Source memory for advertisements: The role of advertising message credibility.
Authors: Bell R, Mieth L, Buchner A Abstract Advertising is seen as an untrustworthy source because of the perceived self-interest of the advertisers in presenting product information in a biased or misleading way. Regulations require advertising messages in print and online media to be labeled as advertisements to allow recipients to take source information into account when judging the credibility of the messages. To date, little is known about how these source tags are remembered. Research within the source-monitoring framework suggests that source attributions are not only based on veridical source memory but a...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Category similarity affects study choices in self-regulated learning.
Authors: Lu X, Penney TB, Kang SHK Abstract During learning, interleaving exemplars from different categories (e.g., ABCBCACAB) rather than blocking by category (e.g., AAABBBCCC) often enhances inductive learning, especially when the categories are highly similar. However, when allowed to select their own study schedules, learners overwhelmingly tend to block rather than interleave. Category similarity has been shown to moderate the relative benefit of interleaved versus blocked study. We investigated whether learners were sensitive to category similarity when choosing exemplars for study, and whether these choices...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Memory and metamemory for social interactions: Evidence for a metamemory expectancy illusion.
Authors: Mieth L, Schaper ML, Kuhlmann BG, Bell R Abstract People do not always have accurate metacognitive awareness of the conditions that lead to good source memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied words referring to bathroom and kitchen items that were either paired with an expected or unexpected room as the source. Participants provided judgments of item and source learning after each item-source pair. In line with previous studies, participants incorrectly predicted their memory to be better for expected than for unexpected sources. Here, we show that this metamemory expectancy illusion generalizes to s...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Cognitive and academic benefits of music training with children: A multilevel meta-analysis.
Authors: Sala G, Gobet F Abstract Music training has repeatedly been claimed to positively impact children's cognitive skills and academic achievement (literacy and mathematics). This claim relies on the assumption that engaging in intellectually demanding activities fosters particular domain-general cognitive skills, or even general intelligence. The present meta-analytic review (N = 6,984, k = 254, m = 54) shows that this belief is incorrect. Once the quality of study design is controlled for, the overall effect of music training programs is null ([Formula: see text] ≈ 0) and highly consistent across studie...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Pattern separation and pattern completion: Behaviorally separable processes?
Authors: Ngo CT, Michelmann S, Olson IR, Newcombe NS Abstract Episodic memory capacity requires several processes, including mnemonic discrimination of similar experiences, termed pattern separation, and holistic retrieval of multidimensional experiences given a cue, termed pattern completion. Both computations seem to rely on the hippocampus proper, but they also seem to be instantiated by distinct hippocampal subfields. Thus, we investigated whether individual differences in behavioral expressions of pattern separation and pattern completion were correlated after accounting for general mnemonic ability. Young adu...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Access to prior spatial information.
Authors: Smith ER, Stiegler-Balfour J, Williams CR, Walsh EK, O'Brien EJ Abstract In six experiments, reading times and probe naming times were measured in order to examine the conditions under which spatial information became accessible and/or reactivated. In Experiments 1-4, reading times were measured for target sentences containing spatial inconsistencies. Spatial inconsistencies did not disrupt processing (Experiment 1) unless there were increases in task demands (Experiment 2), elaboration of the protagonist's location (Experiment 3), or both (Experiment 4). In Experiments 5 and 6, naming times were measured ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Temporal grouping and direction of serial recall.
Authors: Liu YS, Caplan JB Abstract When lists are presented with temporal pauses between groups of items, participants' response times reiterate those pauses. Accuracy is also increased, especially at particular serial positions. By comparing forward with backward serial recall, we tested whether the influence of temporal grouping is primarily a function of serial position or output position. Results favored the latter, both when recall direction was known to participants prior to (Experiment 2) or only after (Experiment 2) studying each list. Alongside fits of variants of a temporal distinctiveness-base...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The role of tonal information during spoken-word recognition in Chinese: Evidence from a printed-word eye-tracking study.
Authors: Shen W, Hyönä J, Wang Y, Hou M, Zhao J Abstract Two experiments were conducted to investigate the extent to which the lexical tone can affect spoken-word recognition in Chinese using a printed-word paradigm. Participants were presented with a visual display of four words-namely, a target word (e.g., , xiang4xian4, "quadrant"), a tone-consistent phonological competitor (e.g., , xiang4ce4, "photo album"), or a tone-inconsistent phonological competitor (e.g., , xiang1cai4, "coriander"), and two unrelated distractors. Simultaneously, they were asked to listen to a spoken...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Blurring past and present: Using false memory to better understand false hearing in young and older adults.
Authors: Failes E, Sommers MS, Jacoby LL Abstract A number of recent studies have shown that older adults are more susceptible to context-based misperceptions in hearing (Rogers, Jacoby, & Sommers, Psychology and Aging, 27, 33-45, 2012; Sommers, Morton, & Rogers, Remembering: Attributions, Processes, and Control in Human Memory [Essays in Honor of Larry Jacoby], pp. 269-284, 2015) than are young adults. One explanation for these age-related increases in what we term false hearing is that older adults are less able than young individuals to inhibit a prepotent response favored by context. A similar explanati...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Changes in Error Patterns during N-back Training Indicate Reliance on Subvocal Rehearsal.
In this study, we first investigated how improvements in an N-back task using eight pairs of phonologically similar words as stimuli occurred by examining error distributions of the task over training sessions. Nineteen participants (non-native English speakers) trained for 20 sessions over 5 weeks. We observed a reduction in false alarms to non-target words and fewer missed target words. Though the absolute number of phonological-based errors reduced as training progressed, the proportion of this error type did not decrease over time suggesting participants increasingly relied on subvocal rehearsal in completing the N-bac...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The effect of lexical accessibility on Spanish-English intra-sentential codeswitching.
Authors: Sarkis JT, Montag JL Abstract Bilingual speakers sometimes codeswitch, or alternate between languages, in a single utterance. We investigated the effect of lexical accessibility of words, defined as the ease with which a speaker retrieves and produces a word, on codeswitching in Spanish-English bilinguals. We first developed a novel sentence-production paradigm to elicit naturalistic codeswitches in the lab. We then predicted items on which speakers were more or less likely to codeswitch as a consequence of the relative lexical accessibility of those items' labels across a speaker's two languages. In a Spa...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Source credibility modulates the validation of implausible information.
This study examined how the credibility of the information source affects validation processes. Two experiments investigated combined effects of source credibility and plausibility of information during validation with explicit (ratings) and implicit (reading times) measurements. Participants read short stories with a high-credible versus low-credible person that stated a consistent or inconsistent assertion with general world knowledge. Ratings of plausibility and ratings of source credibility were lower when a credible source stated a world-knowledge inconsistent assertion compared with a low-credible source. Reading tim...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Context, structure, and informativeness judgments: An extensive empirical investigation.
Authors: Vigo R, Doan CA, Basawaraj, Zeigler DE Abstract We explored the nature of human informativeness judgments: namely, people's judgments about the quantity of information that object stimuli convey about the category of objects to which they belong. Informativeness judgments play a key role in everyday decision-making situations involving the selection of items from groups that best represent the "group as a whole." They also provide insight into the nature of prototype formation. We investigated informativeness judgments with an experiment involving 41 category structures - the most comprehensive a...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Further insights into the operation of the Chinese number system: Competing effects of Arabic and Mandarin number formats.
Authors: Quinlan PT, Cohen DJ, Liu X Abstract Here we report the results of a speeded relative quantity task with Chinese participants. On each trial a single numeral (the probe) was presented and the instructions were to respond as to whether it signified a quantity less than or greater than five (the standard). In separate blocks of trials, the numerals were presented either in Mandarin or in Arabic number formats. In addition to the standard influence of numerical distance, a significant predictor of performance was the degree of physical similarity between the probe and the standard as depicted in Mandarin. Add...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Differential effects of working memory load on priming and recognition of real images.
Authors: Castellà J, Pina R, Baqués J, Allen RJ Abstract Several studies have explored the effects of divided attention on priming, but little is known about the impact of working memory load on implicit visual memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differential effects of working memory load on a visual priming task compared to a recognition task. In the encoding phase, participants were presented with real-object pictures and asked to classify them semantically. At retrieval, 40 studied and 40 new images were presented (partially masked) for 100 ms, and participants ha...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Reframing mental illness: The role of essentialism on perceived treatment efficacy and stigmatization.
Authors: Peters D, Menendez D, Rosengren K Abstract People believe that treatments for illnesses are effective when they target the cause of the illness. Prior work suggests that biological essentialist explanations of mental illness lead people to prefer medications or other pharmacological treatments. However, prior work has not distinguished between biological and essentialist explanations. In three studies (total n = 517), we presented adults with vignettes about an individual with an artificial mental illness and manipulated the descriptions to emphasize or de-emphasize essentialist characteristics. Critically...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Seen this scene? Scene recognition in the reaction-time Concealed Information Test.
Authors: Norman DG, Gunnell DA, Mrowiec AJ, Watson DG Abstract Detecting a suspect's recognition of a crime scene (e.g., a burgled room or a location visited for criminal activity) can be of great value during criminal investigations. Although it is established that the Reaction-Time Concealed Information Test (RT-CIT) can determine whether a suspect recognizes crime-related objects, no research has tested whether this capability extends to the recognition of scenes. In Experiment 1, participants were given an autobiographic scene-based RT-CIT. In Experiment 2, participants watched a mock crime video before complet...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Overclaiming responsibility in fictitious countries: Unpacking the role of availability in support theory predictions of overclaiming.
Authors: Ross MQ, Sterling-Maisel OA, Tracy O, Putnam AL Abstract Prior research has demonstrated that Americans massively overestimate how much their home state has contributed to US history. Why does such collective overclaiming occur? We argue that although self-serving biases undoubtedly influence overclaiming, non-motivated factors, such as a failure to consider the contributions of other states, also play a large role in overclaiming effects. In the current studies, subjects read descriptions of territories within a fictitious country and evaluated how much a territory within that country contributed to its h...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The detail is in the difficulty: Challenging search facilitates rich incidental object encoding.
Authors: Guevara Pinto JD, Papesh MH, Hout MC Abstract When searching for objects in the environment, observers necessarily encounter other, nontarget, objects. Despite their irrelevance for search, observers often incidentally encode the details of these objects, an effect that is exaggerated as the search task becomes more challenging. Although it is well established that searchers create incidental memories for targets, less is known about the fidelity with which nontargets are remembered. Do observers store richly detailed representations of nontargets, or are these memories characterized by gist-level detail, ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

How fast can people refresh and rehearse information in working memory?
Authors: Oberauer K, Souza AS Abstract Refreshing - briefly attending to an item in working memory - has been proposed as a domain-general maintenance process. According to the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) theory, people refresh the contents of working memory sequentially at high speed. We measured the speed of refreshing by asking participants to sequentially refresh a small set of items in sync with a metronome, and to adjust the metronome to the fastest speed at which they could refresh. Refreshing speeds converged on about 0.2 s per item for several verbal and visual materials. This time was shorter than ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The relative contribution of shape and colour to object memory.
Authors: Reppa I, Williams KE, Greville WJ, Saunders J Abstract The current studies examined the relative contribution of shape and colour in object representations in memory. A great deal of evidence points to the significance of shape in object recognition, with the role of colour being instrumental under certain circumstances. A key but yet unanswered question concerns the contribution of colour relative to shape in mediating retrieval of object representations from memory. Two experiments (N=80) used a new method to probe episodic memory for objects and revealed the relative contribution of colour and shape in ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

No evidence for automatic response activation with target onset in the avatar-compatibility task.
In this study, we investigated if these effects are caused by automatic response activation, a concept featured in dual-route models of stimulus-response compatibility. In two experiments we asked 24 participants each to perform a compatibility task from an avatar's point of view. We introduced a delay between the presentation of the target and the avatar in half of the trials so that the participants had to wait until the avatar appeared to select the correct response. Because the automatic response activation is known to decay quickly, its influence is eliminated in this condition. In contrast to the prediction by t...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Choice and consequence: A naturalistic analysis of least-worst decision-making in critical incidents.
Authors: Shortland N, Alison L, Thompson L, Barrett-Pink C, Swan L Abstract Individuals responsible for decision-making during critical incidents must wrestle with uncertainty, complexity, time pressure, and accountability. Critical incidents are defined as rare events where demand outstrips resources and where there are high stakes, uncertainty, and dynamic and ever-shifting elements that frustrate clear predictions. This paper argues that critical-incident decision-making is highly complex because many critical incidents have no such analogue, and thus there is no prior experience to draw upon. Further, while pre...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Strategies to resolve recall failures for proper names: New data.
Authors: Brédart S, Geurten M Abstract Personal names are particularly susceptible to retrieval failures. Studies describing people's spontaneous strategies for resolving such failures have indicated that people frequently search for semantic or contextual information about the target person. However, previous experimental studies have shown that, while providing phonological information may help resolve a name-recall failure, by contrast, providing semantic information is usually not helpful. In the first study, in order to reduce a bias present in previous studies of spontaneous strategies, explicit instru...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Possibilities and the parallel meanings of factual and counterfactual conditionals.
Authors: Espino O, Byrne RMJ, Johnson-Laird PN Abstract The mental model theory postulates that the meanings of conditionals are based on possibilities. Indicative conditionals-such as "If he is injured tomorrow, then he will take some leave"-have a factual interpretation that can be paraphrased as It is possible, and remains so, that he is injured tomorrow, and in that case certain that he takes some leave. Subjunctive conditionals, such as, "If he were injured tomorrow, then he would take some leave," have a prefactual interpretation that has the same paraphrase. But when context makes clear t...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Do we use visual codes when information is not presented visually?
Authors: Guitard D, Cowan N Abstract For many years, the working/short-term memory literature has been dominated by the study of phonological codes. Consequently, insufficient attention has been devoted to visual codes. In the present study, we attempt to remedy the situation by exploring a critical aspect of modern models of working memory, namely the principle that responses do not depend primarily on what kinds of materials are presented, but on what kinds of codes are generated from those materials. More specifically, we used the visual similarity effect as a tool to ask whether there is a generation of visual ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Test-enhanced learning for pairs and triplets: When and why does transfer occur?
Authors: Rickard TC, Pan SC Abstract In four experiments, we explored conditions under which learning due to retrieval practice (i.e., testing) transfers to the case in which the cue and response words are rearranged (e.g., a training test on gift, rose, ?, wherein the target is wine, and a final test on gift, ?, wine, wherein the answer is rose). In both Experiment 1 and a supplementary experiment, we observed divergent results for pairs and triplets: Relative to a restudy control condition, strong transfer was observed for pairs, but none for triplets. In Experiments 2 and 3, the theoretical basis of the specific...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Familiarity acts as a reduction in objective complexity.
Authors: Zhang J, Liu XL, So M, Reder LM Abstract High-complexity stimuli are thought to place extra demands on working memory when processing and manipulating such stimuli; however, operational definitions of complexity are not well established, nor are the measures that would demonstrate such effects. Here, we argue that complexity is a relative quantity that is affected by preexisting experience. Experiment 1 compared cued-recall performance for Chinese and English speakers when the stimuli involved Chinese features that varied in the number of strokes or involved Ethiopic features unfamiliar to both groups. Chi...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Cognitive aging and verbal labeling in continuous visual memory.
Authors: Forsberg A, Johnson W, Logie RH Abstract The decline of working memory (WM) is a common feature of general cognitive decline, and visual and verbal WM capacity appear to decline at different rates with age. Visual material may be remembered via verbal codes or visual traces, or both. Souza and Skóra, Cognition, 166, 277-297 (2017) found that labeling boosted memory in younger adults by activating categorical visual long-term memory (LTM) knowledge. Here, we replicated this and tested whether it held in healthy older adults. We compared performance in silence, under instructed overt labeling (partici...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Intuitive errors in learners' fraction understanding: A dual-process perspective on the natural number bias.
Authors: Van Hoof J, Verschaffel L, De Neys W, Van Dooren W Abstract Although a good rational number understanding is very important, many learners struggle to understand fractions. Recent research attributes many of these difficulties to the natural number bias - the tendency to apply natural number features in rational number tasks where this is inappropriate. Previous correlational dual process studies found evidence for the intuitive nature of the natural number bias in learners' response latencies. However, the reported correlations do not ascertain the causality that is assumed in this ascription. In the pres...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Look it up: Online search reduces the problematic effects of exposures to inaccuracies.
Authors: Donovan AM, Rapp DN Abstract People often reproduce information they read, which is beneficial when that information is accurate. Unfortunately, people are also often exposed to inaccurate information, with subsequent reproductions allowing for problematic decisions and behaviors. One empirically validated consequence of exposures to inaccuracies is that after reading falsehoods, participants are more likely to make errors answering related questions than if they previously read accurate statements, particularly for unfamiliar information. Interventions designed to attenuate these reproductions are often i...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Is it smart to read on your phone? The impact of reading format and culture on the continued influence of misinformation.
Authors: Xu Y, Wong R, He S, Veldre A, Andrews S Abstract Despite advances in digital technology that have resulted in more people accessing information via mobile devices, little is known about reading comprehension on mobile phones. This research investigated the impact of reading format by comparing sensitivity to misinformation presented either in printed texts or in digital format on mobile phones to readers of English versus Chinese. Participants read pairs of short newspaper-style articles containing a critical piece of information that was either retracted or not retracted, and were later assessed on their ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

When scenes speak louder than words: Verbal encoding does not mediate the relationship between scene meaning and visual attention.
Authors: Rehrig G, Hayes TR, Henderson JM, Ferreira F Abstract The complexity of the visual world requires that we constrain visual attention and prioritize some regions of the scene for attention over others. The current study investigated whether verbal encoding processes influence how attention is allocated in scenes. Specifically, we asked whether the advantage of scene meaning over image salience in attentional guidance is modulated by verbal encoding, given that we often use language to process information. In two experiments, 60 subjects studied scenes (N1 = 30 and N2 = 60) for 12 s each in preparation for a...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Reversing the testing effect by feedback is a matter of performance criterion at practice.
Authors: Racsmány M, Szőllősi Á, Marián M Abstract Retrieval practice is generally considered to be one of the most effective long-term learning strategies and is presumed to be more favorable than repeated study. However, a few recent studies have demonstrated that repetitive feedback at final recall can reverse the long-term advantage of testing over restudy. The result that feedback at long-term tests can dramatically decrease the relative effectiveness of retrieval-based learning could be important for both theoretical and practical reasons. Considering that these earlier studies administ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Pure-list production improves item recognition and sometimes also improves source memory.
Authors: Bodner GE, Huff MJ, Taikh A Abstract Relative to reading silently, reading words aloud (a type of "production") typically enhances item recognition, even when production is manipulated between groups using pure lists. We investigated whether pure-list production also enhances memory for various item details (i.e., source memory). Screen side (Experiment 1), font size (Experiment 2), or reading versus generating from anagrams (Experiments 3-4) were the sources varied within-subject, and aloud versus silent reading was varied across groups. Thus, the manipulation of source was apparent to participa...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Irrelevant music: How suprasegmental changes of a melody's tempo and mode affect the disruptive potential of music on serial recall.
Authors: Schweppe J, Knigge J Abstract On tests of verbal short-term memory, performance declines as a function of auditory distraction. The negative impact of to-be-ignored sound on serial recall is known as the irrelevant sound effect. It can occur with speech, sine tones, and music. Moreover, sound that changes acoustically from one token to the next (i.e., changing-state sound) is more disruptive to serial recall than repetitive, steady-state sound. We tested manipulations that resulted in changes in (higher levels of) perceptual organization for more complex tonal stimuli. Within a trial, the first two bars of...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Object-based attention in retaining binding in working memory: Influence of activation states of working memory.
Authors: He K, Li J, Wu F, Wan X, Gao Z, Shen M Abstract It has been suggested that retaining bindings in working memory (WM) requires more object-based attention than retaining constituent features. Recent studies have found that when memorized stimuli are presented sequentially, the most recent stimulus is in a highly accessible privileged state such that it is retained in a relatively automatic and resource-free manner, whereas the other stimuli are in a non-privileged state. The current study investigated whether the activation states of WM modulate the role of object-based attention in retaining bindings in WM...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Memory illusions and category malleability: False recognition for goal-derived reorganizations of common categories.
Authors: Soro JC, Ferreira MB, Carneiro P, Moreira S Abstract Four studies explore semantic memory intrusions for goal-derived subcategories (e.g., "sports good for backache") embedded in taxonomic categories (e.g., "sports"). Study 1 presented hybrid lists (composed of typical items from both representations: taxonomic categories and subcategories) together with names of subcategories, names of taxonomic categories, or with no names. Subcategory names produced levels of false recognitions for critical lures from subcategories comparable with critical lures from taxonomic categories. Study 2 pre...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

When phonological neighborhood density both facilitates and impedes: Age of acquisition and name agreement interact with phonological neighborhood during word production.
We examined the effect of bPND on the latency of picture naming and observed significant interactions between bPND and AoA such that bPND facilitated lexical retrieval for words that were acquired early, but inhibited retrieval for words acquired later in life. We hypothesize that lexical retrieval difficulty ultimately depends on the activation level of the target word's phonological representations relative to the activation levels of its neighbors' phonological representations. When phonological features of the target word are weakly activated (i.e., late AoA), and bPND is high, the neighbors' activation may overshadow ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Cross-codal integration of bridging-event information in narrative understanding.
This study addressed such cross-codal integration processes by investigating how the codality of bridging-event information (i.e., pictures, text) affects the understanding of visual narrative events. In Experiment 1, bridging-event information was either present (as picture or text) or absent (i.e., not shown). The viewing times for the subsequent picture depicting the end state of the action were comparable within the absent and the text conditions. Further, the viewing times for the end-state picture were significantly longer in the text condition as compared to the pictorial condition. In Experiment 2, we tested whethe...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Examining the factors that affect structural repetition in question answering.
We present two experiments that examine structural priming in the single-trial phone-call paradigm introduced by Levelt and Kelter (Cognitive psychology, 14 (1), 78-106, 1982). Experimenters called businesses and asked either What time do you close? or At what time do you close? Participants were more likely to produce a prepositional response (At 7 o'clock vs. 7 o'clock) following a prepositional question than following a non-prepositional question. Experiments 1 and 2 attempted to strengthen the priming effect by having the experimenters engage in a brief interaction with the participant before asking the What time&helli...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Enhanced mnemonic discrimination for emotional memories: the role of arousal in interference resolution.
Authors: Szőllősi Á, Racsmány M Abstract In the present study we investigated the long-standing question whether and why emotionally arousing memories are more distinct as compared to neutral experiences. We assumed that memory benefits from the distinctiveness of emotional information, and that emotions affect encoding by reducing interference among overlapping memory representations. Since pattern separation is the process which minimizes interference between memory representations with similar features, we examined the behavioral manifestation of putative neural mechanisms enabling pattern separa...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Zeigarnik and von Restorff: The memory effects and the stories behind them.
Authors: MacLeod CM Abstract Two of the best known eponymous phenomena in memory research were carried out as dissertations in the same era at the same university, each supervised by an influential researcher working within the Gestalt framework. Both examined the influence of unexpected events on memory. Bluma Zeigarnik (Psychologische Forschung, 9, 1-85, 1927) first reported that memory is better for interrupted tasks than for completed tasks, a phenomenon long known as the Zeigarnik effect. Hedwig von Restorff (Psychologische Forschung, 18, 299-342, 1933) first reported that memory is better for isolated than fo...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Strategic encoding and enhanced memory for positive value-location associations.
Authors: Schwartz ST, Siegel ALM, Castel AD Abstract People often need to remember the location of important objects or events, and also to remember locations that are associated with negative objects. In the current study, we examined how both positive and negative items might be selectively remembered in the visuospatial domain. Participants studied number-items ranging from -25 to +25 indicating point values in a grid display and were instructed to maximize their score (a summation of correctly remembered positive and negative information; incorrectly placed negative items resulted in a subtraction from the over...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Identifying the guilty word: Simultaneous versus sequential lineups for DRM word lists.
Authors: Finley JR, Wixted JT, Roediger HL Abstract Recent research in the eyewitness identification literature has investigated whether simultaneous or sequential lineups yield better discriminability. In standard eyewitness identification experiments, subjects view a mock-crime video and then are tested only once, requiring large samples for adequate power. However, there is no reason why theories of simultaneous versus sequential lineup performance cannot be tested using more traditional recognition memory tasks. In two experiments, subjects studied DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) word lists (e.g., bed, rest, tir...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Developmental change in partition dependent resource allocation behavior.
Authors: Williams K, Zax A, Reichelson S, Patalano AL, Barth H Abstract Partition dependence, the tendency to distribute choices differently based on the way options are grouped, has important implications for decision making. This phenomenon, observed in adults across a variety of contexts such as allocating resources or making selections from a menu of items, can bias decision makers toward some choices and away from others. Only one study to date (Reichelson, Zax, Patalano, & Barth, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 1029-1036, 2019) has investigated the developmental trajectory of this phenom...
Source: Memory and Cognition - March 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Musical training mediates the relation between working memory capacity and preference for musical complexity.
Authors: Vuvan DT, Simon E, Baker DJ, Monzingo E, Elliott EM Abstract Previous research has examined the relationships among cognitive variables and musical training, but relatively less attention has addressed downstream effects of musical training on other psychological domains, such as aesthetic preference, and the potential impact of domain-general constructs, such as working memory. Accordingly, the present study sought to draw links between musical training, working memory capacity, and preference for musical complexity. Participants were assessed for their experience with musical training, their working-memo...
Source: Memory and Cognition - March 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Correction to: Item-specific control of attention in the Stroop task: Contingency learning is not the whole story in the item-specific proportion-congruent effect.
Authors: Spinelli G, Lupker SJ Abstract The original publication included the following errors which were left uncorrected in the proofing process. PMID: 32180147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memory and Cognition)
Source: Memory and Cognition - March 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Category labels can influence the effects of selective retrieval on nonretrieved items.
This study examined whether the results generalize when the items are studied together with their category labels (e.g., BIRD-magpie) and the category labels are reexposed as retrieval cues at test (e.g., BIRD-m___), a procedure often used in research on the effects of selective retrieval. Two lag conditions were employed in this study: a short 1-min lag between study and selective retrieval, and a longer 15-min lag that included mental context change tasks to enhance the lag-induced contextual drift. Experiment 1 employed lists of unrelated items in the absence of any category labels and replicated both the detriment...
Source: Memory and Cognition - March 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Increasing control improves further control, but it does not enhance memory for the targets in a face-word Stroop task.
In this study, we used a face-word Stroop task to enforce different control modes either from trial to trial or in an item-specific manner. Both manipulations of congruency proved to be effective in making participants' responses to conflicting stimuli more efficient over time by applying a trial-specific control mode. However, these manipulations had no impact on memory performance on a surprise recognition memory test. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at measuring the memory consequences of the application of specific control modes at the trial level. The results reported here call for caution and possibly rec...
Source: Memory and Cognition - March 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research