Visual similarity effects in immediate serial recall and (sometimes) in immediate serial recognition.
Authors: Chubala CM, Guitard D, Neath I, Saint-Aubin J, Surprenant AM Abstract Words that sound dissimilar are recalled better than otherwise comparable words that sound similar on both immediate serial recall and immediate serial recognition tests, the so-called acoustic similarity effect. Although studies using immediate serial recall have shown an analogous visual similarity effect, in which words that look dissimilar are recalled better than words that look similar, this effect has not been examined in immediate serial recognition. We derived a prediction from the Feature Model that a visual similarity effect w...
Source: Memory and Cognition - November 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Expertise effects on the perceptual and cognitive tasks of indoor rock climbing.
Authors: Whitaker MM, Pointon GD, Tarampi MR, Rand KM Abstract Experts' cognitive abilities adapt in response to the challenges they face in order to produce elite-level performance. Expert athletes, in particular, must integrate their motor capabilities with their cognitive and perceptual processes. Indoor rock climbers are particularly unique athletes in that much of the challenge they face is to accurately perceive and consolidate multiple movements into manageable action plans. In the current study, we investigated how climbers' level of expertise influenced their perception of action capabilities, visual memor...
Source: Memory and Cognition - November 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

On some of the main criticisms of the modal model: Reappraisal from a TBRS perspective.
We describe a recent working memory model, the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model (Barrouillet, P., & Camos, V. (2015). Working memory: Loss and reconstruction. Hove, UK: Psychology Press), that shares several theoretical assumptions with the model initially proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin, assumptions supported by empirical findings. Consequently, the model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 may be far from outdated and still provide an inspiring framework for memory study. PMID: 31641994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memory and Cognition)
Source: Memory and Cognition - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Aging and strategic prospective memory monitoring.
Authors: Ball BH, Li YP, Bugg JM Abstract Monitoring the environment for the occurrence of prospective memory (PM) targets is a resource-demanding process that produces cost (e.g., slowing) to ongoing activities. Prior research has shown that older adults are able to monitor strategically, which involves the activation of monitoring when contextually appropriate and deactivation of monitoring when it is not thereby affording conservation of limited-capacity attentional resources. However, the time course and efficiency with which these processes operate with increased age are unknown. In the current study, particip...
Source: Memory and Cognition - October 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The influence of state change on object representations in language comprehension.
Authors: Kang X, Eerland A, Joergensen GH, Zwaan RA, Altmann GTM Abstract To understand language people form mental representations of described situations. Linguistic cues are known to influence these representations. In the present study, participants were asked to verify whether the object presented in a picture was mentioned in the preceding words. Crucially, the picture either showed an intact original state or a modified state of an object. Our results showed that the end state of the target object influenced verification responses. When no linguistic context was provided, participants responded faster to the...
Source: Memory and Cognition - October 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Semantic associations between arithmetic and space: Evidence from temporal order judgements.
Authors: Andres M, Salvaggio S, Lefèvre N, Pesenti M, Masson N Abstract Spatial biases associated with subtraction or addition problem solving are generally considered as reflecting leftward or rightward attention shifts along a mental numerical continuum, but an alternative hypothesis not implying spatial attention proposes that the operator (plus or minus sign) may favour a response to one side of space (left or right) because of semantic associations. We tested these two accounts in a series of temporal order judgement experiments that consisted in the auditory presentation of addition or subtraction prob...
Source: Memory and Cognition - September 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Revisiting the linear separability constraint: New implications for theories of human category learning.
Authors: Levering KR, Conaway N, Kurtz KJ Abstract While the ability to acquire non-linearly separable (NLS) classifications is well documented in the study of human category learning, the relative ease of learning compared to a linear separable structure is difficult to evaluate without potential confounds. Medin and Schwanenflugel (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 7, 355-368, 1981) were the first to demonstrate that NLS classifications are not more difficult to acquire than linearly separable ones when structures are equated in terms of within- and between-category similarities. Howe...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Pupillometric contributions to deciphering Stroop conflicts.
Authors: Hershman R, Henik A Abstract The Stroop task gives rise to two major conflicts: the task conflict (respond to the color vs. read the word) and the information conflict that can result from the stimulus-response compatibility (SRC; difference between two responses) or from the stimulus-stimulus compatibility (SSC; difference between the two contradictive pieces of information). We conducted a two-to-one Stroop experiment (i.e., two colors are mapped to one response key) and measured reaction time and pupil dilation. The results showed clear evidence for informational conflict composed of both the SRC and SS...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

How prior testing impacts misinformation processing: A dual-task approach.
Authors: Gordon LT, Bilolikar VK, Hodhod T, Thomas AK Abstract Research suggests that testing prior to the presentation of misinformation influences how that misinformation is processed. The present study examined the relationship between testing, the demands of misinformation narrative processing, and memory for original and post-event information. Using response latencies to a secondary task, we tested whether prior testing influenced the available resources for secondary task processing. Additionally, we investigated whether changes in narrative processing were specific to critical details tested earlier. Partic...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Dynamic adjustments in working memory in the face of affective interference.
Authors: Witkin JE, Zanesco AP, Denkova E, Jha AP Abstract Cognitive control, which allows for the selection and monitoring of goal-relevant behavior, is dynamically upregulated on the basis of moment-to-moment cognitive demands. One route by which these demands are registered by cognitive control systems is via the detection of response conflict. Yet working memory (WM) demands may similarly signal dynamic adjustments in cognitive control. In a delayed-recognition WM task, Jha and Kiyonaga (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 36(4), 1036-1042, 2010) demonstrated dynamic adjustmen...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Correction to: Science by social media: Attitudes towards climate change are mediated by perceived social consensus.
Authors: Lewandowsky S, Cook J, Fay N, Gignac GE Abstract Confidence intervals and regression lines were omitted from Fig. 1 in this article as originally published. This error was introduced during production. The original article has been corrected. PMID: 31372845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memory and Cognition)
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Texts and pictures serve different functions in conjoint mental model construction and adaptation.
In this study we examined the different functions of text and pictures during text-picture integration in multimedia learning. In Study 1, 144 secondary school students (age = 11 to 14 years; 72 females, 72 males) received six text-picture units under two conditions. In the delayed-question condition, students first read the units without a specific question (no-question phase), to stimulate initial coherence-oriented mental model construction. Afterward the question was presented (question-answering phase), to stimulate task-adaptive mental model specification. In the preposed-question condition, students received a speci...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Are individual differences in auditory processing related to auditory distraction by irrelevant sound? A replication study.
Authors: Elliott EM, Marsh JE, Zeringue J, McGill CI Abstract Irrelevant sounds can be very distracting, especially when trying to recall information according to its serial order. The irrelevant sound effect (ISE) has been studied in the literature for more than 40 years, yet many questions remain. One goal that has received little attention involves the discernment of a predictive factor, or individual difference characteristic, that would help to determine the size of the ISE. The current experiments were designed to replicate and extend prior work by Macken, Phelps, and Jones (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,...
Source: Memory and Cognition - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Forward and backward recall: Different visuospatial processes when you know what's coming.
Authors: Guitard D, Saint-Aubin J, Poirier M, Miller LM, Tolan A Abstract In an immediate memory task, when participants are asked to recall list items in reverse order, benchmark memory phenomena found with more typical forward recall are not consistently reproduced. These inconsistencies have been attributed to the greater involvement of visuospatial representations in backward than in forward recall at the point of retrieval. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis with a dual-task paradigm in which manual-spatial tapping and dynamic visual noise were used as the interfering tasks. The interference task ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

"But he's my brother": The impact of family obligation on moral judgments and decisions.
"But he's my brother": The impact of family obligation on moral judgments and decisions. Mem Cognit. 2019 Jul 23;: Authors: Lee J, Holyoak KJ Abstract We created practical moral dilemmas for which participants imagined witnessing a transgression by a target person. The identity of the transgressor was manipulated to be either a stranger or the participant's brother. In Experiment 1, whether the target person committed a violation was left ambiguous. Participants made factual (how strongly they believe the target person actually committed a transgression) and unethicality judgments regarding t...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Failure to accept retractions: A contribution to the continued influence effect.
Authors: O'Rear AE, Radvansky GA Abstract Previous research has shown that when information about a narrative event is retracted, people continue to use that information even though it has been explicitly identified as incorrect. Not only can this occur for implicitly inferred information, but also when the change is stated explicitly. The current study explored whether this effect reflects, at least in part, an unwillingness of some readers to accept changes to their understanding. Experiment 1 assessed this using a continued influence effect paradigm with an additional probe asking whether participants believed t...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Individual differences in relational reasoning.
Authors: Gray ME, Holyoak KJ Abstract Various forms of relational processing have been linked to cognitive capacity measures, such as working memory and fluid intelligence. However, previous work has not established the extent to which different forms of relational processing reflect common factors, nor whether individual differences in cognitive style also contribute to variations in relational reasoning. The current study took an individual-differences approach to investigate the prerequisites for relational processing. In two studies, college students completed a battery of standardized tests of individual diffe...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Mechanisms of output interference in cued recall.
Authors: Wilson JH, Kellen D, Criss AH Abstract The primary aim of this paper is to elucidate the mechanisms governing output interference in cued recall. Output interference describes the phenomenon where accuracy decrease over the course of an episodic memory test. Output inference in cued recall takes the form of a decrease in correct and intrusion responses and an increase in failures to response across the test. This pattern can only be accounted for by a model with two complementary mechanisms: learning during retrieval and a response filter that prevents repeated recall of the same item. We investigate how a...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Retrieval-induced forgetting in a social context: Do the same mechanisms underlie forgetting in speakers and listeners?
Authors: Abel M, Bäuml KT Abstract Selectively retrieving details from memory can result in forgetting related information, a finding known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The effect has mostly been examined in individuals, but RIF can also be socially transmitted and arise in listeners who are exposed to a speaker's selective memory retrieval. Whether within-individual RIF (WI-RIF) in speakers and socially shared RIF (SS-RIF) in listeners arise on the basis of the same cognitive mechanisms is unclear, however. In four experiments, we assessed both WI-RIF and SS-RIF while varying final test format to ex...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The time course of age-of-acquisition effects on eye movements during reading: Evidence from survival analyses.
Authors: Juhasz BJ, Sheridan H Abstract Adults process words that are rated as being learned earlier in life faster than words that are rated as being acquired later in life. This age-of-acquisition (AoA) effect has been observed in a variety of word-recognition tasks when word frequency is controlled. AoA has also previously been found to influence fixation durations when words are embedded into sentences and eye movements are recorded. However, the time course of AoA effects during reading has been inconsistent across studies. The current study further explored the time course of AoA effects on distributions of f...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Tracking within-category colors is easier: Color categories modulate location processing in a dynamic visual task.
Authors: Sun M, Hu L, Fan L, Zhang X Abstract The categorical perception (CP) of color describes the phenomenon that colors across categories (e.g., blue and green) are more discriminable than within-category colors (e.g., green) even when the perceptual distance is controlled. While most studies are conducted in a static visual scene, the current study investigated the effect of color categories when tracking multiple colored objects within two experiments. The targets or distractors were either from the same color category or from two different categories, and the perceptual distance was controlled across all con...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The transition from feature to object: Storage unit in visual working memory depends on task difficulty.
In this study, a change-detection task was employed to investigate whether and how task difficulty can affect VWM, specifically, its capacity and the unit of storage. Task difficulty was manipulated through the set size of memory items, memory fidelity required by the resolution of representation and the type of feature tested. We examined two types of stimuli: the single-feature type, where each memory item was composed of a single feature (color or shape), and the conjunctive-feature type, where each item was composed of a conjunction of two features (colored shape). Experiment 1 replicated the previous findings tha...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The location-based Simon effect: Reliability of ex-Gaussian analysis.
Authors: Luo C, Proctor RW Abstract Task-irrelevant stimulus location can influence the response performance to task-relevant attributes, generating the location-based Simon effect. Using a Monte Carlo study and other methods, we examined whether the ex-Gaussian distribution provides a good fit to empirical reaction time (RT) distributions in the Simon task and whether reliable Simon effects occur on the ex-Gaussian parameters: (a) the mean (μ), (b) the standard deviation (σ) of the normal distribution, and (c) the tail (τ). Results showed that the ex-Gaussian function fits well to empirical RT distrib...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Semantic relatedness and distinctive processing may inflate older adults' positive memory bias.
Authors: Ack Baraly KT, Morand A, Fusca L, Davidson PSR, Hot P Abstract Emotional stimuli are often more semantically interrelated and relatively distinct than neutral stimuli. These factors can enhance memory for emotional stimuli in young adults, but their effects in older adults-and on the age-related positive memory bias-remain unknown. In the present article, we tested whether item relatedness and distinctiveness affect emotional memory in young adults (Exps. 1 and 2) and the positive memory bias in older adults (Exp. 2). In both experiments, participants studied positive, negative, and neutral pictures and pe...
Source: Memory and Cognition - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Visual short-term memory capacity predicts the "bandwidth" of visual long-term memory encoding.
Visual short-term memory capacity predicts the "bandwidth" of visual long-term memory encoding. Mem Cognit. 2019 Jun 24;: Authors: Fukuda K, Vogel EK Abstract We are capable of storing a virtually infinite amount of visual information in visual long-term memory (VLTM) storage. At the same time, the amount of visual information we can encode and maintain in visual short-term memory (VSTM) at a given time is severely limited. How do these two memory systems interact to accumulate vast amount of VLTM? In this series of experiments, we exploited interindividual and intraindividual differences VST...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Tracking the implicit acquisition of nonadjacent transitional probabilities by ERPs.
Authors: Kóbor A, Horváth K, Kardos Z, Takács Á, Janacsek K, Csépe V, Nemeth D Abstract The implicit acquisition of complex probabilistic regularities has been found to be crucial in numerous automatized cognitive abilities, including language processing and associative learning. However, it has not been completely elucidated how the implicit extraction of second-order nonadjacent transitional probabilities is reflected by neurophysiological processes. Therefore, this study investigated the sensitivity of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to these probabilistic regularities em...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Science by social media: Attitudes towards climate change are mediated by perceived social consensus.
We report an experiment that orthogonally varied those two variables using blog posts and comments that either did, or did not, support the scientific consensus on climate change. We find that beliefs are partially shaped by readers' perception of how widely an opinion expressed in a blog post appears to be shared by other readers. The perceived social consensus among readers, in turn, is determined by whether blog comments endorse or reject the contents of a post. When comments reject the content, perceived reader consensus is lower than when comments endorse the content. The results underscore the importance of perceived...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Validating the relation-monitoring task as a measure of relational integration and predictor of fluid intelligence.
Authors: Bateman JE, Thompson KA, Birney DP Abstract The relation-monitoring task (RMT) has demonstrated a remarkable ability to predict higher-order cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence, despite its apparent simplicity: It requires no storage over time and no advanced mental manipulation. Instead, the task is theorized to measure relational integration: the process of constructing mental relations between independent elements. Although several studies have established a link between the RMT and fluid intelligence, few studies have investigated the task parameters that contribute to the task's ability to ...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Reorganization of spatial configurations in visual working memory.
Authors: Timm JD, Papenmeier F Abstract Human beings have to constantly process multiple objects in visual working memory (VWM). Positional relations to other objects known as spatial configurations contribute significantly to the organization of information in VWM. The aim of our study was to clarify whether spatial configurations can be reorganized to a subset of objects during maintenance. Participants were shown an array of objects, and afterwards the objects disappeared. A valid cue was shown either during encoding or maintenance to highlight the side of the following probed object. Afterwards, the objects rea...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The instruction-based congruency effect predicts task execution efficiency: Evidence from inter- and intra-individual differences.
Authors: Braem S, Deltomme B, Liefooghe B Abstract In contrast to traditional conflict paradigms, which measure interference from (over)trained associations, recent paradigms have been introduced that investigate automatic interference from newly instructed, but never executed, associations. In these prospective-instruction paradigms, participants receive new task instructions (e.g., if cat press left, if dog press right), but before they have to apply the instructions, they are first presented with another task that measures the automatic interference from the instructed task information. The resulting instruction...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Episodic memory contributions to autobiographical memory and open-ended problem-solving specificity in younger and older adults.
Authors: Peters SL, Fan CL, Sheldon S Abstract Research indicates that episodic memory processes are required to access specific autobiographical events and the details encompassed by a single event for several functions, including remembering and personal problem solving. Since healthy cognitive aging is associated with episodic memory decline, we hypothesized that older adults would be impaired at producing specific autobiographical events and details in service of these two functions. To test this hypothesis, younger and older adults completed two tasks (generation and elaboration) across two experiments (autobi...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Training, retention, and transfer of data entry perceptual and motor processes over short and long retention intervals.
Authors: Healy AF, Kole JA, Schneider VI, Barshi I Abstract In two experiments, subjects trained in a standard data entry task, which involved typing numbers (e.g., 2147) using their right hands. At an initial test (20 min or 6 months after training), subjects completed the standard task, followed by a left-hand variant (typing with their left hands) that involved the same perceptual, but different motoric, processes as the standard task. At a second test (2 days or 8 months after training), subjects completed the standard task, followed by a code variant (translating letters into digits, then typing the digits wit...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Listeners consider alternative speaker productions in discourse comprehension and memory: Evidence from beat gesture and pitch accenting.
Authors: Morett LM, Fraundorf SH Abstract Cues to emphasis, such as beat gesture and contrastive pitch accenting, play an important role in constraining what comprehenders remember from a discourse. One possibility is that these cues are used in a purely bottom-up manner in which additional attention is devoted to emphasized material. Another possibility is that comprehenders use top-down expectations of what cues might be expected in the current communicative context, such that the absence of an expected cue may serve as an indicator that material is unimportant. We independently manipulated two cues conveying emp...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Semantic knowledge influences whether novel episodic associations are represented symmetrically or asymmetrically.
Authors: Popov V, Zhang Q, Koch GE, Calloway RC, Coutanche MN Abstract We provide new evidence concerning two opposing views of episodic associations: The independent-association hypothesis posits that associations are unidirectional and separately modifiable links (A→B and A←B); in contrast, the associative-symmetry hypothesis proposes that a single, bidirectional association exists between A and B (A↔B). We used a novel method to demonstrate that whether or not episodic associations are symmetric depends on whether there is a preexisting semantic relationship between A and B. In two experiments, pa...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

More evidence against the Spinozan model: Cognitive load diminishes memory for "true" feedback.
More evidence against the Spinozan model: Cognitive load diminishes memory for "true" feedback. Mem Cognit. 2019 Jun 18;: Authors: Nadarevic L, Erdfelder E Abstract We tested two competing models on the memory representation of truth-value information: the Spinozan model and the Cartesian model. Both models assume that truth-value information is represented with memory "tags," but the models differ in their coding scheme. According to the Cartesian model, true information is stored with a "true" tag, and false information is stored with a "false" tag. In contrast...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of grammar complexity on artificial grammar learning.
Authors: Van den Bos E, Poletiek FH Abstract In the article "Effects of Grammar Complexity on Artificial Grammar Learning" by E. Van den Bos and F. Poletiek, published in Memory & Cognition, 2008, 36(6), 1122-1131, doi:10.3758/MC.36.6.1122, an error was made in the computation of topological entropy (TE). PMID: 31215013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memory and Cognition)
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Mindfulness improves verbal learning and memory through enhanced encoding.
We examined encoding, consolidation, and retrieval as potential mechanisms by which learning and memory may be increased on a list learning test (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task; RAVLT). After dividing participants into either a mindfulness or a control condition, in which they listened to a 10-min audio tape, results found that the mindfulness condition significantly outperformed the control condition on every RAVLT trial. Using the Item-Specific Deficit Approach, we discovered that this enhanced verbal learning and memory was specifically due to a significantly enhanced encoding process for the mindfulness group, which...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Learning about things that never happened: A critique and refinement of the Rescorla-Wagner update rule when many outcomes are possible.
Authors: Hollis G Abstract A vector-based model of discriminative learning is presented. It is demonstrated to learn association strengths identical to the Rescorla-Wagner model under certain parameter settings (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972, Classical Conditioning II: Current Research and Theory, 2, 64-99). For other parameter settings, it approximates the association strengths learned by the Rescorla-Wagner model. I argue that the Rescorla-Wagner model has conceptual details that exclude it as an algorithmically plausible model of learning. The vector learning model, however, does not suffer from the same conceptua...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Mere exposure effect(s) in the context of explicit memory search.
Authors: Grybinas D, Kantner J, Dobbins IG Abstract Prior stimulus exposure often increases later ratings of positive affect (e.g., pleasantness ratings). This phenomenon - the mere exposure effect (MEE) - appears robust following subliminal and incidental exposures. However, its expression in the context of explicit memory judgment remains unclear. In four studies, memory and pleasantness ratings were combined to investigate how memory conclusions (e.g., "studied" or "unstudied") might moderate exposure effects. Experiment 1 examined basic recognition, Experiment 2 manipulated incentives for re...
Source: Memory and Cognition - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Different definitions of the nonrecollection-based response option(s) change how people use the "remember" response in the remember/know paradigm.
Different definitions of the nonrecollection-based response option(s) change how people use the "remember" response in the remember/know paradigm. Mem Cognit. 2019 May 22;: Authors: Williams HL, Lindsay DS Abstract In the remember/know paradigm, a "know" response can be defined to participants as a high-confidence state of certainty or as a low-confidence state based on a feeling of familiarity. To examine the effects of definition on use of responses, in two experiments, definitions of "remember" and "guess" were kept constant, but definitions of "know"...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Do reminders of the crime reverse the memory-undermining effect of simulating amnesia?
Authors: Mangiulli I, Lanciano T, van Oorsouw K, Jelicic M, Curci A Abstract Research shows that simulating amnesia impairs actual memory for a mock crime. Lack of rehearsal has been suggested as the most likely explanation for this finding because feigning amnesia is linked to reduced thinking about the offence. We investigated whether reminders about the crime could reverse the memory-undermining effect of simulation. In two studies, participants watched a video of a violent crime. After, they were asked to either simulate amnesia or confess the crime. During the week between the first and second memory test phas...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Instructions matter: Individual differences in navigation strategy and ability.
Authors: Boone AP, Maghen B, Hegarty M Abstract Individual differences in navigation strategy in the dual-solution paradigm (DSP) indicate that some people prefer to take learned routes, while others prefer to take shortcuts (Boone, Gong, & Hegarty, Memory & Cognition, 46, 909-922, 2018; Marchette, Bakker, & Shelton, Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 15264-15268, 2011). Although work using the DSP has highlighted biases toward certain navigation strategies within individuals, a question remains as to why navigators do show a bias. Here, we questioned whether a bias toward navigation by learned routes indicat...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Statistical models of morphology predict eye-tracking measures during visual word recognition.
Authors: Lehtonen M, Varjokallio M, Kivikari H, Hultén A, Virpioja S, Hakala T, Kurimo M, Lagus K, Salmelin R Abstract We studied how statistical models of morphology that are built on different kinds of representational units, i.e., models emphasizing either holistic units or decomposition, perform in predicting human word recognition. More specifically, we studied the predictive power of such models at early vs. late stages of word recognition by using eye-tracking during two tasks. The tasks included a standard lexical decision task and a word recognition task that assumedly places less emphasis on postle...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Adding the keyword mnemonic to retrieval practice: A potent combination for foreign language vocabulary learning?
Authors: Miyatsu T, McDaniel MA Abstract The keyword mnemonic and retrieval practice are two cognitive techniques that have each been identified to enhance foreign language vocabulary learning. However, little is known about the use of these techniques in combination. Previous demonstrations of retrieval-practice effects in foreign language vocabulary learning have tended to use several rounds of retrieval practice. In contrast, we focused on a situation in which retrieval practice was limited to twice per item. For this situation, it is unclear whether retrieval practice will be effective relative to restudying. W...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The effect of working memory maintenance on long-term memory.
We present evidence from 13 new experiments as well as a meta-analysis of 61 published experiments. Both the new experiments and meta-analysis show clear evidence that increased WM maintenance of a stimulus leads to superior recognition for that stimulus in subsequent LTM tests. This effect appears robust across a variety of experimental design parameters, suggesting that the variability in prior results in the literature is probably due to low power and random chance. The results support theories on which there is a close link between WM and LTM mechanisms, while challenging claims that this relationship is specific to ve...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Retrieval shifts in spatial skill acquisition are collective rather than item-specific.
Authors: Frank DJ, Macnamara BN Abstract How do people improve their ability to intercept moving targets? Prior research and theories of skill acquisition suggest that individuals engage in item-specific retrieval shifts (Anglim & Wynton, 2015; Logan, 1988; Palmeri, 1997; Rickard, 1997, 2004; Touron, 2006; Wilkins & Rawson, 2010). However, this prior research examined performance on nonspatial, nondynamic tasks. In three experiments, we pitted four hypotheses against each other, to test skill acquisition for intercepting repeated trajectories in a spatial and dynamic task: the item-specific algorithmic spee...
Source: Memory and Cognition - May 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Testing enhances motor practice.
Authors: Tempel T, Frings C Abstract We investigated how retrieval of a set of newly learned motor sequences influences subsequent learning of another set of motor sequences. In four experiments, retrieval reduced an acceleration of movement execution over subsequent study trials. This relative slowing-down was associated with better recall performance in a final memory test. Explicit retrievability of motor sequences benefited from longer study-trial response times (RTs), suggesting that retrieval caused more attentive encoding. The use of motor sequences requiring overt action during encoding allowed for this dem...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The complex interactions of context availability, polysemy, word frequency, and orthographic variables during lexical processing.
In this study we examined the interactions of context availability, polysemy, word frequency, and orthographic neighborhood variables during lexical processing. Context availability and polysemy interacted, in that words that were both lower in context availability and had fewer related senses were especially disadvantaged, as was originally reported by Tokowicz and Kroll (2007). Word frequency interacted with both polysemy and context availability, in that the effects of polysemy and context availability were stronger for lower-frequency words. Finally, orthographic neighborhood size and frequency both interacted with pol...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

Constituent frequency effects in the written production of Spanish compound words.
In this study, three experiments used a copying task to examine whether compound words are accessed via their constituents in handwriting production. In Experiment 1, production of compound words and noncompounds was compared. The last interletter interval within the first constituent of compounds was observed to be shorter than the same interval in noncompounds, revealing that writing durations are sensitive to morphological processing. In Experiments 2 and 3, the first and second constituent frequency was manipulated respectively. The frequency of both constituents affected writing onset times. Interestingly, the interva...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research

The development of fast and slow inferential responding: Evidence for a parallel development of rule-based and belief-based intuitions.
Authors: Markovits H, de Chantal PL, Brisson J, Gagnon-St-Pierre É Abstract Dual process theories postulate the existence of two levels of processing, Type 1, which uses belief-based cues to make very rapid inferences, and Type 2, which uses more conscious, working memory-based processes that are, in principle, capable of making rule-based judgments. There is a common assumption that Type 1 processes are more rapidly produced, while Type 2 processes take more time. Evidence for this assumption is mixed. Recently, Newman, Gibb, and Thompson (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,...
Source: Memory and Cognition - April 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Mem Cognit Source Type: research