COVID-19 in children: what did we learn from the first wave?
A pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused high rates of mortality, predominantly in adults. Children are significantly less affected by SARS-CoV-2 with far lower rates of recorded infections in children compared to adults, milder symptoms in the majority of children and very low mortality rates. A suspected late manifestation of the disease, paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome - temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), has been seen in small numbers of children and has a more severe disease course than acute SARS-CoV-2. (Source: P...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 18, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Aliki Bogiatzopoulou, Huw Mayberry, Daniel B. Hawcutt, Elizabeth Whittaker, Alasdair Munro, Damian Roland, Justus Simba, Christopher Gale, Susanna Felsenstein, Elissa Abrams, Caroline B. Jones, Ian Lewins, Carlos R. Rodriguez-Martinez, Ricardo M. Fernande Source Type: research

Supporting health staff to recognise and respond to harmful sexual behaviour: key principles and practical tools
Sadly, sexual abuse carried out by children and young people is not a rare phenomenon. It is estimated that around a third of all child sexual abuse offences in the UK are committed by children and young people, and this is now widely referred to as harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Despite increasing evidence on the scale, nature and complexity of the problem, service provision to respond to this type of child sexual abuse across the UK remains patchy and relatively uncoordinated, with some beacons of good practice. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 16, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pat Branigan Tags: Symposium: safeguarding children Source Type: research

The indirect impact of COVID-19 on child health
Since the detection of COVID-19 in December 2019, the rapid spread of the disease worldwide has led to a new pandemic, with the number of infected individuals and deaths rising daily. Early experience shows that it predominantly affects older age groups with children and young adults being generally more resilient to more severe disease (1 –3). From a health standpoint, children and young people are less directly affected than adults and presentation of the disease has shown different characteristics. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 16, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Louicia Ashikalli, Will Carroll, Christine Johnson Source Type: research

Social media and young people's health
Social media has become a pervasive part of modern society especially for adolescents and young adults. However, paediatric and psychiatric history taking has not always kept up with this rapid change. Social media can play a huge role in our patient's lives (both positive and negative) and so our history taking should reflect this. Peer beliefs and influence play a significant role in young people's view of the world so asking the right questions about their virtual interactions can provide vital information on the impact of online activity on their mental and directly and indirectly on their physical health. (Source: Pae...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Titus Chester, Samuel Ponnuthurai, Damian Roland, Sarah Reynolds, Omer S. Moghraby Tags: PERSONAL PRACTICE Source Type: research

Childhood neglect: a clinical perspective and introducing the Graded Care Profile 2
Neglect has serious consequences for children in terms of their health, growth, and development. Neglect may even directly cause or contribute to child deaths. In common with other forms of abuse and exposure to adverse childhood experiences, neglect is linked with health risks in adulthood that lead to diseases that cause premature death. Healthcare professionals working with children and young people must be skilled in identifying and dealing with it. Early recognition is vital but whilst neglect is the most prevalent form of abuse it remains difficult to identify and assess. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Om Prakash Srivastava, Dawn Hodson Tags: Symposium: safeguarding children Source Type: research

Families facing multiple adversities: impact and interventions
This article explores the impact of adversities on children and their families, and the features of interventions designed for them that are most effective. Our focus is on multiple adversities and we highlight the evidence for the negative impact that these experiences may have on children's physical and mental health, the implications for their behavioural and emotional regulation and the safeguarding risks relating to abuse and neglect. We also discuss the consequences these experiences can have which extend into adulthood, acting as a risk factor for exposure to further adversity in later life. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rachel Margolis, Vicki Hollis, Georgia Hyde-Dryden, Emily Robson-Brown, Emma Smith, Nicola McConnell Tags: Symposium: safeguarding children Source Type: research

Honour-based violence: awareness and recognition
Honour-based violence is fundamentally different to domestic violence or other forms of violence against women. Honour-based crimes are violent crimes or other forms of abuse that are carried out in order to protect the so-called ‘honour’ of a family or community. The code of ‘honour’ to which it refers is set by the male relatives of a family, and women who break the rules of the code are punished for bringing shame upon the family. Violence against women and girls includes domestic abuse, rape and sexual offences, human trafficking, female genital mutilation, forced prostitution, child abuse and p...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 5, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Geraldine A. Gregory, Jayne Fox, Bal Kaur Howard Tags: Symposium: Safeguarding children Source Type: research

Fragile X syndrome: an overview of cause, characteristics, assessment and management
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common identifiable cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism spectrum conditions, and is associated with a range of physical, cognitive and behavioural characteristics. Alongside intellectual disability, heightened rates of autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, self-injury and aggression are reported. Timely identification of FXS as well as assessments of common co-morbid psychological conditions and underlying health problems are essential to ensure individuals with FXS receive appropriate support. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 3, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hayley Crawford, Leonard Abbeduto, Scott S. Hall, Rebecca Hardiman, David Hessl, Jane E. Roberts, Gaia Scerif, Andrew C. Stanfield, Jeremy Turk, Chris Oliver Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Understanding and helping children who have experienced maltreatment
Children who experience maltreatment from within their families can suffer trauma that is devastating to their physical and psychological development. The label developmental trauma has developed to describe this trauma and to guide diagnosis. This has been expanded to describe seven domains of impairment. Together these help the clinician to provide a formulation of a child's difficulties which avoids multiple diagnoses and can guide treatment planning. Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy and Practice (DDP) is an intervention model that can meet the therapeutic needs of the children alongside the support needs of parents a...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - September 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kim S. Golding Tags: Symposium: safeguarding children Source Type: research

Lessons from the triennial analysis of serious case reviews
Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) provide an important opportunity for professional learning when children have died or suffered serious harm from abuse or neglect. The triennial SCR analysis seeks to identify themes across SCRs to inform practice and guide the development of new strategies in order to prevent future harm to children. Neglect is a key feature of most serious case reviews; it is a complex issue with multiple contributory factors accumulating over time. Neglect is linked with unfavourable outcomes at individual and societal levels. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 31, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Clare Morgans, Joanna Garstang Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 25, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Ketogenic diet therapy in infants with epilepsy
This article gives an overview of use of ketogenic diet therapy in infants with epilepsy, including a history of dietary treatment, evidence for efficacy in infants, patient selection and clinical and dietetic management. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Natasha E. Schoeler, J. Helen Cross Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal complications of cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disorder, and gastrointestinal disease contributes significantly to its morbidity. This review outlines the major gastrointestinal manifestations of CF, and highlights areas of common misunderstanding. Areas particularly important to practice, such as impact upon malabsorption, bowel obstruction and gastro-oesophageal reflux are considered in detail. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christabella Ng, Andrew P. Prayle Tags: Symposium: gastroenterology Source Type: research

Preventing asthma deaths in young people
Children die from asthma. When this happens, in almost all cases, there are avoidable and modifiable risk factors. Healthcare professionals can take simple steps, when we see children with asthma, that may prevent a death. These include identifying risk from a good history, ensuring children have the right treatment (and that they know how to take it), seeing hospitalisation as a trigger to educate children and families, and addressing wider determinants of health. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - August 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ian Sinha, Andrew Lilley Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Hirschsprung's disease
(HD) is a congenital functional disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the enteric nervous system. The estimated incidence of HD is 1:5000 with up to 60% of patients having associated anomalies. Short-segment rectosigmoid disease is seen in 75% of cases with infants presenting with abdominal distension, bilious vomiting and delayed passage of meconium. A bedside rectal suction biopsy is the gold-standard in confirming the diagnosis of HD. The absence of ganglion cells in the myenteric and submucosal plexi in the presence of thickened hypertrophic nerves (more than 40 microns diameter) is diagnostic of ...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 31, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hemanshoo Thakkar, Joe Curry Tags: Symposium: gastroenterology Source Type: research

Cyclical vomiting syndrome
(CVS) was described over 100 years ago, but it is often underdiagnosed and undertreated, even after a diagnosis is made. It is relatively common, affecting almost 2% of school-age children in some studies. Although it is traditionally seen as a childhood disease related to migraine, CVS does occur in adults. The main characteristic of CVS is the stereotypical recurrent nature of episodes of intense nausea and vomiting lasting from few hours to few days and followed by a complete resolution of symptoms. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 31, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ishaq Abu-Arafeh Tags: Symposium: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 25, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Polycystic kidney disease and other genetic kidney disorders
Cystic kidney diseases encompass a range of genetic disorders in which the primary cilia of the cells are affected and thereby cysts form as a result. There are an increasing range of cystic renal diseases recognized due to the advances in genomics. The most common genetic kidney condition is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD leads to renal failure in adulthood. In children, hypertension is common and if treated, may slow down renal decline. The most common cystic kidney disease causing renal failure in children is autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Larissa Kerecuk Tags: Symposium: Nephrology Source Type: research

Chronic peritoneal dialysis in children
Chronic kidney failure is rare in children and adolescents. The availability and types of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) vary widely, with a global prevalence of 18 –100 per million age-related population (pmarp). Approximately 1000 children are on KRT in the UK (prevalence 64.8 pmarp). Almost 25% are on dialysis. Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the dialysis modality of choice in younger children given its almost universal applicability, cost-effectivenes s and the possibility of a home-based treatment. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Iona Madden, Michelle Blaauw, Natasha Baugh, Lesley Rees, Rukshana Shroff Tags: Symposium: nephrology Source Type: research

When do children need kidney replacement therapy?
Kidney replacement therapy (KRT) can provide lifesaving support for children with severely impaired kidney function. The decision about who needs KRT and when is often complex. Many acute kidney problems will resolve with conservative maanagemenent but some children with chronic or acute kidney impairment will find themselves in a position where KRT is required either as a bridge to recovery or kidney transplantation. Less commonly, children with metabolic disorders may find that the ability of their own kidneys is overwhelmed by excessive production of certain metabolites. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 12, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jascharanpreet Bansal, Wesley Hayes Tags: Symposium: nephrology Source Type: research

Talking to patients and families about air pollution
Air pollution's health effects are extensive and varied, but are particularly prevalent in the respiratory system. With this comes media interest and public interest, not only in the effects of air pollution but also how to manage health conditions such as asthma that are significantly affected. Parents/carers and children are now starting to bring the subject up in clinical consultations. It is important not only to have an understanding of the current evidence on the health effects, but also to have answers to some of the more common questions. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Abigail Louise Whitehouse Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Resources for parents raising a disabled child in the UK
Childhood disability is relatively common, estimated to affect around 7% of children in the UK. Nevertheless, caring for a child with medical, social and/or educational needs is not something parents expect or plan for. Parent carers often describe this unanticipated role as ‘an ongoing battle’ to access information and services. The aim of this article is to raise awareness of resources that can support parent carers and their families. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 6, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christopher Morris, Sharon Blake, Anna Stimson, Aleksandra Borek, Kath Maguire Tags: Personal Practice Source Type: research

Fluid and electrolyte balance in children
Safe intravenous fluid prescription in children requires an understanding of certain basic principles to avoid adverse events. Careful consideration needs to be given to both the appropriate rate and composition of the fluids to be administered with frequent re-assessment. This review will examine the indications for parenteral fluid management; maintenance requirements, correction of any deficit and replacement of ongoing losses. The role of non-osmotic secretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) is discussed and children at particular risk are identified. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 6, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mark Terris Tags: Symposium: nephrology Source Type: research

Approach to the pre-school child with sudden loss of consciousness
There are several causes for sudden loss of consciousness in pre-school children. These include Transient Loss of Consciousness (T-LOC), which encompasses a group of disorders with the following characteristics: abnormal motor control, loss of responsiveness, amnesia for the period of unconsciousness, and a short duration. There are three main categories of T-LOC in pre-school children: syncope, resulting from a sudden and reversible lack of oxygenated blood supplied to the brain, often caused by transient impairment of cardiac output or systemic arterial hypotension. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - July 6, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pradeep Naganna, Niha Mariam Hussain, Nahin Hussain Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 24, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Recurrent urticaria and angioedema
Urticaria is common in childhood, affecting up to 15% of British children. It is characterised by the sudden onset of wheals, angioedema, or both. Episodes are usually acute, often triggered by viral infections  ± antibiotics, with approximately a third progressing to chronic or recurrent urticaria. This review covers urticaria subtypes, diagnosis and treatment options for children. The diagnosis is usually made clinically, and a focused history is vital. Further investigations are usually unnecessary. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Katherine Fawbert, Susan Leech Tags: Symposium: allergy Source Type: research

When to use lower limb orthoses in cerebral palsy
This article presents a systematic ‘Inside-Out Approach’, incorporating all components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the International Standards Organisation objectives for orthotic interventions. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - June 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elaine Owen Tags: Symposium: Cerebral palsy Source Type: research

Management of drooling in children with cerebral palsy
Drooling, or sialorrhoea, is a common difficulty faced by children with neurological impairment including cerebral palsy. It may lead to a reduction in their quality of life, causing skin irritation, dehydration and high levels of embarrassment and social isolation for both the patient and family. This review will discuss the assessment of patients with sialorrhoea and potential management strategies including conservative management, medical options, botulinum toxin injections and surgery. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 31, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Aedin Collins, Annabel Burton, Charlie Fairhurst Tags: Symposium: Cerebral Palsy Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy
Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a well-recognised treatment option in the management of generalised spasticity and dystonia. Typically it is considered in children who have failed to respond to, or have not tolerated, appropriate enteral medications. Placement of a pump would be contraindicated in children who could not accommodate a pump due to size, or those who have a local or systemic infection. There are a number of relative contraindications which must be considered. An intrathecal baclofen test dose is usually advised and is particularly useful in screening for hypersensitivity. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rajib Lodh, Andie Mulkeen, Sharron Peacock, Catherine Wilsmore, John Goodden Tags: Symposium: Cerebral palsy Source Type: research

The psychological experience of children with cerebral palsy
Many children with cerebral palsy face considerable challenges in their day to day life. Some will be highly dependent on those around them. While motor deficits are most commonly reported, children with cerebral palsy also experience higher rates of challenging behaviour, attention difficulties, social communication problems and to a lesser extent mood disorders in comparison to the general population. Personal risk factors for psychological distress include normal intellect, communication problems and less functional disability. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 25, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah R. Rudebeck Tags: Symposium: Cerebral palsy Source Type: research

24-Hour postural care and use of sleep systems in cerebral palsy
The purpose of this article is to explain the impact of secondary musculoskeletal problems in cerebral palsy and the impact with growth on body posture and how postural care and use of sleep systems can help protect and preserve body shape. Successful postural care relies on a family's engagement of the programme. To engage them education staff and health care workers require the awareness of the impact of body shape distortion and the fact it can be reduced or avoided through good postural care. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 25, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michelle Baylis Tags: OCCASIONAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Hip disorders in childhood
Childhood disorders of the hip are encountered frequently in paediatric orthopaedic practice. They present initially to paediatricians, general practitioners and accident departments, and it is therefore important for both surgeons and generalists to have a good working knowledge of the common presentations. The challenge is to distinguish between disease processes that are benign and self-limiting (e.g. transient synovitis), acute and joint threatening (e.g. septic arthritis) or chronic and disabling (e.g. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 21, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sara Dorman, Daniel Perry Tags: Surgery and orthopaedics Source Type: research

Paediatric spinal conditions
Children with spinal problems present to a wide range of healthcare providers. These providers include the emergency department, their GPs, physiotherapy and the paediatric medical and surgical clinics (including orthopaedics). They may present with a variety of symptoms, but the common complaints are: back pain, leg pain or a change in back shape (spinal deformity). Some children may experience a combination of these problems. A systematic approach to the history and examination with knowledge of the common spinal conditions in children will allow you to select the best investigations. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 21, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: James E Tomlinson, Nigel W Gummerson Tags: SYMPOSIUM: SURGERY AND ORTHOPAEDICS Source Type: research

Skeletal dysplasia
s are genetic conditions causing a structural abnormality in the bone and cartilage leading to growth disturbance. There are many different types of dysplasias most of which are rare. Although the incidence of the each individual types of skeletal dysplasia is low, skeletal dysplasia as a group should be recognized early for appropriate management. The aim of this article is to present a brief overview of skeletal dysplasia and the management of the more common among these presenting to the orthopaedic surgeon. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 21, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ishani P. Shah, Bobin Varghese, James A. Fernandes Tags: Symposium: surgery and orthopaedics Source Type: research

Foot disorders in children
There is a wide range of foot disorders and deformities in children. While most of them are benign, some of the foot deformities may require operative intervention and/or a prolonged period of treatment. We will discuss the most common of these disorders: clubfoot, congenital vertical talus, calcaneovalgus deformity, metatarsus adductus, flexible flatfoot, tarsal coalitions and cavus foot. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 21, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anastasios Chytas, Emmanouil Morakis Tags: Symposium: Surgery and orthopaedics Source Type: research

Self-assessment
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 14, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Arti Khistriya, Mallika Babu Kadaba Narasimha Source Type: research

Cow's milk protein allergy
(CMPA) is caused by a reproducible immune-mediated response to milk proteins and tends to present during the first few months of life. This response can vary significantly from an immediate reaction within 2 hours of ingestion to a more delayed reaction, which can occur anywhere between 2 and 72 hours later. A delay in diagnosis can cause significant child and parental distress, while overdiagnosis can lead to an unnecessary elimination diet. CMPA can be confused with lactose intolerance which is a non-immune mediated response as a result of lactase enzyme deficiency. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amrit Dhesi, Gillian Ashton, Maria Raptaki, Nick Makwana Tags: Symposium: allergy Source Type: research

The child with prolonged fever: when to think zebras
This article addresses when to consider rarer and potentially life-threatening infective, autoimmune or malignant causes of prolonged fever and their immediate management. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah Reynolds, Seilesh Kadambari, Elizabeth Calton, Damian Roland Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Adrenaline autoinjectors: an update of the last decade
The treatment of choice for anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline using an adrenaline autoinjector. Over the last decade there have been several developments including new devices, guidelines on adrenaline autoinjectors, concerns around the ability of autoinjectors to deliver intramuscular adrenaline and the availability of generic adrenaline autoinjectors in school. These are discussed further within the article. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - May 4, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gary Stiefel, Konstantinos Kakleas, David Luyt Tags: Symposium: allergy Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - April 29, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Tonsillectomy: a critical view
Tonsillectomy is a well-established and common surgical procedure with around 31,000 tonsillectomies carried out annually in England.1 The most common reason for tonsillectomy remains recurrent sore throat followed by obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and peritonsillar abscess.2 Tonsillectomy rates vary seven fold across English local authority areas, without an obvious explanation, raising questions about whether may be under or over provision in some areas.3 Well-established practices may not always have a scientific basis. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - April 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tom Marshall Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Paediatric ECGs made easy
What is the perfect paediatric investigation? Whilst there is no such thing a paediatric investigation is particularly helpful if it is non-invasive, non-threatening to the child and family and fruitful in terms of information yielded. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is all of these and more. For a non-invasive test the ECG can deliver great rewards to those prepared to invest in its utility. It holds the potential of distinguishing normal from abnormal in the investigation of common presentations such as heart murmurs and palpitations. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - April 9, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rami Dhillon Tags: Occasional review Source Type: research

Intravenous access in children
Establishing intravenous access in children can be challenging for the healthcare professional and distressing for the patient and their family. Choosing the most appropriate intravenous vascular access is key to improving short-term and long-term care in patients.Children requiring prolonged or repeated intravenous access are at higher risk of venous catheter associated complications, which may result in progressive loss of patent vasculature. Poor planning though multiple, episodic attempts at intravenous access without careful consideration for the type, indication and duration of the venous catheter may limit treatment...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - April 9, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: James Bennett, Mary Cheung Tags: Symposium: surgery and orthopaedics Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Self assessment
(Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - March 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Peter Heinz Tags: Self assessment Source Type: research

Community-based family and carer-support programmes for children with disabilities
Children and young people (CYP) with disabilities face multiple challenges and unmet health needs. There is considerable variability in quality of health services across the UK for these children. Families report that they experience lack of information or misinformation about health, social care and education of their child. They also highlight a desire to engage with other families of CYP with disabilities. There is growing evidence that community-based group interventions in under-resourced settings are effective at improving quality of life for both CYP with disabilities and caregivers. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - March 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michelle Heys, Monica Lakhanpaul, Shereen Allaham, Logan Manikam, Jessica Owugha, Kate Oulton, Christopher Morris, Karen R. Martin, Cally Tann, Jennifer Martin, Hannah Kuper Tags: Symposium: social paediatrics Source Type: research

Meeting with prospective adoptive parents
Adoption is a legal process by which a child becomes part of a new family with parental responsibility transferring from birth parents to adoptive parents. It is a major decision for all involved. Paediatricians can be involved in the process in a variety of ways seeing the child for a health assessment, reviewing the available medical information on birth parents and adoptive parents and in meeting with the prospective adoptive parents to discuss the health information. This paper describes my personal practice in these meetings. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - March 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Doug Simkiss Tags: Personal practice Source Type: research

Transitions from care to adulthood: messages to inform practice
Transition is the process of moving from a child focussed system to an adult orientated system. It is complicated for all children and a well-recognised point of weakness in health care. For looked after children transition is more complex with movements from social worker to personal advisor, from foster care (or children's home) to independent accommodation, from school to work, further or higher education or to none of these. It is also a time when the young person moves from children's health services to adult health services. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - March 7, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Emily R. Munro, Doug Simkiss Tags: Symposium: Social paediatrics Source Type: research

Children's attachments
Children depend on relationships to progress to safe independence. Their earliest experiences of attachment are fundamentally important to their success in doing so. These establish preconceptions of relationships which are moulded, rather than replaced, by subsequent experience. Attachment, which is a binding emotional closeness, develops through parents' recognition of and response to their infants ’ needs. This establishes the foundations of communication, gives meaning to feelings and body signals, builds self-awareness and builds expectations of the value, reliability and safety of relationships. (Source: Paedia...
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - March 6, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Corinne Rees Tags: Symposium: social paediatrics Source Type: research