Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - October 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Polytrauma in children
is rare, yet trauma is a leading cause of death in children. Clinicians with responsibility for the management of children suffering major trauma must recognise the conflict between these facts. Simulation and preparation can help to improve the quality of care at both individual and institutional levels. Children are not small adults, and their anatomic and physiological differences manifest themselves in different responses to major trauma than those seen in adults. This reality should be met with a tailored approach to assessment, investigation and management that accommodates the changes occurring from infancy, throug...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - October 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nicholas Peterson, Leroy James Tags: Symposium: Connective tissue and bone Source Type: research

Initial assessment and management of agitation and aggression in the paediatric setting
Assessing and managing acute behavioural disturbance in the acute setting is challenging for paediatricians at all stages of their careers. In this article we use a case example of an acutely agitated teenager in a sequence in which they might present to a colleague on the ground. We follow them through considerations of differential diagnosis, investigation, acute management of the disturbance as well as through legal and ethical considerations. We provide details of investigations as well as acute management and point to further resources that the clinician might use. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - October 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Samuel Ponnuthurai, Omer S. Moghraby, Sarah Reynolds, Dilshad Mariker, Damian Roland Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Knee pain in children
Knee pain is common in children, particular during adolescence. A detailed history and clinical examination often will identify the likely cause. Health care professionals looking after children and young people should be aware of the common causes of knee pain and red flags which are a feature of more sinister causes. Common causes of knee pain include patellofemoral problems, apophysitis such as Osgood Schlatter's disease and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome, osteochondritis dissecans, trauma, rheumatological causes such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and infective causes as such septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. (...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - October 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jimmy Wui Guan Ng, Kathryn Price, Samundeeswari Deepak Tags: Symposium: connective tissue and bone Source Type: research

Self-assessment
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 30, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nina Annika Herz, Peter Heinz Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 22, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The genetics of developmental disorders
Children with developmental disorders often have complex health needs and require frequent input from many different paediatric services. Genomic technologies have revolutionised how these disorders are diagnosed and have real potential to transform the management of previously intractable paediatric conditions. For paediatricians to fully harness these benefits for their patients, and to work productively with their clinical genetics colleagues within the multi-disciplinary team, they must be genomically literate and aware of the technical and ethical challenges. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elizabeth J. Radford, Helen V. Firth Tags: Symposium: special needs Source Type: research

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) for children and young people with cerebral palsy
Evidence for functional electrical stimulation (FES) as a treatment option in adult neurological conditions has grown over the last 25 years. Children and young people with neurological conditions can also benefit from FES treatments but there are gaps in clinical knowledge, awareness and evidence which need addressing. Some of the known benefits of FES include safe walking with facilitation and exercise of ‘normal’ movement, muscle strengthening, joint range and proprioceptive improvements as well as spasticity reduction. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christine Singleton, Helen Jones, Lizz Maycock Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

CPIPS: musculoskeletal and hip surveillance for children with cerebral palsy
CPIPS (Cerebral Palsy Integrated Pathway Scotland) provides access for all children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 2 and 16 years in Scotland for a standardized musculoskeletal examination of the spine and lower limbs by paediatric physiotherapists. Children with more severe CP are at risk of developing a displaced hip joint which can become painful and interfere with seating and daily activities. Therefore all children also receive regular X-rays of their hips based on their age and severity of CP. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mark S Gaston Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Guillain-Barre syndrome: a review
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare acute paralytic polyneuropathy, with an incidence of about 1 in 100,000. It occurs in adults and children. It is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system often triggered by acute infections – the most common being gastrointestinal or respiratory – leading to an immune mediated response of producing antibodies to antigens which react with the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves, resulting in demyelination and/or axonal injury. In severe cases, GBS may lead to respiratory failure, and even death. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Natalie Abbassi, Gautam Ambegaonkar Tags: Symposium: neurology Source Type: research

Therapeutic advances in spinal muscular atrophy
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular condition, characterized by loss of motor neurons as a result of a mutation in the survival motor neuron gene. This results in muscle wasting and in the most common and severe type, death before 24 months. Over the recent years there has been a dynamic shift in the therapeutic options for these patients involving both clinical trials in genetic modifying therapies to indirectly improve the survival motor neuron protein level and hence strength, muscle promotor therapies, up/down regulation of modifier genes and more recently gene therapy to replace the mutated survival ...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tracey Anne Willis Tags: Symposium: neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Symptomatic palliative care for children with neurodisability
Paediatric palliative care and neurodisability are two relatively new, evolving paediatric sub-specialities that have increasing relevance in the current paediatric landscape. For many people palliative care has been synonymous with end of life care, but in paediatrics it encompasses much more and is for all children with life-threatening or life-limiting conditions, from the point of diagnosis. This breadth of focus is demonstrated well through the interface between paediatric palliative care and paediatric neurodisability. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lizzie Bendle, Joanna Laddie Tags: Symposium: special needs Source Type: research

Headache in children and young people
This article aims to provide a practical guide to the common causes of headache and their assessment in children. Contrary to popular belief, headaches are very common in children. The primary headache disorders, which include migraine and tension-type headache, account for the majority of headaches, while secondary headache, that is those with underlying pathology, are much less common. A thorough history and examination is the key to determining the cause and should be the most important means of reassuring the child and family that there is no serious cause for the headaches. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Catharine P. White Tags: Symposium: neurology Source Type: research

Ataxia in childhood: a pragmatic approach
Ataxia is a term used to describe a clinical presentation of incoordinated or inaccurate movements which occur without an alteration of tone or weakness. It is not a diagnosis, but its presentation has a wide differential diagnosis depending upon its onset. These can be a challenging group due to its varied aetiology. Broadly causes can be divided into genetic and acquired. Investigations are invasive and expensive. It is extremely important to liaise with a paediatric neurologist early following presentation as some of the ataxia are treatable. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Santosh R. Mordekar Tags: Symposium: neurology Source Type: research

Constraint-induced movement therapy for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy affects 1 in 500 children in the UK and of those approximately a third will have hemiplegic cerebral palsy which predominantly affects one-side of the body and about half of these children will have a more affected upper limb. Impairments in the affected upper limb can include spasticity, weakness, dystonia and sensory deficits. Attempts at using the limb tend to be awkward which leads to non-use and consequently bimanual tasks are often carried out unimanually. The natural history is worsening of the upper limb with many children developing secondary musculoskeletal problems such as muscle contractures. (So...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pauline Christmas Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Paediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes
Acquired demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system are rare disorders in childhood. Immune-mediated damage affects the myelin sheath of the optic nerves, brain and spinal cord. The majority are monophasic. Relapsing demyelinating syndromes include multiple sclerosis, aquaporin-4 antibody-associated disease and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease. The relapsing syndromes are associated with gradual accrual of neurological deficits and cognitive impairment. In this review, we discuss the presentation, diagnosis and management of monophasic and relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sophie M. Duignan, Cheryl A. Hemingway Tags: Symposium: neurology Source Type: research

Writing a good anticipatory care plan for a child with severe disability
There are increasing numbers of children with severe disability and life limiting conditions living longer in the community. In order for them to have high quality end of life care and choice of place of death there need to be discussions with the child and family about how the child may deteriorate and the pros and cons of the different possible interventions taking into account the priorities and views of the family and the child themselves. Families and professionals are reluctant to talk about the death of a child and there is always uncertainty. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah Haynes, Caroline Dorsett, Toni Wolff Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Nutrition in children with neurodisability
Children with neurodisability are at risk of nutritional impairment due to a number of factors including feeding and swallowing difficulties, gastrointestinal disorders, disorders of movement and posture, immobility, medication, adverse food related sensory experience and behavioural feeding difficulties. Undernutrition has a negative impact on growth, general health indices, bone health, muscle strength, immunity and wound healing and brain and cognitive development. Regular multidisciplinary assessment including the routine measurement of body composition and micronutrient status are recommended to inform appropriate nut...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Morag Jane Andrew Tags: Symposium: special needs Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A practical guide to conducting a child sexual abuse examination
If you work with children, then you are seeing children who have been sexually abused. Many presentations in a health setting go unrecognised. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 31, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jo Gifford Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

SEND for the paediatrician: children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities
Disabled children and young people, including those with special educational needs, have rights to the same high-quality health care as anyone else would expect to receive. Whilst policies and practices vary over time and across jurisdictions, maintaining a structured approach and broad vision should ensure that each and every need of all children and young people is identified, accurately described using clearly understandable terms, documented and communicated to all who need to know in the child or young person's wider team. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 30, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Karen Horridge Tags: Symposium: special needs Source Type: research

Self-assessment
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rebecca Proudfoot Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

A practical approach to the assessment of faltering growth in the infant and toddler
This article suggests an approach to selection of cases for referral, the assessment and investigation required in secondary care and the identification of the less than 5% of cases with an underlying organic disease. A framework is suggested to aid advice to be given to parents with a child who has faltering growth due to inadequate nutritional intake for their energy requirements. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nicola Pritchard Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Hereditary spherocytosis
is a red cell membrane disorder which is variable in respect to clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic basis. This review highlights the underlying pathophysiology, clinical features, investigations and management of HS in childhood. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sara Trompeter, May-Jean King Tags: Symposium: Haematology Source Type: research

Long-term parenteral nutrition
Intestinal failure (IF) is a term applied when intestinal function becomes insufficient to allow adequate absorption of fluid, electrolytes, or nutrients required for normal growth and survival. The development of parenteral nutrition (PN) as a treatment modality has greatly improved the outcome for children with IF and has contributed to improved outcomes in neonates and children from intensive care settings. Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is central to the care of patients when IF is expected to last for more than 3 –6 months. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sue Protheroe Tags: Symposium: nutrition Source Type: research

Anorexia nervosa in adolescence
Eating disorders are complex mental health conditions. Anorexia Nervosa (AN) represents a particular subtype of eating disorder that is significantly more common in young women than in young men and is the second most common mental health disorder in adolescent girls. It is a serious condition with the highest standardized mortality of any psychiatric condition. Optimal care of requires input from a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) providing collaborative medical, nutritional and psychological interventions, which includes the family, dieticians, consultant psychiatrists, therapists, nurses, paediatricians and general practit...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Damian Wood, Claire Knight Tags: Occasional Review Source Type: research

Management of sickle cell disease: management of acute episodes in the community and in hospital
This review discusses the presentation and management of acute sickle crises, highlighting which aspects of diagnosis and management can be undertaken in the community and which require urgent referral to hospital. GP's, community nurse specialists, and community paediatricians should be aware of the different acute presentations in order to provide effective and safe care, and should understand warning symptoms and signs which indicate the need for assessment in hospital. It is also important that the parents have a good awareness of these symptoms and know when and how to seek help. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 6, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Paul T. Telfer Tags: Symposium: Haematology Source Type: research

Malnutrition in developing countries: nutrition disorders, a leading cause of ill health in the world today
Shockingly, malnutrition remains a dominant cause of mortality, morbidity and lost potential in today's children. In 2017, more than 1 in 5 children did not achieve their growth potential and were at risk of the associated long-term deficits in cognitive development. Stunting affects almost 40% of children in South Asia and the number of stunted children in Africa is rising. More than 1 in 14 of the world's children are wasted. Forty-five percent of all deaths in under-fives are attributable to undernutrition. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 6, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Akinlolu A. Adepoju, Stephen Allen Tags: Symposium: nutrition Source Type: research

Understanding infant formula
The World Health organisation recommends breast feeding infants for the first six months of life. When this breast feeding does not occur either through parental choice or medical need, infant formulas will be required. There is a bewildering array of formulas on the UK market for many different requirements. When faced with an unsettled infant many parents (and healthcare professionals) will experiment with the infant formula available and then attend the paediatric clinic looking for help and advice. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Donna Traves Tags: Symposium: nutrition Source Type: research

Gastro-oesophageal reflux in infancy
Gastro-oesophageal reflux is very common in infancy. It is important to differentiate benign physiological reflux from gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, which is associated with significant morbidity. This review summarises the approach to infants with symptoms and signs of reflux, differential diagnosis, investigations and management including non-pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical treatments. Most infants with physiological gastro-oesophageal reflux do not require any medical management if the infant is thriving. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vinod Kolimarala, R Mark Beattie, Akshay Batra Tags: Symposium: nutrition Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Self-assessment
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yishen Wang, Peter Heinz Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Complications of short bowel syndrome
This article mainly focuses on the complications of short bowel syndrome that need to be avoided in order for intestinal adaptation to progress and the child to be established on enteral feeds/oral diet. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Theodoric Wong, Girish Gupte Tags: Symposium: nutrition Source Type: research

Management of sickle cell disease: outpatient and community aspects
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the commonest inherited disorder in England, affecting 1 in 2000 births, the majority born in London and of Black African family origins. Newborn bloodspot screening for SCD has now been implemented across the whole of England and this review considers the neonatal screening pathway and aspects of outpatient and community care which should be delivered within the comprehensive care networks. Morbidity and mortality during childhood has declined due to implementation of effective care programmes, which include infection and stroke prophylaxis. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Banu Kaya, Paul T. Telfer Tags: Symposium: Haematology Source Type: research

Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal in a circadian manner in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary, which is turn is stimulated by corticotropin releasing hormone from the pituitary. Cortisol has a critical role in homeostasis. Cortisol deficiency may present with nonspecific symptoms of lethargy, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, symptoms of hypoglycaemia and failure to thrive or weight loss. Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency may be pigmented due to an increase in melanocyte stimulating hormone, a cleavage product POMC, the precursor of ACTH. (Source:...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Julie Park, Darren Powell, Joanne Blair Tags: Symposium: endocrinology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of childhood aplastic anaemia
Aplastic anaemia (AA) is a rare and heterogeneous disorder. AA results in pancytopenia and a hypocellular bone marrow in the absence of an abnormal infiltrate, major dysplasia or marrow fibrosis. In children, most cases are idiopathic and caused by T lymphocyte-mediated destruction of haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC's). Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) account for around 20% of cases and have to be excluded. This can be challenging but has specific implications for management. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 21, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Katherine Clesham, Neha Bhatnagar, Sujith Samarasinghe Tags: Symposium: haematology Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome: unravelling or unravelled?
Metabolic syndrome comprises the association of risk factors for future cardiovascular disease (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidaemia, and abdominal obesity). It is thought to affect up to 40% of overweight or obese children in the UK. This has coincided with a rise in obesity-related type 2 diabetes in children. The characterisation of co-morbidities has improved since the last review in 2015. This review discusses some of the current theories about disease mechanisms, and reviews the current guidelines to propose a practical screening checklist for identifying and managing affected children. (Source: Pa...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 19, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elizabeth S. Baranowski, Timothy G. Barrett, Leonard Parsons Tags: Symposium: endocrinology Source Type: research

A review of growth hormone deficiency
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare but important cause of short stature in children. It is treatable. However, diagnosis is challenging and often requires referral to a specialist paediatric endocrinologist to facilitate testing and the interpretation of results. Careful history and examination with meticulous auxology data are critical components of the initial evaluation in clinic. Thereafter, further investigations are required to exclude other causes of short stature, and to establish the diagnosis. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mehul T. Dattani, Neha Malhotra Tags: Symposium: endocrinology Source Type: research

Von Willebrand disease: diagnosis and management
Von Willebrand Disease is a common cause of excessive bruising and bleeding in children. This short article gives advice on diagnosis and management for paediatricians. Given its prevalence and presenting symptoms, VWD should always be considered in the assessment of children suspected of non-accidental injury. Its diagnosis can be challenging, not only because of the various subtypes of the disorder but because of the considerable overlap between VWD and normal individuals. Laboratory diagnosis requires a range of quantitative and qualitative tests of the VWF protein, with targeted gene analysis increasingly used to confi...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michael Williams, Jonathan Lancashire Tags: Symposium: haematology Source Type: research

Management of haemophilia in children
Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with a reduction or absence of coagulation factor VIII or IX. In severe haemophilia, recurrent, spontaneous bleeding occurs into joints, without treatment this leads to crippling joint deformity. Haemophilia is an X-linked disorder yet there is no family history in approximately one third of cases where haemophilia arises as a result of a new genetic mutation. Without treatment, the prognosis is poor but the development of factor concentrates and ‘non-factor replacement therapy’ has transformed the outlook. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kate Khair Tags: Symposium: Haematology Source Type: research

A simple model for understanding the causes of paediatric wheeze
This article describes my personal model for understanding why these three conditions occur at different ages and respond to different treatments. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 31, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Edward Snelson Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A practical approach to recurrent epistaxis in children
Recurrent epistaxis (nose bleeds) are common in children. The vast majority of nose bleeds are self-resolving and do not require medical input. Clinicians get involved in cases where the nose bleeds are more severe, frequent and take a longer time to resolve. Emergency management involves basic resuscitation and first aid measures. A holistic approach is required, when dealing with non-emergency cases of frequent nose bleeds, including the exclusion of systemic illness. In this article we outline the basic history, examination, investigation and management aspects of evaluating a paediatric patient with epistaxis. (Source:...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Waqas Jamil, Gareth Rowlands Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Managing headache
involves being able to make a positive diagnosis of the headache type, reassuring the family that there is no serious underlying cause and enabling self-management. Resisting the urge to investigate is also important. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Catharine P. White Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Assessing tall stature
Children and adults are considered ‘tall’ when their height is above 98th centile for age i.e. 2 standard deviations (SD) above the mean. Tall stature is familial in most cases. In assessing children with tall stature the mid-parental height centile should always be calculated and this article gives advice on how to proceed with investigation and management for children who are unexpectedly tall. Other common causes of tall stature are obesity or early normal puberty. Precocious puberty, hyperthyroidism and GH excess are less common but these will also cause rapid height velocity at any age and precocious puber...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 14, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gary E. Butler Tags: Symposium: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Checklists in action in neonatal medicine: improving breastfeeding rates
Checklists were initially used within the aviation industry before being extrapolated into a number of other industries and arriving much later to medicine, where they are used as tools to improve patient safety. Checklists improve reliability, reduce variation and standardise care, ensuring that staff can review their tasks and confirm compliance before moving on to the next step. They have flexibility in application and are used in both within the acute care setting, in addition to service planning and delivery. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Abby Parish, Cora Doherty Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Management of teenagers with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex endocrine and metabolic disorder with a prevalence of 20%. It is variable in aetiology, clinical presentation and prognosis, making it a challenging disease to understand and manage in teenagers. It results from a defect in steroidogenesis, leading to excess luteinising hormone and hyperandrogenism. PCOS is also associated with insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinism. The Rotterdam criteria are the most widely used criteria for diagnosing PCOS, however it is typically challenging to diagnose in teenage girls due to the overlap of symptoms with normal puberta...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Taffy Makaya, Supriyo Basu, Rebecca Poole Tags: Symposium: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Graves ’ disease
Graves' disease develops when pathogenic thyroid receptor antibodies stimulate the thyroid gland resulting in excessive thyroid hormone production. Children and adolescents with Graves' disease can present in a variety of ways to many different clinical teams with a diverse range of underlying symptoms and signs. Graves' disease is usually managed initially with the anti-thyroid drug (ATD) carbimazole. However, only 20 –25 % of young patients remit (remaining euthyroid when the ATD is stopped in the longer term) after a 2 year course of ATD treatment. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tim Cheetham, Rachel Boal Tags: Symposium: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research