High PD-L1 Expression Correlates with Primary Resistance to EGFR-TKIs in Treatment Na ïve Advanced EGFR-mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The treatment of lung cancer is individualized, and is thus determined by the results of molecular biology tests and each patient ’s histology [1]. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutation is the most common driver mutation gene amongst lung cancer patients in East Asian, including Taiwan [2,3]. In Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients, activating EGFR mutation could be found in approximately 10% of Caucasian p atients, and more than 50% of Asian patients [3,4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kuo-Hsuan Hsu, Yen-Hsiang Huang, Jeng-Sen Tseng, Kun-Chieh Chen, Wen-Hui Ku, Kang-Yi Su, Jeremy J.W. Chen, Huei-Wen Chen, Sung-Liang Yu, Tsung-Ying Yang, Gee-Chen Chang Source Type: research

Leptomeningeal metastasis after effective first-generation EGFR TKI treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer
Therapeutic advances in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have led to improvements in patient survival, especially in patients who harbor sensitive mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Patients with these mutations have exhibited better disease control and prolonged survival when treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib [1,2]. However, these improvements in patient survival have been accompanied by an increased incidence of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) from NSCLC. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ya-Lan Wu, Qian Zhao, Lei Deng, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Juan Zhou, Yan-Ying Li, Min Yu, Lin Zhou, Bing-Wen Zou, You Lu, Yong-Mei Liu Source Type: research

Feasibility of Lung Cancer RNA Acquisition from a Single Transbronchial or Transthoracic Needle Pass (FASTT Trial)
The biology of non-small cell lung (NSCLC) cancer is complex with considerable variation in the clinical behavior and treatment of tumors with specific genetic mutations, rearrangements, high/low PD-L1 expression, and variable histologies. Many tumor markers for testing at diagnosis are required to assure that all patients with actionable targets are treated with the most efficacious drug. Diagnostic specimens from cytological material need to classify histology, standard mutations, and PDL-1 expression, irrespective of how a patient ’s biopsy is obtained. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Travis Dotson, Christina Bellinger, Jing Su, Kris Hansen, Graham E. Parks, James O. Cappellari, Lou Craddock, Hollins Clark, Clifford Howard, W. Jeffrey Petty, Bahrat Prakash, Kounosuke Watabe, Michael Chan, Jonathon Hovda, Lance D. Miller, Jimmy Ruiz Source Type: research

Measurement and Immunophenotyping of Pleural Fluid EpCAM-Positive Cells and Clusters for the Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
Despite significant advances in detection and therapy, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common histotype representing 85% of new diagnoses. [1] Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) occur as a frequent complication of advanced stage lung cancer, occurring in approximately 30% of patients, and denoting a poor overall prognosis [2,3]. NSCLC patients with a MPE have a median overall survival of only 4.3 months and are often candidates for advanced therapies [4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jeffrey C. Thompson, Ryan Fan, Taylor Black, Gordon H. Yu, Samantha L. Savitch, Austin Chien, Stephanie S. Yee, Moen Sen, Wei-Ting Hwang, Sharyn I. Katz, Michael Feldman, Anil Vachani, Erica L. Carpenter Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Correlation between immune-related adverse events and efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer treated with nivolumab” [Lung Cancer 115 (2018) 71–74]
The authors regret that we mistook the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry data in Table 1 for that of circulating tumor cell. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Koichi Sato, Hiroaki Akamatsu, Eriko Murakami, Seigo Sasaki, Kuninobu Kanai, Atsushi Hayata, Nahomi Tokudome, Keiichiro Akamatsu, Yasuhiro Koh, Hiroki Ueda, Masanori Nakanishi, Nobuyuki Yamamoto Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Outcomes of Stage III NSCLC with occult primary vs. known primary lesions
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involving mediastinal lymph nodes without an identifiable primary tumor (i.e. occult primary NSCLC or OP-NSCLC) is an uncommon presentation and rare diagnosis. To date there are fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature, most of which are single patient case reports [1 –7]. OP-NSCLC is defined as the absence of an identifiable primary lung tumor, in the setting of mediastinal lymph node pathology consistent with a tumor arising from the lung. Therefore, a detailed and thorough staging workup is necessary to rule out metastatic involvement from a non-thoracic pri mary site. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul B. Romesser, Yonatan Bardash, Darren Buonocore, Jamie E. Chaft, James Huang, David R. Jones, Andreas Rimner, Abraham J. Wu Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiation therapy for stage I non-small cell lung carcinomas: moderate hypofractionation optimizes outcome
Surgery is the gold standard treatment in the management of stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and is resulting in a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate in the order of 60 to 80 % (1). The median age of patients presenting a stage I NSCLC is about 70 years. Thus, age and cardiopulmonary comorbidities may often contraindicate any surgical management. In this case or if the patient refuses surgery, one of the alternative is stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) (2). Radiofrequency ablation is also a safe option for medically inoperable patients (3). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: I. Menoux, D. Antoni, P. Truntzer, A. Keller, G. Massard, G. No ël Source Type: research

Radiotherapy dose escalation in locally advanced NSCLC – the limits of conventional radiochemotherapy
Until today, overall survival remains poor in locally advanced stage III NSCLC, and progress observed in historical comparisons is probably to a large extent the result of improved patient staging using FDG-PET and endoscopic nodal staging. Recent strategies such as the use of maintenance chemotherapy, addition of targeted therapy (e.g. cetuximab) and newer chemotherapy agents such as pemetrexed or tumor vaccines all failed to increase survival. Additionally, studies have not demonstrated the superiority of trimodality over bimodality treatment. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthias Guckenberger Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Potential for afatinib as an optimal treatment for advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma in patients with uncommon EGFR mutations
Uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) are a heterogeneous group of genetic alterations that produce variable responses to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with most of the evidence of the responses to EGFR-TKIs being based on small case studies or single case reports [1 –3]. Several studies have demonstrated that patients with uncommon EGFR mutations respond poorly to first-generation EGFR-TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, compared to patients with common EGFR mutations [2–5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ichidai Tanaka, Masahiro Morise, Yuta Kodama, Akira Matsui, Naoya Ozawa, Sachiko Ozone, Daiki Goto, Ayako Miyazawa, Tetsunari Hase, Naozumi Hashimoto, Mitsuo Sato, Yoshinori Hasegawa Source Type: research

Effects of Primary Tumor Resection on the Survival of Patients with Stage IV Extrathoracic Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Population-Based Study
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Based on the updated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, up to 55% of all patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer have advanced disease with extrathoracic metastases. Systemic therapy is the main therapeutic strategy for patients with stage IV lung cancer [1]. Yet, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate for patients with distant metastatic disease still remains extremely low (2%). Local consolidative therapy based multidisciplinary management, other than palliative treatment for relieving localized symptoms, has been attempted to impr...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zewen Sun, Xizhao Sui, Fan Yang, Jun Wang Source Type: research

Outcome of EGFR-mutated adenocarcinoma NSCLC patients with changed phenotype to squamous cell carcinoma after tyrosine kinase inhibitors: A pooled analysis with an additional case
Lung cancer is the major killer worldwide, however, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation identifies a subgroup of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that differs from the wild-type counterpart, in terms of better outcome and specific responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)[1]. Indeed, the presence of EGFR-activating mutation makes about 15% of lung adenocarcinoma (ADK) patients eligible to TKI therapy, that had revolutionized NSCLC treatment, being superior to cytotoxic chemotherapy in terms of survival and tolerability [2,3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elisa Roca, Marta Pozzari, William Vermi, Valeria Tovazzi, Alice Baggi, Vito Amoroso, Daniela Nonnis, Salvatore Intagliata, Alfredo Berruti Tags: Review Source Type: research

Reply to the comments on: Erlotinib in combination with bevacizumab has potential benefit in non small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
Many thanks to the researchers ’ interests on our original article [1]. They have raised some issues about our paper mainly concentrating on the accuracy of the selection process, especially for the comparison groups. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Binghao Zhao, Wenxiong Zhang Source Type: research

Genetic profiling-based prognostic prediction of patients with advanced small-cell lung cancer in large scale analysis
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 13% of all newly diagnosed lung cancer patients, [1] and it is an exceptionally aggressive malignancy with a high proliferative index and an unusually strong predilection for early metastasis. [2] Despite extensive basic and clinical research over the past 30 years, little progress has been made in treating this disease. [2,3] (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hibiki Udagawa, Shigeki Umemura, Isao Murakami, Sachiyo Mimaki, Hideki Makinoshima, Genichiro Ishii, Tomohiro Miyoshi, Keisuke Kirita, Shingo Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Yoh, Seiji Niho, Katsuya Tsuchihara, Koichi Goto Source Type: research

Addition of Radiotherapy to the Primary Tumour in Oligometastatic NSCLC: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains an almost incurable disease, with prognosis significantly improved with the advent of immunotherapy that has increased overall survival (OS) in both first and subsequent lines of therapy. Recently, the availability of more focused radiation delivery in the form of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has permitted the treatment of both primary and distant metastases in particular when oligometastatic sites of disease permit aggressive local therapy (e.g. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fausto Petrelli, Antonio Ghidini, Mary Cabiddu, Gianluca Tomasello, Agostina De Stefani, Lorenza Bruschieri, Elisabetta Vitali, Mara Ghilardi, Karen Borgonovo, Sandro Barni, Francesca Trevisan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Clinical, pathological and treatment factors associated with the survival of patients with primary pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors
Although salivary gland-type tumors (SGTs) arising outside of the head and neck area are an uncommon phenomenon, they have been reported in other locations such as the lungs, breasts, skin, and cervix [1,2]. Primary pulmonary SGTs (p-SGTs) comprise a small but distinct group of neoplasms that is exceptionally, representing (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bao-Dong Qin, Xiao-Dong Jiao, Ke Liu, Ying Wu, Xi He, Jun Liu, Yuan-Sheng Zang Source Type: research

Letter in Reply to Xu
We appreciate the interest and comments by Xu for our article, which studied the incidence of pneumonitis EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated in clinical trials [1]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chong Hyun Suh, Kyung Won Kim, Mizuki Nishino Source Type: research

Real-world Treatment Patterns and Outcomes of Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer Progressing after 2 Lines of Therapy
Approximately 234,030 new cases of lung cancer will be diagnosed in 2018, ~14% of which will be small cell lung cancer (SCLC) [1 –3]. SCLC is traditionally staged using the Veterans Affairs Lung Study Group staging system, which divides SCLC patients largely based on the size and spread of the tumor into 1 of 2 stages: limited-stage disease or extensive-stage (ES) disease [4–7]. SCLC presents with an aggressive clinical c ourse, frequently with widespread metastases at diagnosis and, as such, approximately two-thirds of patients have ES disease at diagnosis [8]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anna D. Coutinho, Manan Shah, Orsolya E. Lunacsek, Michael Eaddy, Joanne P. Willey Source Type: research

Characterization of the tumor immune-microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma associated with usual interstitial pneumonia
A malignant tumor is composed of not only cancer cells but also various types of non-cancerous stromal cells containing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs); such heterogeneous population of cells gives rise to cancer-specific microenvironments [1 –5]. Recent studies have shed new light on this complex interaction between tumor and host immune cells and helped us understand the immune response triggered by this interaction. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takuya Ueda, Keiju Aokage, Sachiyo Mimaki, Kenta Tane, Tomohiro Miyoshi, Masato Sugano, Motohiro Kojima, Satoshi Fujii, Takeshi Kuwata, Atsushi Ochiai, Masahiko Kusumoto, Kenji Suzuki, Katsuya Tsuchihara, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Koichi Goto, Masahiro Tsuboi, Source Type: research

Association of nephrotoxicity during platinum-etoposide doublet therapy with UGT1A1 polymorphisms in small cell lung cancer patients
The antitumor action of etoposide is due to inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II and the consequent introduction of strand breaks into DNA [1]. Combination therapies with etoposide and a platinum agent (cisplatin or carboplatin) are the standard of care for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) [2 –6], but some treated individuals experience serious hematologic or nonhematologic toxicities including nephrotoxicity. Predictive factors for adverse events of platinum-etoposide doublet therapy for SCLC have not been identified to date, however. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Satoshi Anai, Eiji Iwama, Yasuto Yoneshima, Kohei Otsubo, Kentaro Tanaka, Yoichi Nakanishi, Isamu Okamoto Source Type: research

Correlation of Tumor Spread through Air Spaces and Clinicopathological Characteristics in Surgically Resected Lung Adenocarcinomas
The current standard for non –small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathological TNM staging is based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual, 8th edition [1]. The pathological prognostic factors incorporated in the 8th TNM staging system are histological non-invasive subtype and visceral pleural invas ion. Other clinicopathological characteristics, such as lymphovascular invasion, elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, and tumor differentiation, were also proven to be correlated with survival in NSCLCs [2,3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Szu-Yen Hu, Min-Shu Hsieh, Hsao-Hsun Hsu, Tung-Ming Tsai, Xu-Heng Chiang, Kuan-Chuan Tsou, Hsien-Chi Liao, Mong-Wei Lin, Jin-Shing Chen Source Type: research

New insights into the impact of primary lung adenocarcinoma location on metastatic sites and sequence: a multicenter cohort study
Lung cancer remains one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death both among males and females [1,2]. Worldwide lung cancer rates are decreasing in both genders, but half as fast in women as in men [2] and the presence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is strongly linked to risk factors such as tobacco abuse [3,4]. However, conflicting data exist regarding the association between primary tumor location and tobacco use. NSCLC arising in association with tobacco exposure has been described to occur more frequently in the upper lobes than in lower lobes and longer time since ...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Thomas Klikovits, Zolt án Lohinai, Katalin Fábián, Márton Gyulai, Mária Szilasi, Judit Varga, Erika Baranya, Orsolya Pipek, István Csabai, Zoltán Szállási, József Tímár, Mir Alireza Hoda, Viktoria Laszlo, Balázs Hegedűs, Ferenc Renyi-Vamos, Source Type: research

Automated Detection of Lung Cancer at Ultralow dose PET/CT by Deep Neural Networks - Initial results
Lung cancer is the most frequent type of cancer across genders and the most common reason for cancer-related death worldwide [1]. Hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is an established imaging method for the staging of patients with lung cancer [2]. Recently, the use of artificial intelligence and more specifically deep learning has produced promising results in various applications in medicine, including automated skin cancer detection [3] or automated Alzheimer disease detection based on FDG-PET data [4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Moritz Schwyzer, Daniela A. Ferraro, Urs J. Muehlematter, Alessandra Curioni-Fontecedro, Martin W. Huellner, Gustav K. von Schulthess, Philipp A. Kaufmann, Irene A. Burger, Michael Messerli Source Type: research

EGFR mutation analysis for prospective patient selection in AURA3 phase III trial of osimertinib versus platinum-pemetrexed in patients with EGFR T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the recommended first-line therapy for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1,2]. The prevalence of EGFR mutations in NSCLC is 11 –17% in Western patients and 36–54% in Asian patients [1,3–9]. Among patients with EGFR mutations, the most common types are exon 19 deletion (ex19del) and L858R, representing ~90% of EGFR mutations, and conferring sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs [1,10]. Despite high response rates, more than 50% of patients treated in the first-line with a first- or second-genera...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Thomas John, Hiroaki Akamatsu, Angelo Delmonte, Wu-Chou Su, Jong Seok Lee, Gee-Chen Chang, Xiangning Huang, Suzanne Jenkins, Yi-Long Wu Source Type: research

Early initiated postoperative rehabilitation reduces fatigue in patients with operable lung cancer: a randomized trial
In patients with early stage lung cancer, radical surgical resection is a prerequisite for cure and extended survival [1,2]. In addition, quality of life (QOL) and cancer related fatigue (CRF) will also be affected by the disease and side effects and symptoms of treatment [3 –5]. CRF is known as one of the most distressing symptom related to cancer and cancer treatment, causing intense negative effect on functional status and QOL [6–9]. This vicious cycle of functional impairment, reduced physical capacity, increased CRF and reduced QOL is self-reinforcing and may h ave negative fatal postoperative consequences...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Morten Quist, Maja Schick Sommer, Jette Vibe-Petersen, Maja Bohlbro St ærkind, Seppo W. Langer, Klaus Richter Larsen, Karen Trier, Merete Christensen, Paul F. Clementsen, Malene Missel, Carsten Henriksen, Karl Bang Christensen, Christian Lillelund, Henni Source Type: research

Impact of Afatinib Dose Modification on Safety and Effectiveness in Patients with EGFR Mutation-Positive Advanced NSCLC: Results from a Global Real-World Study (RealGiDo)
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of study drugs under well-defined, controlled clinical conditions and in selected patient populations; however, trial outcomes may not always reflect real-world experience as patients may not be representative of the general patient population in a clinical practice setting [1]. For example, in the real-world setting, patients may have higher rates of poor prognostic factors and/or more co-morbidities, patient compliance may be poorer, and routine medical practice may differ from clinical trial protocol-specified patient care [1,2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Balazs Halmos, Eng-Huat Tan, Ross A. Soo, Jacques Cadranel, Min Ki Lee, Pascal Foucher, Te-Chun Hsia, Maximilian Hochmair, Frank Griesinger, Toyoaki Hida, Edward Kim, Barbara Melosky, Angela M ärten, Enric Carcereny Source Type: research

The Cost-Effectiveness Of The Manchester ‘Lung Health Checks’, A Community-Based Lung Cancer Low-Dose CT Screening Pilot
In recent years the debate over the value of screening for lung cancer has intensified with the conclusion of a number of high cost randomised trials from around the world, including NLST, UKLS, and NELSON [1 –3]. Based largely on the results of NLST the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended screening with LDCT in 2013 [4]. This has been followed by similar statements from other countries including the Chief Executive of the NHS in the UK, Simon Stevens, in 2017 [5] and the recent Euro pean position statement [6]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sebastian Hinde, Tessa Crilly, Haval Balata, Rachel Bartlett, John Crilly, Phil Barber, Anthony Threlfall, Janet Tonge, Richard Booton, Phil Crosbie Source Type: research

Effects of secondary EGFR mutations on resistance against upfront osimertinib in cells with EGFR-activating mutations in vitro
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) monotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with metastatic or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR-activating mutations. However, the emergence of acquired resistance is almost inevitable after a median period of 9 –13 months [1]. The T790 M secondary mutation [2–4] accounts for about half of resistance to first-generation (1 G) or the 2 G EGFR-TKIs. Osimertinib, a so-called 3 G EGFR-TKI, was developed to inhibit T790 M while sparing wild-type EGFR activity [5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Masaya Nishino, Kenichi Suda, Yoshihisa Kobayashi, Shuta Ohara, Toshio Fujino, Takamasa Koga, Masato Chiba, Masaki Shimoji, Kenji Tomizawa, Toshiki Takemoto, Tetsuya Mitsudomi Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic characteristics of lymph nodes as predictors of malignancy during endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS): A systematic review
Assessment of the mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes (LNs) is required for accurate staging of non-small cell lung cancer and other thoracic malignancies. Endobronchial ultrasound trans-bronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is rapidly becoming the modality of choice for pathological staging of the mediastinum [1]. This approach incorporates bronchoscopy with real-time ultrasound visualization of the LNs prior to fine needle aspiration. Compared to traditional mediastinoscopy, which involves a surgical procedure under general anesthesia, EBUS-TBNA is minimally invasive, has a comparable diagnostic yield, has considerably l...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Danielle A. Hylton, Jane Turner, Yaron Shargall, Christian Finley, John Agzarian, Kazuhiro Yasufuku, Christine Fahim, Wa ël C. Hanna Source Type: research

Subclonal evolution of pulmonary adenocarcinomas delineated by spatially distributed somatic mitochondrial mutations
Despite great improvements through the implementation of personalized therapeutic strategies for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) [1] targeting e.g. EGFR mutations, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements or PD/PDL-1, prognosis remains limited. The development of resistance mechanisms [2] is a major cause for the still low 5-year overall survival rate of less than 20 % [3]. A key factor of therapy resistance is intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) [4,5], mainly due to genomic and epigenomic instability as well as to a branched subclonal evolution caused by differing selective conditions, like microenvironmental stress [6]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daniel Kazdal, Alexander Harms, Volker Endris, Roland Penzel, Cristiano Oliveira, Mark Kriegsmann, R émi Longuespée, Hauke Winter, Marc A. Schneider, Thomas Muley, Nicole Pfarr, Wilko Weichert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Arne Warth Source Type: research

Link between Tumor-Promoting Fibrous Microenvironment and an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma
The prognosis of even early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is critical due to local recurrence and distant metastasis following surgery [1]. Some meta-analyses and randomized trials have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with NSCLC compared to surgical intervention alone; however, this remains a controversial issue [2,3]. Clarifying the process of cancer prognosis and identification of risk factors for recurrence would help establish effective therapeutic strategies for NSCLC treatment. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takashi Sakai, Keiju Aokage, Shinya Neri, Hiroshi Nakamura, Shogo Nomura, Kenta Tane, Tomohiro Miyoshi, Masato Sugano, Motohiro Kojima, Satoshi Fujii, Takeshi Kuwata, Atsushi Ochiai, Akira Iyoda, Masahiro Tsuboi, Genichiro Ishii Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Genomic changes of chromosomes 8p23.1 and 1q21: novel mutations in malignant mesothelioma
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare, lethal malignancy affecting the cells of the pleura or peritoneum surfaces, whose main known cause is occupational or environmental asbestos exposure. As in cases of exposure to other carcinogens, not all exposed individuals develop cancer even if they have inhaled high concentrations of asbestos. It has been shown that low concentrations of asbestos fibers can promote the development of mesothelioma, suggesting that a genetic predisposition (inherited or not) may play a role in mesothelioma development [1]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gabriella Serio, Luigi Vimercati, Antonio Pennella, Mattia Gentile, Domenica Cavone, Antonia Lucia Buonadonna, Anna Scattone, Francesco Fortarezza, Angela De Palma, Andrea Marzullo Source Type: research

Statins associated with improved mortality among patients with certain histological subtypes of lung cancer
Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States, with only 18% of patients surviving longer than 5 years after diagnosis. As a result, extensive clinical investigations are currently under way to identify novel drug candidates that can improve the prognosis of lung cancer patients. In recent years, a class of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors called statins have garnered widespread attention for their possible therapeutic activity in several cancer types, including lung cancer [1]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthew H. Ung, Todd A. MacKenzie, Tracy L. Onega, Christopher I. Amos, Chao Cheng Source Type: research

Detection of oligoprogressive disease in oncogene-addicted non-small cell lung cancer using PET/CT versus CT in patients receiving a tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK+), ROS1 gene rearrangements (ROS1+), or epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (EGFR-MTs) have high response rates and long progression free survival (PFS) when treated with the appropriate first or next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) [1 –6]. However, progression usually occurs due to inadequate central nervous system (CNS) penetration of the drug leading to CNS-only progression, the development of new kinase domain mutations, or the development of alternate oncogenic drivers [7–16]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Terry L. Ng, Rustain L. Morgan, Tejas Patil, Anna E. Bar ón, Derek E. Smith, D. Ross Camidge Source Type: research

Validation of the immunohistochemical expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) on cytological smears in advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
The assessment of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is mandatory for the treatment as first-line therapy with the anti PD-1 check-point inhibitor Pembrolizumab in patients with advanced non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). [1] The IHC cut-offs for the administration of Pembrolizumab in first- or second-line of therapy derive from the registration studies KEYNOTE-024 and 010 and have been stated as ≥50% PD-L1+ cells and ≥1% for first and second-line treatment, respectively. Several antibodies have been developed as companion diagnostics for the IHC predictive detection of PD-L1 in NSCLC tissue samples. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elisa Capizzi, Costantino Ricci, Francesca Giunchi, Stefano Zagnoni, Claudio Ceccarelli, Bego ña Urrios Álvarez Gómez, Laura Casolari, Francesco Gelsomino, Rocco Trisolini, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Andrea Ardizzoni Source Type: research

Systemic treatments for thymoma and thymic carcinoma: a systematic review
On the basis of the RARE-CARE project definition [1], thymoma and thymic carcinoma are denominated rare cancers. Overall, the prognosis is good as a majority of patients are eligible for surgical resection of the tumour, possibly associated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Chemotherapy is reserved to patients with primarily non resectable tumours, with advanced stages (stages III-IV considering the Masaoka or the ITMIG classifications) in the setting of multimodal therapeutic strategies, and for recurrent or refractory disease. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Thierry Berghmans, Val érie Durieux, Stéphane Holbrechts, Christiane Jungels, Jean-Jacques Lafitte, Anne-Pascale Meert, Luigi Moretti, Sebahat Ocak, Martine Roelandts, Nicolas Girard Source Type: research

Activity of a novel HER2 inhibitor, poziotinib, for HER2 exon 20 mutations in lung cancer and mechanism of acquired resistance: an in vitro study
Targeted therapies against lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations, ALK or ROS1 fusions and BRAF mutation using respective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) comprise the standard of care [1]. The list of these driver genes of NSCLC is continuously expanding, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2/HER2) mutation is one of these emerging driver mutations that were originally shown in 2004 to be present in NSCLC patients [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takamasa Koga, Yoshihisa Kobayashi, Kenji Tomizawa, Kenichi Suda, Takayuki Kosaka, Yuichi Sesumi, Toshio Fujino, Masaya Nishino, Shuta Ohara, Masato Chiba, Masaki Shimoji, Toshiki Takemoto, Makoto Suzuki, Pasi A. J änne, Tetsuya Mitsudomi Source Type: research

Assessment of signaling pathway inhibitors and identification of predictive biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumor principally due to past exposure to asbestos, a carcinogenic natural mineral fiber that induces genomic and genetic alterations [1]. Lack of curative treatment due to resistance to anti-cancer therapies combined with tumor aggressiveness accounts for the poor prognosis associated to MPM. Despite the significant advances in oncotherapy, MPM is still a challenging cancer to treat [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Robin Tranchant, Lisa Quetel, Fran çois Montagne, Julien De Wolf, Clement Meiller, Leanne De Koning, Françoise Le Pimpec-Barthes, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Marie-Claude Jaurand, Didier Jean Source Type: research

Targeting glucose and glutamine metabolism combined with radiation therapy in non-small cell lung cancer
Standard treatment for irresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is concurrent/sequential chemoradiation. Despite this intensive therapy, prognosis remains poor with 5-year survival of 13-36% [1]. Locoregional progression and distant metastases remain a major issue [2]. Therefore, further intensification of treatment is required. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tineke W.H Meijer, Wenny J.M. Peeters, Ludwig J. Dubois, Marike W. van Gisbergen, Rianne Biemans, Jan-Hendrik Venhuizen, Paul N. Span, Johan Bussink Source Type: research

A phase II study of afatinib treatment for elderly patients with previously untreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations1
The number of elderly people with advanced lung cancer is increasing globally owing to the aging population and advances in cancer therapy [1]. More than 50% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer are aged>65 years, which is the lower limit for defining “elderly” in epidemiologic researches [2]. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all cases of lung cancer among both the elderly [3] and the adults. Although platinum-combination regimens including newer agents are the standard first-line chemotherapy for most patients with adva nced NSCLC, their use in elderly patients remains controversial ...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hisao Imai, Kyoichi Kaira, Kensuke Suzuki, Masaki Anzai, Takeshi Tsuda, Tamotsu Ishizuka, Tomohito Kuwako, Ichiro Naruse, Kenji Nemoto, Junji Uchino, Nobutoshi Morozumi, Shinichi Ishihara, Koichi Minato, Takeshi Hisada Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Molecular determinants of acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition in human lung cancer
We report here the first analysis of mechanisms of secondary resistance to a BRAF inhibitor in a patient with BRAF-mu tated NSCLC by using whole-exome sequencing and functional studies. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: LUCCHESI Carlo, DROGAT Benjamin, SANTAMARIA David, COUSIN Sophie, ITALIANO Antoine Source Type: research

Chemerin as a biomarker at the intersection of inflammation, chemotaxis, coagulation, fibrinolysis and metabolism in resectable non-small cell lung cancer
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the overwhelming majority (85%) of lung carcinoma cases being the leading cause of cancer-related death globally [1]. Intrigued and multifactorial in its nature, the etiopathogenesis of NSCLC incorporates an aggregate of inherent determinants and environmental factors including mainly smoking, family history, lifestyle, professional, infectious and dietary risk factors [2,3]. Due to its dismal prognosis, there is a tremendous interest in identifying emerging biomarkers implicated in NSCLC pathogenesis to optimize its early diagnosis and management. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: George P. Sotiropoulos, Maria Dalamaga, Georgios Antonakos, Ioanna Marinou, Evaggelos Vogiatzakis, Marianna Kotopouli, Irene Karampela, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Antigoni Lekka, Athanasios G. Papavassiliou Source Type: research

Clinical utility of a blood-based EGFR mutation test in patients receiving first-line erlotinib therapy in the ENSURE, FASTACT-2, and ASPIRATION studies
Enhanced understanding of oncogenic drivers such as epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) gene mutations in non-small-cell cancer (NSCLC) has led to the availability of an increased number of targeted therapies. In particular, robust clinical efficacy has been achieved with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in patients with NSCLC [1,2]. EGFR gene mutations are commonly observed in NSCLC, especially in tumors of adenocarcinoma histology [3]. Activating EGFR mutations in adenocarcinomas are detected in approximately 15% –17% of Caucasian patients [3,4] and 40%–47% of Asian patients [3,5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yi-Long Wu, Victor Lee, Chong-Kin Liam, Shun Lu, Keunchil Park, Vichien Srimuninnimit, Jie Wang, Caicun Zhou, Anita Appius, Peter Button, Gregory Hooper, John F. Palma, Katja Schulze, Sidney Scudder, David S. Shames, Anny-Yue Yin, Guili Zhang, Tony Mok, o Source Type: research

EGFR Exon 20 insertion in lung adenocarcinomas among Hispanics (Geno1.2-CLICaP)
The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has transformed our approach towards the use of targeted therapies in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1 –3]. Lung cancers harboring exon 20 insertions in EGFR (exon20 in.) make up one genotype-defined subset of lung cancer that is in need of an effective targeted treatment approach [4,5]. EGFR exon20 in. were identified contemporaneously with the more common Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI)-sens itive mutations in exons 19 and 21 of EGFR [6,7]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andr és F. Cardona, Leonardo Rojas, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barrón, Helano C. Freitas, Sara T. Granados, Omar Castillo, George Oblitas, Luis Corrales, Christian D. Castro, Alejandro Ruiz-Patiño, Claudio Martín, María Angelina Pérez, Lisde González, L Source Type: research

Real-life treatment practice for malignant pleural mesothelioma in Belgium
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, highly lethal cancer occurring 4 times more frequently in men than in women, and for which historical exposure to asbestos is a well-documented etiological factor [1]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Michael Rosskamp, Gilles Macq, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Marleen Praet, Liesbet Van Eycken, Jan P Van Meerbeeck, Harlinde De Schutter Source Type: research

Chemerin as a biomarker at the intersection of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis and metabolism in resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the overwhelming majority (85%) of lung carcinoma cases being the leading cause of cancer-related death globally [1]. Intrigued and multifactorial in its nature, the etiopathogenesis of NSCLC incorporates an aggregate of inherent determinants and environmental factors including mainly smoking, family history, lifestyle, professional, infectious and dietary risk factors [2,3]. Due to its dismal prognosis, there is a tremendous interest in identifying emerging biomarkers implicated in NSCLC pathogenesis to optimize its early diagnosis and management. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: George P. Sotiropoulos, Maria Dalamaga, Georgios Antonakos, Ioanna Marinou, Evaggelos Vogiatzakis, Marianna Kotopouli, Irene Karampela, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Antigoni Lekka, Athanasios G. Papavassiliou Source Type: research

Clinicopathological and genomic comparisons between different histologic components in combined small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide [1 –3]. This disease is classified into 2 major histologic subgroups: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which comprises 85% of cases; and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which comprises 15% of cases [1–3]. NSCLC is further divided into several histologic subtypes, including adenocarcinoma and squa mous cell carcinoma. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for early-stage NSCLC; in contrast, systemic chemotherapy is considered the standard of care for patients with advanced-stage disease. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mong-Wei Lin, Kang-Yi Su, Te-Jen Su, Chia-Ching Chang, Jing-Wei Lin, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Sung-Liang Yu, Jin-Shing Chen, Min-Shu Hsieh Source Type: research

New Risk Scoring System for Predicting Acute Exacerbation of Interstitial Pneumonia after Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer Associated with Interstitial Pneumonia
Lung cancer is strongly associated with interstitial pneumonia (IP) [1 –4]. IP is considered to be a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis [1,5]. Acute exacerbation (AE) refers to an episode of acute respiratory worsening without an identifiable cause. AE develops during the course of IP in about 5% to 15% of affected patients and can occur at any time during the clini cal course of IP [6–8]. AE can lead to death within a period of a few weeks to a few months [7,8]. However, it can be difficult to distinguish AE of IP from chemotherapy-related lung injury on the basis of clinical findings, such as CT images, and ...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kazutoshi Isobe, Kyohei Kaburaki, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Go Sano, Susumu Sakamoto, Yujiro Takai, Takashi Makino, Naobumi Tochigi, Akira Iyoda, Sakae Homma Source Type: research

Comparative study of programmed cell death ligand-1 immunohistochemistry assays using 22C3 and 28-8 antibodies for non-small cell lung cancer: analysis of 420 surgical specimens from Japanese patients
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for approximately 85 % of all cases of lung cancer, remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide despite the refinement of cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted therapies. Recently, the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) agents and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) agents, has provided a breakthrough in the treatment for NSCLC. However, their optimal utility has still been limited by the lack of definitive predictive biomarkers. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tomohito Saito, Koji Tsuta, Mitsuaki Ishida, Hironori Ryota, Yuki Takeyasu, Kento J. Fukumoto, Hiroshi Matsui, Yohei Taniguchi, Hiroaki Yanagimoto, Takayasu Kurata, Tomohiro Murakawa Source Type: research