGE) children and youth, with increased rates of anxiety and depression, lower access to medical and mental health services, and greater exposure to unaccepting home environments. At the same time, for some of these young people, particularly those with supportive living situations, sheltering in place and online schooling has afforded them the opportunity to freely explore and consolidate their gender, protected from the strains of soci...
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Diane Ehrensaft Source Type: research

Tickborne Illnesses
This article reviews the most common tick-borne infections in the US, including epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(9):e350-e355.].PMID:34542342 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210825-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - September 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amy Liu Source Type: research

The Tattle About Tongue-Ties
This article highlights the findings for the general pediatrician seeking to support breast-feeding dyads. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(8):e310-e312.].PMID:34398711 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210715-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bridget M Wild Benjamin Kornfeld Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Esophagitis for the General Pediatrician
This article reviews pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a clinicopathologic disorder with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and characterized by eosinophil-predominant inflammation present on esophageal biopsy. As part of this review, we outline the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, approved treatment options, and emerging therapies of EoE. Although previously considered a rare condition, EoE has emerged primarily in Western countries, with an estimated incidence of 4 per 100,000 persons. Understanding disease manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment options are critical for primary ca...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrea Tukan Vincent F Biank Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Diseases
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e315-e319. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210721-02. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTSince its initial onset in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread quickly across the globe, resulting in the potentially life-threatening respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although less commonly reported, COVID-19 has also been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, which may occur more frequently in children. This has also led to concern about the susceptibility of children to the SARS-CoV-2 virus who have underlying chronic digestive disease and may be t...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anita Rao Mora Puertolas Joseph Runde Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the Mental Health Effects on Adolescents and Young Adults
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e308-e309. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210721-03. Epub 2021 Aug 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34398714 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210721-03 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Joseph R Hageman Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Vaccine Refusal in the Newborn Period
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e343-e347. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210712-01. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTPerinatal hepatitis B (HepB) infection is a serious condition in the pediatric population, with up to 90% of exposed infants progressing to chronic infection. The cornerstone of prevention is the birth dose of the HepB vaccine. In 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices updated their guidelines for the birth dose of the HepB vaccine. These new guidelines included a refined timeline on when the HepB vaccine should be given, including for infants born to women with known HepB infection, unknown HepB status, and un...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: RosaMarie Maiorella Victoria A Rodriguez Source Type: research

Topics of Concern in Pediatric Gastroenterology
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e313-e314. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210720-02. Epub 2021 Aug 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34398716 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210720-02 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vincent F Biank Ruba Azzam Source Type: research

Pediatric Digestive Health and the Gut Microbiome: Existing Therapies and a Look to the Future
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e336-e342. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210720-01. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTThe human gut is host to trillions of microbes that from birth begin interacting with our immune system. Over time this relationship is thought to shape critical aspects of human function such as metabolism, brain development, immune response, and overall gut health. Recent advances in technology have allowed us to begin understanding this complex relationship and have demonstrated that microbes within the gut ecosystem can be influenced by a variety of factors including mode of delivery, diet, and medication exposure, all of ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Samantha Saul Jessika Fuessel Joseph Runde Source Type: research

Acute Pancreatitis in Children
This article also reviews the epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, imaging and procedural modalities, common causes, management, and complications of acute pancreatitis and is geared toward the general pediatric hospitalist. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(8):e330-e335.].PMID:34398718 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210713-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah Afzal Julia Kleinhenz Source Type: research

Constipation in Pediatrics: A Clinical Review
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e320-e324. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210714-01. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTConstipation is a common problem encountered in the pediatric setting. For many children, constipation is functional in nature-potentially stemming from a pattern of stool output that is infrequent or not fully productive (ie, incomplete stool evacuation)-and includes behavioral concerns like stool withholding. In many cases of functional constipation (FC), the pattern may have started in the toddler years during or before toilet training and may now be well established. Additional factors often include inadequate fluids and f...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amy Pawasarat Vincent F Biank Source Type: research

The Tattle About Tongue-Ties
This article highlights the findings for the general pediatrician seeking to support breast-feeding dyads. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(8):e310-e312.].PMID:34398711 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210715-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bridget M Wild Benjamin Kornfeld Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Esophagitis for the General Pediatrician
This article reviews pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a clinicopathologic disorder with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and characterized by eosinophil-predominant inflammation present on esophageal biopsy. As part of this review, we outline the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, approved treatment options, and emerging therapies of EoE. Although previously considered a rare condition, EoE has emerged primarily in Western countries, with an estimated incidence of 4 per 100,000 persons. Understanding disease manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment options are critical for primary ca...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrea Tukan Vincent F Biank Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Diseases
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e315-e319. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210721-02. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTSince its initial onset in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread quickly across the globe, resulting in the potentially life-threatening respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although less commonly reported, COVID-19 has also been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, which may occur more frequently in children. This has also led to concern about the susceptibility of children to the SARS-CoV-2 virus who have underlying chronic digestive disease and may be t...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anita Rao Mora Puertolas Joseph Runde Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the Mental Health Effects on Adolescents and Young Adults
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e308-e309. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210721-03. Epub 2021 Aug 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34398714 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210721-03 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Joseph R Hageman Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Vaccine Refusal in the Newborn Period
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e343-e347. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210712-01. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTPerinatal hepatitis B (HepB) infection is a serious condition in the pediatric population, with up to 90% of exposed infants progressing to chronic infection. The cornerstone of prevention is the birth dose of the HepB vaccine. In 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices updated their guidelines for the birth dose of the HepB vaccine. These new guidelines included a refined timeline on when the HepB vaccine should be given, including for infants born to women with known HepB infection, unknown HepB status, and un...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: RosaMarie Maiorella Victoria A Rodriguez Source Type: research

Topics of Concern in Pediatric Gastroenterology
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e313-e314. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210720-02. Epub 2021 Aug 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34398716 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210720-02 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vincent F Biank Ruba Azzam Source Type: research

Pediatric Digestive Health and the Gut Microbiome: Existing Therapies and a Look to the Future
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e336-e342. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210720-01. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTThe human gut is host to trillions of microbes that from birth begin interacting with our immune system. Over time this relationship is thought to shape critical aspects of human function such as metabolism, brain development, immune response, and overall gut health. Recent advances in technology have allowed us to begin understanding this complex relationship and have demonstrated that microbes within the gut ecosystem can be influenced by a variety of factors including mode of delivery, diet, and medication exposure, all of ...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Samantha Saul Jessika Fuessel Joseph Runde Source Type: research

Acute Pancreatitis in Children
This article also reviews the epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, imaging and procedural modalities, common causes, management, and complications of acute pancreatitis and is geared toward the general pediatric hospitalist. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(8):e330-e335.].PMID:34398718 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210713-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah Afzal Julia Kleinhenz Source Type: research

Constipation in Pediatrics: A Clinical Review
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e320-e324. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210714-01. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTConstipation is a common problem encountered in the pediatric setting. For many children, constipation is functional in nature-potentially stemming from a pattern of stool output that is infrequent or not fully productive (ie, incomplete stool evacuation)-and includes behavioral concerns like stool withholding. In many cases of functional constipation (FC), the pattern may have started in the toddler years during or before toilet training and may now be well established. Additional factors often include inadequate fluids and f...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amy Pawasarat Vincent F Biank Source Type: research

The Tattle About Tongue-Ties
This article highlights the findings for the general pediatrician seeking to support breast-feeding dyads. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(8):e310-e312.].PMID:34398711 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210715-01 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bridget M Wild Benjamin Kornfeld Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Esophagitis for the General Pediatrician
This article reviews pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a clinicopathologic disorder with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and characterized by eosinophil-predominant inflammation present on esophageal biopsy. As part of this review, we outline the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, approved treatment options, and emerging therapies of EoE. Although previously considered a rare condition, EoE has emerged primarily in Western countries, with an estimated incidence of 4 per 100,000 persons. Understanding disease manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment options are critical for primary ca...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrea Tukan Vincent F Biank Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Diseases
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e315-e319. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210721-02. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTSince its initial onset in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread quickly across the globe, resulting in the potentially life-threatening respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although less commonly reported, COVID-19 has also been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, which may occur more frequently in children. This has also led to concern about the susceptibility of children to the SARS-CoV-2 virus who have underlying chronic digestive disease and may be t...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anita Rao Mora Puertolas Joseph Runde Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the Mental Health Effects on Adolescents and Young Adults
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e308-e309. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210721-03. Epub 2021 Aug 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34398714 | DOI:10.3928/19382359-20210721-03 (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Joseph R Hageman Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Vaccine Refusal in the Newborn Period
Pediatr Ann. 2021 Aug;50(8):e343-e347. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20210712-01. Epub 2021 Aug 1.ABSTRACTPerinatal hepatitis B (HepB) infection is a serious condition in the pediatric population, with up to 90% of exposed infants progressing to chronic infection. The cornerstone of prevention is the birth dose of the HepB vaccine. In 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices updated their guidelines for the birth dose of the HepB vaccine. These new guidelines included a refined timeline on when the HepB vaccine should be given, including for infants born to women with known HepB infection, unknown HepB status, and un...
Source: Pediatric Annals - August 16, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: RosaMarie Maiorella Victoria A Rodriguez Source Type: research