The Critical Role of Intrinsic Membrane Oscillations
Intrinsic, rhythmic subthreshold oscillations have been described in neurons of regions throughout the brain and have been found to influence the timing of action potentials induced by synaptic inputs. Some oscillations are sodium channel-dependent while others are calcium channel-dependent. These oscillations allow neurons to fire coherently at preferred frequencies and represent the main mechanism for maintaining high frequency network activity, especially in the cortex. Because cortical circuits are incapable of maintaining high frequency activity in the gamma range for prolonged periods, those processes dependent on co...
Source: Neurosignals - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Inhibits < b > < i > Vibrio Vulnificus < /i > < /b > -Induced Dendritic Cell Apoptosis by Lowering [Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > ] < sub > i < /sub >
Conclusions: EDTA inhibitsV. Vulnificus-induced DC apoptosis by lowering [Ca2+]i via m-Tor-STAT3-Bcl-2 signaling pathway.Neurosignals 2018;26:58 –65 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - May 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endomorphin-2 Inhibits the Activity of the Spinoparabrachial Projection Neuron through Presynaptic Mechanisms in the Spinal Dorsal Horn in Rats
Conclusion: Applying EM2 to the SDH could produce analgesia through inhibiting the activities of the spinoparabrachial PNs in lamina I by reducing presynaptic neurotransmitters release from the primary afferent terminals.Neurosignals 2018;26:43 –57 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - March 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain Beta-Catenin Signalling During Stress and Depression
Beta-catenin is a protein with dual functions in the cell, playing a role in both adhesion between cells as well as gene transcription via the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In the canonical Wnt signalling pathway, beta-catenin again plays multiple roles. In the embryonic stage, the regulation of beta-catenin levels activates genes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation. In an adult organism, beta-catenin continues to regulate the cell cycle – as a result over-expression of beta-catenin may lead to cancer. In the brain, dysfunctions in Wnt signalling related to beta-catenin levels may also cause variou...
Source: Neurosignals - February 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Myth of Blunted Gamers: No Evidence for Desensitization in Empathy for Pain after a Violent Video Game Intervention in a Longitudinal fMRI Study on Non-Gamers
Conclusions: The present results provide strong evidence against the frequently proclaimed negative effects of playing violent video games and will therefore help to communicate a more realistic scientific perspective of the effects of violent video gaming in real life.Neurosignals 2018;26:22 –30 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - February 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association between COMT Polymorphism Val158Met and Opioid Consumption in Patients with Postoperative Pain: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: Patients with Val/Met but not Met/Met allele variant consumed less opioid, though larger and better-designed studies are required to obtain an exclusive conclusion about the correlation between postoperative pain and COMT Val158Met polymorphism.Neurosignals 2018;26:11 –21 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Introducing a Virtual Lesion Model of Dysphagia Resulting from Pharyngeal Sensory Impairment
Conclusions: Withdrawal of sensory afferent information by topical anesthesia leads to reduced response to pneumatic pharyngeal stimulation in a distributed cortical sensorimotor network in healthy subjects. The proposed paradigm may serve to investigate the effect of neuromodulatory treatments specifically on pharyngeal sensory impairment as relevant cause of neurogenic dysphagia.Neurosignals 2018;26:1 –10 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Decreased Fronto-Parietal and Increased Default Mode Network Activation is Associated with Subtle Cognitive Deficits in Elderly Controls
Conclusion: The present study suggests that brain functional changes in FPN and DMN anticipate differences in cognitive performance in healthy elderly individuals with subsequent subtle cognitive decline.Neurosignals 2017;25:127 –138 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurons, Erythrocytes and Beyond –The Diverse Functions of Chorein
In conclusion, much has been learned about the function of chorein and the molecular pathophysiology of chorea-acanthocytosis. Most importantly, a treatment halting or delaying the clinical course of this devastating disease may become available. A controlled clinical study is warranted, in order to explore whether thein vitro observations indeed reflect thein vivo pathology of the disease.Neurosignals 2017;25:117 –126 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endomorphins: Promising Endogenous Opioid Peptides for the Development of Novel Analgesics
Endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are two endogenous ligands that belong to the opioid peptide family and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). The neuroanatomical distribution, ultrastructural features and neural circuitry of EM-containing neuronal structures have been morphologically demonstrated. In addition, the modulation effects of the EMs in different areas reflect their potential endogenous roles in many ma jor physiological processes, including their remarkable roles in the transmission and modulation of noxious information. The distinguished antinociceptive pro...
Source: Neurosignals - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blockade of Experimental Multiple Sclerosis by Inhibition of the Acid Sphingomyelinase/Ceramide System
Conclusion: Activation of the Asm/ceramide system is a central step for the development of EAE. Our findings may serve to identify novel therapeutic strategies for MS patients.Neurosignals 2017;25:88 –97 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Leptin-Sensitive JAK2 Activation in the Regulation of Tau Phosphorylation in PC12 Cells
Conclusion:The data suggest that JAK2 is involved in AD-related pathways.Neurosignals 2016;24:88-94 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Leptin Regulates Tau Phosphorylation through Wnt Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells
Conclusion:The data indicate that Leptin may provide a novel therapeutic approach to AD treatment via wnt signaling.Neurosignals 2016;24:95-101 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cortical Responses and Shape Complexity of Stereoscopic Image - A Simultaneous EEG/MEG Study
Conclusion:It seems that the relative disparity in complex stereoscopic images may increase cognitive processing (N300) and cortical load (alpha inhibition) in the ventral area.Neurosignals 2016;24:102-112 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SGK3 Sensitivity of Large-Conductance Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > -Activated K < sup > + < /sup > Channel
Conclusion: SGK3 is a novel positive regulator of BK channels, and thus participates in the regulation of cell volume and excitability.Neurosignals 2016;24:113-124 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Improved Neural Regeneration with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Inoculated PLGA Scaffolds in Spinal Cord Injury Adult Rats
Conclusion: PLGA complexes inoculated with OECs improve locomotor functional recovery in transected spinal cord injured rat models, which is most likely due to the fact it is conducive to a relatively benevolent microenvironment, has nerve protective effects, as well as the ability to enhance remyelination, via a promotion of cell differentiation and inhibition of astrocyte formation.Neurosignals 2017;25:1 –14 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Spatial Extent of Epiretinal Electrical Stimulation in the Healthy Mouse Retina
Conclusion: The existence of significant hysteresis requires that future investigations of electrical retinal stimulation control for such long-memory adaptation. The spread of electrical activation beyond 200 µm suggests that neighbouring electrodes in epiretinal implants based on indirect stimulation of RGCs may be indiscriminable at interelectrode spacings as large as 400 µm.Neurosignals 2017;25:15 –25 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting the Potassium Channel Kv1.3 Kills Glioblastoma Cells
Conclusion: These data serve as proof of principle that Kv1.3 inhibitors kills GBM cells, but drugs that actin vivo against glioblastoma must be developed to translate these findingsin vivo.Neurosignals 2017;25:26 –38 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stimulation of Anxiety-Like Behavior via ERK Pathway by Competitive Serotonin Receptors 2A and 1A in Post-Traumatic Stress Disordered Mice
Conclusion: These findings suggest competive interaction between 5HT2AR and 5HT1AR actively affects anxiety-like behavior in the hippocampi of PTSD mice via the ERK pathway.Neurosignals 2017;25:39 –53 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Depression in the Context of Medical Disorders: New Pharmacological Pathways Revisited
In conclusion a hypothetic model for the implication of actual findings in everyday clinical practice is proposed. In this context personalized treatment could be used to tailor treatment to specific individuals according to their clinical endophenotypes. Moreover a potential target for the development of novel intervention strategies might be used.Neurosignals 2017;25:54 –73 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increase of Substance P Concentration in Saliva after Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation in Severely Dysphagic Stroke Patients – an Indicator of Decannulation Success?
Conclusions: The physiological mechanism of PES may consist in restoration of sensory feedback, which is known to be crucial for the execution of a safe swallow. SP possibly acts as a biomarker for indicating response to PES.Neurosignals 2017;25:74 –87 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Depression in the Context of Medical Disorders: New Pharmacological Pathways Revisited
In conclusion a hypothetic model for the implication of actual findings in everyday clinical practice is proposed. In this context personalized treatment could be used to tailor treatment to specific individuals according to their clinical endophenotypes. Moreover a potential target for the development of novel intervention strategies might be used.Neurosignals 2017;25:54 –73 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increase of Substance P Concentration in Saliva after Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation in Severely Dysphagic Stroke Patients – an Indicator of Decannulation Success?
Conclusions: The physiological mechanism of PES may consist in restoration of sensory feedback, which is known to be crucial for the execution of a safe swallow. SP possibly acts as a biomarker for indicating response to PES.Neurosignals 2017;25:74 –87 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stimulation of Anxiety-Like Behavior via ERK Pathway by Competitive Serotonin Receptors 2A and 1A in Post-Traumatic Stress Disordered Mice
Conclusion: These findings suggest competive interaction between 5HT2AR and 5HT1AR actively affects anxiety-like behavior in the hippocampi of PTSD mice via the ERK pathway.Neurosignals 2017;25:39 –53 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting the Potassium Channel Kv1.3 Kills Glioblastoma Cells
Conclusion: These data serve as proof of principle that Kv1.3 inhibitors kills GBM cells, but drugs that actin vivo against glioblastoma must be developed to translate these findingsin vivo.Neurosignals 2017;25:26 –38 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Spatial Extent of Epiretinal Electrical Stimulation in the Healthy Mouse Retina
Conclusion: The existence of significant hysteresis requires that future investigations of electrical retinal stimulation control for such long-memory adaptation. The spread of electrical activation beyond 200 µm suggests that neighbouring electrodes in epiretinal implants based on indirect stimulation of RGCs may be indiscriminable at interelectrode spacings as large as 400 µm.Neurosignals 2017;25:15 –25 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - July 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Improved Neural Regeneration with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Inoculated PLGA Scaffolds in Spinal Cord Injury Adult Rats
Conclusion: PLGA complexes inoculated with OECs improve locomotor functional recovery in transected spinal cord injured rat models, which is most likely due to the fact it is conducive to a relatively benevolent microenvironment, has nerve protective effects, as well as the ability to enhance remyelination, via a promotion of cell differentiation and inhibition of astrocyte formation.Neurosignals 2017;25:1 –14 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - March 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SGK3 Sensitivity of Large-Conductance Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > -Activated K < sup > + < /sup > Channel
Conclusion: SGK3 is a novel positive regulator of BK channels, and thus participates in the regulation of cell volume and excitability.Neurosignals 2016;24:113-124 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - November 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cortical Responses and Shape Complexity of Stereoscopic Image - A Simultaneous EEG/MEG Study
Conclusion:It seems that the relative disparity in complex stereoscopic images may increase cognitive processing (N300) and cortical load (alpha inhibition) in the ventral area.Neurosignals 2016;24:102-112 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Leptin Regulates Tau Phosphorylation through Wnt Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells
Conclusion:The data indicate that Leptin may provide a novel therapeutic approach to AD treatment via wnt signaling.Neurosignals 2016;24:95-101 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - October 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Leptin-Sensitive JAK2 Activation in the Regulation of Tau Phosphorylation in PC12 Cells
Conclusion:The data suggest that JAK2 is involved in AD-related pathways.Neurosignals 2016;24:88-94 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - September 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Curcumin Protects against Monosodium Glutamate Neurotoxicity and Decreasing NMDA2B and mGluR5 Expression in Rat Hippocampus
Conclusion:We concluded that CUR as flavor enhancer protects against MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats.Neurosignals 2016;24:81-87 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - August 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Role of Janus-Kinases in Major Depressive Disorder
Conclusion:Our data show that Jak-3 is activated by stress at least partially via the acid sphingomyelinase and is involved in the mediation of stress-induced major depression.Neurosignals 2016;24:71-80 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - August 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gut Taste Stimulants Alter Brain Activity in Areas Related to Working Memory: a Pilot Study
Conclusions: in this pilot trial, we demonstrate that acute intragastric administration of different taste substances does not affect working memory performance in humans. However, “umami” and “bitter” have effects on brain areas involved in neural working memory, overpowering the effects of “sweet”, “salty” and “sour” reception. Neurosignals 2016;24:59-70 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - July 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Kir2.1 K < sup > + < /sup > Channels
Conclusions: SPAK and OSR1 are both stimulators of Kir2.1 activity. They are presumably effective by enhancing channel insertion into the cell membrane. Neurosignals 2015;23:20-33 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - July 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Melatonin Acts as an Antidepressant by Inhibition of the Acid Sphingomyelinase/Ceramide System
Conclusion: These data indicate that the antidepressive effects of melatonin as well as the induction of neurogenesis triggered by this drug are mediated by an inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system. This is the first study to identify melatonin as an inhibitor of the acid sphingomyelinase.Neurosignals 2016;24:48-58 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - July 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Wnt / ß-Catenin Signaling Pathway Against Aβ Toxicity in PC12 Cells
Conclusion: These findings are first to demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis.Neurosignals 2016;24:40-47 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - June 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Nogo-p4 Suppresses TrkA Signaling Induced by Low Concentrations of Nerve Growth Factor Through NgR1 in Differentiated PC12 Cells
Conclusion: Nogo-p4 binding with NgR1 suppresses TrkA signaling induced by low concentrations of NGF in differentiated PC12 cells. Suppression of NGF-induced TrkA signaling may be another mechanism by which Nogo inhibits neurite growth.Neurosignals 2016;24:25-39 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - June 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Postoperative Nociceptive Threshold and Production of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Induced by Plantar Incision Are Not Influenced with Minocycline in a Rat: Role of Spinal Microglia
Conclusion: These results suggest that spinal microglia does not contribute substantially to post-incisional nociceptive threshold. The BDNF overexpression response that may contribute to postoperative hyperalgesia and allodynia is likely derived from other sources.Neurosignals 2016;24:15-24 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - March 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Role of Serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Central N-Acetylaspartate for Clinical Response under Antidepressive Pharmacotherapy
Conclusion: Our data confirm serum BDNF as a biomarker of depression with a possible role in response prediction. However, our findings argue against serum BDNF increase being a prerequisite to depressive symptom reduction.Neurosignals 2016;24:1-14 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - February 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase by Antidepressants Counteracts Stress-Induced Activation of P38-Kinase in Major Depression
Conclusion: Stress induces p38K phosphorylation/activation in the hippocampus and thereby reduces neurogenesis and induces depression-like symptoms, events that are prevented by antidepressants via inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system.Neurosignals 2015;23:84-92 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain Diffusion Changes in Emerging Psychosis and the Impact of State-Dependent Psychopathology
Conclusion: This study revealed increased FA and decreased MD in early stages of psychosis in widespread white matter tracts including the SLF. Our findings further suggest that microstructural changes in the SLF are probably related to state-dependent psychopathology.Neurosignals 2015;23:71-83 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Up-Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 by ß-Klotho
Conclusion: ß-Klotho up-regulates the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 and thus participates in the regulation of neuronal excitation.Neurosignals 2015;23:59-70 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sphingolipids in Major Depression
Major depression is one of the most common and severe diseases affecting the world's population. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains inadequately defined. Previously, a lack of monoaminergic neurotransmitters was the focus of pathophysiological concepts; however, recent concepts focus on a alteration of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This concept suggests that neurogenesis is decreased in major depression with a rarefication of neuronal networks and a lack of new, immature neurons in the hippocampus, events that may result in the clinical symptoms of major depression. However, molecular targets involved in t...
Source: Neurosignals - December 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lithium- Sensitive Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry in the Regulation of FGF23 Release
Conclusion: Lithium stimulates FGF23 release at least in part by NF-#x03BA;B dependent up-regulation of Orai1 transcription and store operated Ca2+ entry.Neurosignals 2015;23:34-48 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Kir2.1 K+ Channels
Conclusions: SPAK and OSR1 are both stimulators of Kir2.1 activity. They are presumably effective by enhancing channel insertion into the cell membrane.Neurosignals 2015;23:20-33 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Regulation of the Na+,Cl- Coupled Creatine Transporter CreaT (SLC6A8) by the Janus Kinase JAK3
Conclusion: JAK3 is a powerful negative regulator of the creatine transporter CreaT.Neurosignals 2015;23:11-19 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chorein Sensitive Dopamine Release from Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells
Conclusions: Chorein deficiency down-regulates VAMP8 expression, vesicle numbers and dopamine release in pheochromocytoma cells.Neurosignals 2015;23:1-10 (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - December 11, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Features of Neurons in the Mesencephalic Trigeminal Nuclei
Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes V) neurons represent an uncommon class of primary sensory neurons. Besides receiving somatosensory information, Mes V neurons are also involved in regulating multisensory information. The present review first describes the passive features as well as three important currents, followed by a distinct excitability classification and a description of the excitability transition of Mes V neurons. Furthermore, their resonance property, the existence of membrane oscillation and electrical coupling which may promote strong synchronization, as well as their function in controlling stretch refle...
Source: Neurosignals - January 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 20, 2012
Neurosignals 2012;20:I–IV (Source: Neurosignals)
Source: Neurosignals - November 7, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research