PD-L1 protein expression in non-small-cell lung cancer and its relationship with the hypoxia-related signaling pathways: a study based on immunohistochemistry and RNA sequencing data
Blockers of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are being actively studied in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). By expressing PD-L1 ligand on the surface of tumor cells and binding to the PD-1 receptor on T, B, and NK cells, tumors can bypass immunosurveillance [1]. In the field of lung cancer, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies have produced clinical response and survival improvement in advanced NSCLC in clinical trials, and two anti-PD-1 antibodies [2 –4], nivolumab and pembolizumab, have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Young Wha Koh, Su Jin Lee, Jae-Ho Han, Seokjin Haam, Joonho Jung, Hyun Woo Lee Source Type: research

Necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone as first-line treatment for stage IV squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a phase 1b and randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase 2 trial in Japan
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed by most non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors, in particular squamous NSCLC, and may play a role in tumorigenesis [1,2]. Necitumumab is a recombinant human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that binds to EGFR with high affinity and prevents receptor activation by other ligands [3]. This results in inhibition of downstream signaling, which disrupts cell cycle progression and mitosis, blocks inhibition of apoptosis, and decreases angiogenesis through effects on angiogenic factor production [3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Satoshi Watanabe, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Hiroshi Sakai, Katsuyuki Hotta, Mitsuhiro Takenoyama, Kazuhiko Yamada, Shunichi Sugawara, Yuichi Takiguchi, Yukio Hosomi, Keisuke Tomii, Seiji Niho, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Makoto Nishio, Yuichiro Ohe, Terufumi Kato, Toshi Source Type: research

Diagnosing a solitary pulmonary nodule using multiple bronchoscopic guided technologies: a prospective randomized study
Rapid identification of the nature of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) with a likelihood of malignancy is a critical task in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and is worthy of all efforts. Our goal is to be able to detect and treat SPNs before these lesions become incurable, and at the same time to avoid futile invasive diagnostic procedures —particularly open-chest surgery—for benign SPNs. SPNs found by computed tomography (CT) examination are usually evaluated by intensive follow-up, percutaneous needle biopsy, bronchoscopy, or surgical resection [1,2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liyan Bo, Congcong Li, Lei Pan, Hongwu Wang, Shiyue Li, Qiang Li, Chong Bai, Yiming Zeng, Yandong Nan, Yan Wang, Haidong Huang, Rui Zhou, Hongmei Zhou, Wen Liu, Jiayuan Sun, Zhiguang Liu, Faguang Jin Source Type: research

Imaging Characteristics of BRAF-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Functional Class
BRAF mutations are a promising target in lung cancer [1]. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), nearly half of BRAF mutations lead to a substitution of valine for glutamic acid at codon 600 (V600E) [1,2].Based on the prevalence of this substitution, BRAF mutations were historically classified as either V600-mutant or non-V600 mutant. Emerging data demonstrating a link between specific BRAF variants and degree of RAF kinase activation has allowed for further stratification of BRAF mutations into three functional classes [3,4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dexter Mendoza, Ibiayi Dagogo-Jack, Tianqi Chen, Atul Padole, Jo-Anne O. Shepard, Alice T. Shaw, Subba Rao Digumarthy Source Type: research

Nivolumab and brain metastases in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer
Brain metastases are common among patients with non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and result in a poor prognosis. Consequently, such patients are often excluded from clinical trials. In Italy an expanded access program (EAP) was used to evaluate nivolumab efficacy and safety in this subpopulation outside a clinical trial. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lucio Crin ò, Giuseppe Bronte, Paolo Bidoli, Paola Cravero, Elisa Minenza, Enrico Cortesi, Marina C. Garassino, Claudia Proto, Federico Cappuzzo, Francesco Grossi, Giuseppe Tonini, Maria Giuseppina Sarobba, Graziella Pinotti, Gianmauro Numico, Riccardo S Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hospital lung surgery volume and patient outcomes
Lung cancer is the fifth most common cancer diagnosed in Australia and the leading cause of cancer death. It is estimated that 9,000 patients will have died from lung cancer in Australia in 2017 [1]. Australia has some of the best patient outcomes compared to international data, but 5-year survival for localised disease is still only approximately 40% [2,3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: A Thai, E Stuart, L te Marvelde, R L Milne, S Knight, K Whitfield, P Mitchell Source Type: research

Mutation patterns in a population-based non-small cell lung cancer cohort and prognostic impact of concomitant mutations in KRAS and TP53 or STK11
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide and has a poor prognosis with a five-year survival of only 16.8%. [1,2] Based on histology, lung cancer is separated into two main subsets, small cell carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [3]. The two main histological NSCLC subsets, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma belong to the top three cancer types with regard to the prevalence of somatic mutations [4]. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has conducted comprehensive genome studies of NSCLC, displaying a great diversity of molecular variations [5,6]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Linn éa La Fleur, Elin Falk-Sörqvist, Patrik Smeds, Anders Berglund, Magnus Sundström, Johanna SM Mattsson, Eva Brandén, Hirsh Koyi, Johan Isaksson, Hans Brunnström, Mats Nilsson, Patrick Micke, Lotte Moens, Johan Botling Source Type: research

Tumor autophagy is associated with survival outcomes in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer
Cancer cells survive the adverse conditions of the extracellular milieu (i. e. hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and reduced growth factors) through angiogenesis and anaerobic glycolysis [1]. Autophagy is a self-degradative process, which is characterized by enclosure of cytoplasmic material inside autophagic vacuoles containing lysosomal enzymes [2]. Enzymatic degradation of engulfed material results in cell death. In oxygen and glucose depleted states, autophagy also activates an alternative metabolic pathways, providing tumor cells with additional energy [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ivo Uberall, Mariam Gachechiladze, Markus Joerger, Josef Andel, Petra Smickova, Vitezslav Kolek, Ivona Grygarkova, Josef Skarda Source Type: research

Osimertinib-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient with EGFR T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer
Stevens-Johnsons syndrome (SJS) is a rare but life-threatening cutaneous adverse reaction mainly elicited by exposure to certain drugs. Here, we present a rare case of osimertinib-induced SJS that occurred when treating lung adenocarcinoma, with the SJS being confirmed by history, histopathology, and in vitro drug causality assessments. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yi-Tsz Lin, Chia-Yu Chu Source Type: research

Incidence of Brain Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma at Initial Diagnosis on the Basis of Stage and Genetic Alterations
Brain metastasis (BM) is common in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality [1 –3]. Since approximately 10–20% of patients with NSCLC present with BM at initial presentation and these patients often have no symptoms [1,4,5], routine BM screening is important for the appropriate diagnosis and management of NSCLC patients. However, there is still considerable controversy reg arding routine BM screening in patients with NSCLC. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bumhee Yang, Hyun Lee, Sang-Won Um, Kyunga Kim, Jae Il Zo, Young Mog Shim, O Jung Kwon, Kyung Soo Lee, Myung-Ju Ahn, Hojoong Kim Source Type: research

Longitudinal study to assess impact of smoking at diagnosis and quitting on 1-year survival for people with non-small cell lung cancer
Lung Cancer (LC) is responsible for over 30,000 deaths(1) in the UK and over 46,000 new cases in 2015.(2) Despite advances in treatment and diagnosis ten-year survival remains only 14% for men and 17.5% for women.(3) (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rachel E. Gemine, Robin Ghosal, Gareth Collier, Diane Parry, Ian Campbell, Gareth Davies, Kathryn Davies, Keir E. Lewis, on behalf of the LungCast Investigators Source Type: research

Anti-tumoral activity of the human-specific duplicated form of α7-nicotinic receptor subunit in tobacco-induced lung cancer progression
Lung cancer is the leading global cause of cancer deaths, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 75-85% of all lung cancer cases [1]. Lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung are the two major histological types of NSCLC. Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for many types of cancers, including NSCLC, which is understandable because tobacco smoke contains more than 70 known carcinogens that will eventually initiate carcinogenesis [2,3]. In parallel with the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these carcinogens, nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco, and its carcinogenic der...
Source: Lung Cancer - December 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jos é Luis Cedillo, Anna Bordas, Francisco Arnalich, Isabel Esteban-Rodríguez, Carolina Martín-Sánchez, María Extremera, Gema Atienza, Juan J. Rios, Raquel L. Arribas, Carmen Montiel Source Type: research

The impact of high PD-L1 expression on the surrogate endpoints and clinical outcomes of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in non-small cell lung cancer
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies, have demonstrated survival benefits compared with standard therapies in various advanced cancers. Notably, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become a main target of immunotherapy using ICIs. In previously treated NSCLC patients, nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have demonstrated superiority to docetaxel in terms of overall survival (OS)[1 –3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kentaro Ito, Satoru Miura, Tadashi Sakaguchi, Kenta Murotani, Nobuyuki Horita, Hiroaki Akamatsu, Kohei Uemura, Satoshi Morita, Nobuyuki Yamamoto Source Type: research

Chest Radiography Surveillance for Lung Cancer: Results from a National Health Insurance Database in South Korea
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in developed countries; however, the clinical presentation and genetic predisposition vary between countries when Asian women are compared with those from North America and Europe [1,2]. In Asia, half of female lung cancers occur in people who have never smoked, and lung cancer is likely to present at a younger age than in North America and Europe [3 –5]. Genetic differences in lung cancer are also a considerable factor, with it being likely that up to 35% of lung cancer cases in Asians are adenocarcinomas harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) m...
Source: Lung Cancer - December 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hyun Jung Koo, Chang-Min Choi, Sojung Park, Han Na Lee, Dong Kyu Oh, Won-Jun Ji, Seulgi Kim, Mi Young Kim Source Type: research

Factors Influencing Recurrence Following Anatomic Lung Resection for Clinical Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death world-wide, with approximately 1,378,400 deaths reported annually. Deaths due to lung cancer exceed those of breast, prostate, and colorectal carcinoma combined, creating catastrophic health care and economic implications [1,2]. Complete resection, when possible, remains the mainstay of therapy, and affords patients the best chance of long-term survival [3,4]. Not all patients undergoing resection are destined for cure, with recurrence rates in early-stage disease (clinical stage I) ranging from 20-40% at five years [5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthew J. Schuchert, Daniel P. Normolle, Omar Awais, Arjun Pennathur, David O. Wilson, James D. Luketich, Rodney J. Landreneau Source Type: research

Impact of estrogen monotherapy on survival in women with stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer
Multiple studies have explored gender differences in lung cancer incidence. Although differential smoking patterns in men and women contribute to the variations in lung cancer risk, they do not fully explain the difference in incidence. [1] Women are more likely than men to develop adenocarcinomas [2] and develop cancer at a younger age [2]. Hormonal and reproductive factors are postulated to contribute to the incidence of lung cancer, particularly the role of estrogens in cancer development, with inconsistent findings [3 –5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Samuel P Heilbroner, Eric P Xanthopoulos, Donna Buono, Yongmei Huang, Daniel Carrier, Anand Shah, Jerry Kim, Michael Corradetti, Jason D Wright, Alfred I Neugut, Dawn L Hershman, Simon Cheng Source Type: research

Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) in Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparing Survival Outcomes in Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma
With an incidence of approximately 190,000 annual cases in the United States, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common primary lung cancer [1]. NSCLC is a heterogeneous disease, with important genetic, molecular, and histological differences that can provide clinicians with both prognostic and predictive information. From a histologic standpoint, NSCLC consists of two principal groupings: adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stephen Abel, Shaakir Hasan, Richard White, Lana Schumacher, Gene Finley, Athanasios Colonias, Rodney E. Wegner Source Type: research

Identification of a novel WNK1 –ROS1 fusion in a lung adenocarcinoma sensitive to crizotinib
ROS1 is a tyrosine kinase receptor that has undergone genomic rearrangements in a subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as ovarian, gastric, colorectal, and other cancers [1]. Approximately 2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung have ROS1 fusions [2] Fusion partners for ROS1 include CD74, SDC4, EZR, SLC34A2, TPM3, and CCDC6 [3,4]. More ROS1 fusion partners remain to be identified and assessed. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yutao Liu, Tianfeng Liu, Nan Li, Tao Wang, Pu Yue, Rui Lin Source Type: research

Atezolizumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and history of asymptomatic, treated brain metastases: exploratory analyses of the phase III OAK study
Brain metastases are a frequent complication of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); they occur in 20% to 40% of patients (often within the first 2 years of primary diagnosis), are associated with poor survival, and have very few systemic treatment options [1 –4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shirish M. Gadgeel, Rimas V. Lukas, Jerome Goldschmidt, Paul Conkling, Keunchil Park, Diego Cortinovis, Filippo de Marinis, Achim Rittmeyer, Jyoti D. Patel, Joachim von Pawel, Carol O ’Hear, Catherine Lai, Sylvia Hu, Marcus Ballinger, Alan Sandler, Maya Source Type: research

Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of lung cancer and its subtypes: a prospective cohort study
In 2012, 1.8 million people were diagnosed with lung cancer worldwide, which accounted for 13% of all cancer diagnoses [1]. Survival rates of lung cancer are still poor, despite advances in its detection and treatment: the 5-year survival rate in the USA was 18% for total lung cancer and 4% for advanced lung cancer [2]. Unfortunately, minimally 50% of the patients are diagnosed when at an advanced disease stage [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lisette Nieuwenhuis, Piet A. van den Brandt Source Type: research

Primary pulmonary collision tumor comprising squamous cell carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma
Primary pulmonary collision tumor is rare, particularly that comprising carcinoma and lymphoma. Here, we report a case of primary pulmonary collision tumor comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Masahiro Yamasaki, Tomoyoshi Takenaka, Naoko Matsumoto, Hideki Asaoku, Masaya Taniwaki, Noboru Hattori Source Type: research

Distinctive Clinicopathological Features of Adenocarcinoma In Situ and Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Lung: a Retrospective Study
In 2011, a new histologic classification was proposed for lung adenocarcinoma by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) [1]. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined two new subtypes of lung cancer: adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) [2]. AIS is a small ( ≤3 cm), localized adenocarcinoma with a pure lepidic growth that lacks stromal, vascular, alveolar space, or pleural invasion. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hironori Ishida, Yoshihiko Shimizu, Hirozo Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki Nitanda, Koichi Kaneko, Nobuhiro Yamazaki, Akitoshi Yanagihara, Ryo Taguchi, Fumikazu Sakai, Masanori Yasuda, Kunihiko Kobayashi Source Type: research

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in lung cancer: Experiences from a nationwide feasibility study
Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer-related cause of death in Denmark and Europe. Approximately 3,600 people die of the disease each year in Denmark [1], and in Europe in year 2017, the predicted number of deaths from lung cancer was>275,000 [2]. Survival has improved significantly during the past 10 years. Improved survival, meaning more years lived with lung cancer, makes it imperative to increase the focus on the course of the disease from the patients ’ perspective. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Majken M. Br ønserud, Maria Iachina, Anders Green, Mogens Groenvold, Liv Dørflinger, Erik Jakobsen Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab in Combination with Ipilimumab as Second-Line or Later Therapy for Advanced Non –Small-Cell Lung Cancer: KEYNOTE-021 Cohorts D and H
Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has transformed the treatment of advanced non –small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1]. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to improve outcomes, including overall survival (OS), compared with chemotherapy in both the first- [2] and second-line [3–7] settings when administered as monotherapy. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M.A. Gubens, L.V. Sequist, J.P. Stevenson, S.F. Powell, L.C. Villaruz, S.M. Gadgeel, C.J. Langer, A. Patnaik, H. Borghaei, S.I. Jalal, J. Fiore, S. Saraf, H. Raftopoulos, L. Gandhi Source Type: research

Case Report: Crizotinib is Effective in a Patient with ROS1-rearranged Pulmonary Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor that belongs to a subtype of soft tissue sarcoma, with a global prevalence of approximately 0.04% –0.7% [1]. IMT may occur at any age; however, it is more common among children and adolescents. The lungs are the most common site of IMT onset, although it may also occur at multiple sites such as the retroperitoneum, abdomen, and pelvic cavity. Surgery is the most important therapeutic approach for IMT because the tumor is insensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy; thus, the therapeutic options for patients with unresectable IMT are very limited [1...
Source: Lung Cancer - December 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shijie Mai, Gang Xiong, Dingwei Diao, Wenjing Wang, Yujie Zhou, Ruijun Cai Source Type: research

Prognostic value of preoperative exercise capacity in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer
Despite significant advances in various treatment modalities, including surgical procedures, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or immunotherapy, lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Japan [1] and worldwide [2]. For patients with clinical stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), surgical resection remains the optimal treatment. Based on data from a retrospective surgical series, the 5-year survival rates ranged from 60% to 80% for stage I and 30% to 50% for stage II NSCLC [3 –5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kazumi Hamada, Masataka Irie, Yoshihisa Fujino, Masahiro Hyodo, Takeshi Hanagiri Source Type: research

Static lung hyperinflation is an independent risk factor for lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory condition characterized by airflow limitation; it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. COPD represents a major health problem worldwide that affects about 328 million people. It is the fourth leading cause of death, accounting for 4 million deaths every year [1 –4], mainly due to cardiovascular diseases or cancer [5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ester Zamarr ón, Eva Prats, Elena Tejero, Paloma Pardo, Raúl Galera, Raquel Casitas, Elisabet Martínez-Cerón, Delia Romera, Ana Jaureguizar, Francisco García-Río Source Type: research

Loss of T790M mutation is associated with early progression to osimertinib in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC who are harboring EGFR T790M
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide[1]. With improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis driving tumor progression, the clinical management for lung cancer has been revolutionized in recent years. Somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) are common drivers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, demonstrate prominent efficacy in patients with advanced or recurrent nonsquamous NSCLC who harbor activating EGFR mutations and have been established as first-line therapies for patien...
Source: Lung Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sha Zhao, Xuefei Li, Chao Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yijun Jia, Jinpeng Shi, Yayi He, Jiayu Li, Fei Zhou, Guanghui Gao, Wei Li, Xiaoxia Chen, Chunxia Su, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou Source Type: research

Optimal management of brain metastases in oncogenic-driven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85-90% of all lung cancer incidence [6] and also represents the most common cause of cerebral metastasis either at diagnosis or at relapse/progression [7]. Approximately 10-20% of NSCLC patients will have brain metastasis at initial presentation [8,9]. Another 25-50% will develop brain metastases during the course of their disease [10]. Among NSCLC histological subtypes, non-squamous carcinomas carry a greater risk for extra-thoracic metastasis compared to squamous cell histologies [11]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicolaus Andratschke, Johannes Kraft, Carsten Nieder, Rebecca Tay, Raffaele Califano, Riccardo Soffietti, Matthias Guckenberger Tags: Review Source Type: research

Co-expression of IDO1 and PD-L1 in lung squamous cell carcinoma: Potential targets of novel combination therapy
Recently, many combination therapies involving an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway and another treatment option such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and various immunotherapy agents have been explored to improve the response rate and clinical outcomes in various solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1 –8]. Especially, combination therapy with an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitor and a PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor is expected to be a novel and effective treatment option and is currently attracting a lot...
Source: Lung Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kazuki Takada, Kenichi Kohashi, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Akira Haro, Atsushi Osoegawa, Tetsuzo Tagawa, Takashi Seto, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of microscopic vessel invasion and visceral pleural invasion and their correlations with epithelial –mesenchymal transition, cancer stemness, and treatment failure in lung adenocarcinoma
Visceral pleural invasion (VPI), a pathological invasive finding, has been reported to be a poor prognostic factor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1 –3]. Accordingly, VPI has been incorporated in the current 8th edition of the TNM classification [4,5]. Recent studies have demonstrated that microscopic vessel invasion (MVI), including blood vessel invasion (BVI) and lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI), is a strong independent factor of poor prognos is in patients with NSCLC [6–11]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shinya Neri, Toshi Menju, Terumasa Sowa, Yojiro Yutaka, Daisuke Nakajima, Masatsugu Hamaji, Akihiro Ohsumi, Toyofumi F. Chen-Yoshikawa, Toshihiko Sato, Makoto Sonobe, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Hironori Haga, Hiroshi Date Source Type: research

Real-World Treatment Patterns and Survival of Patients with BRAF V600-Mutated Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Ongoing scientific efforts to define the mechanisms driving cancer cell proliferation and survival have led to the classification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by the presence of specific genetic aberrations, some of which render tumors actionable for targeted therapy [1 –5]. One of the oncogenic drivers under study in NSCLC is mutated BRAF (v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B), a serine-threonine kinase belonging to the RAF kinase family that directly interacts with the MEK-ERK signaling cascade. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Leora Horn, Joshua Bauml, Patrick M. Forde, Keith L. Davis, Nathaniel J. Myall, Medha Sasane, Anand Dalal, Ken Culver, Antoinette J. Wozniak, Christina S. Baik, Alex Mutebi, Pingkuan Zhang, Heather A. Wakelee, Bruce E. Johnson Source Type: research

Efficacy of first-line treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) alone or in combination with chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with low-abundance mutation
In the past decade, dramatic progress has been made in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)1594 concluded that there was a treatment bottleneck of 7.4 to 8.2 months in the median overall survival with conventional chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC [1]. Moreover, the Iressa Pan-Asia Study (IPASS) demonstrated the effect of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) driver gene on lung cancer treatment. EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) significantly improve the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with EGFR mutations [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xiangtao Yan, Huijuan Wang, Peng Li, Guowei Zhang, Mina Zhang, Jinpo Yang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Xuanxuan Zheng, Zhiyong Ma Source Type: research

Retrospective response analysis of BAP1 expression to predict the clinical activity of systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy in mesothelioma
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a devastating disease with an increasing worldwide incidence. Prognosis is poor; median overall survival is only 9-18 months. Few patients are suitable for surgery and the mainstay of therapy remains systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy. Combination cisplatin/pemetrexed is the standard of care first line regimen, offering survival benefit of a few months. Patients invariably progress, and while there is currently no established second line regimen, single agent vinorelbine is used on the basis of activity in small trials. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Neelam Kumar, Doraid Alrifai, Krishna K Kolluri, Elizabeth K Sage, Yuki Ishii, Naomi Guppy, Elaine Borg, Mary Falzon, Matthew Nankivell, Andrew Nicholson, Sam M Janes Source Type: research

Genetic alterations of driver genes as independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer
Driver genes give a selective growth advantage to tumor cells, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation [1]. Oncogene aberrations, such as EGFR mutations, ALK fusions, BRAF mutations, RET fusions, and ROS1 fusions, have recently been revealed as targetable driver alterations for molecular-targeted agents in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Through the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the application of NGS clinical sequencing, such as Foundation CDx, could promote precision medicine. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Akira Ono, Mitsuhiro Isaka, Masakuni Serizawa, Katsuhiro Omae, Hideaki Kojima, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Shota Omori, Kazushige Wakuda, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Tateaki Naito, Haruyasu Murakami, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Takashi Sugino, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Source Type: research

Complete tumor response of a locally advanced lung large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma after palliative thoracic radiotherapy and immunotherapy with nivolumab
Lung large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (L-LCNEC) accounts for 2 –3 % of all lung cancers. It is a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with some cytological features of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but it also has biological, clinical, and prognostic characteristics of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Diagnosis is based on histological features consistent with NSCLC and identification, by immunohistochemistry (IHC), of at least one neuroendocrine marker. The prognosis is poor, with 5-year overall survival rates of 13–57% for all, 27–62% for early, and (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Charlotte Mauclet, Fabrice Duplaquet, Lionel Pirard, Beno ît Rondelet, Michael Dupont, Claudia Pop-Stanciu, Thierry Vander Borght, Myriam Remmelink, Nicky D’Haene, Suzan Lambin, Marie Wanet, Vincent Remouchamps, Sebahat Ocak Source Type: research

Exploration of germline variants responsible for adverse events of crizotinib in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer by target-gene panel sequencing
Activating rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene have been found in several cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ALK-fusion-gene-positive (ALK-positive) cases are observed in ~5% of NSCLC patients [1], with ROS1 proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase also activated by chromosomal rearrangement in NSCLC [2]. Crizotinib has shown favorable clinical activity in the treatment of ALK- and ROS1-positive NSCLC patients [3 –6]. Frequently occurring treatment-related adverse events (AEs) following crizotinib treatment include vision abnormalities, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, constipati...
Source: Lung Cancer - December 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hidenori Mizugaki, Akinobu Hamada, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Fumie Hosoda, Hiromi Nakamura, Yusuke Okuma, Takehito Shukuya, Shigeki Umemura, Atsushi Horiike, Tomoya Fukui, Yoshihito Kogure, Haruko Daga, Yoshiko Urata, Kazuhiko Yamada, Sho Saeki, Yasuhito Fujisak Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oral vinorelbine versus etoposide with cisplatin and chemo-radiation as treatment in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized phase II (RENO study)
Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide [1]. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of new diagnosed cases. Most patients are diagnosed with an unresectable disease and about 22% have a locally advanced disease [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dolores Isla, Ram ón De Las Peñas, Amelia Insa, Raquel Marsé, Natividad Martínez-Banaclocha, Pilar Mut, Teresa Morán, María Ángeles Sala, Bartomeu Massuti, Ana Laura Ortega, José Miguel Jurado, José Gómez-Codina, Pilar Diz, Ángel Artal, Vanesa Source Type: research

Variable Impact of Prior Cancer History on the Survival of Lung Cancer Patients
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, frequently affects patients who have survived a prior malignancy [1]. Recent estimates indicate that 1 out of every 5 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have a prior cancer history [2 –4]. Estimating the prognosis within the prior cancer history subset is complex, because previously treated malignancies may recur and pose additional risk to survival. Previous attempts to clarify the impact of prior malignancy on cancer outcomes have generated mixed results [5–9]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andres F. Monsalve, Jessica R. Hoag, Benjamin J. Resio, Alexander S. Chiu, Lawrence B. Brown, Frank C. Detterbeck, Justin D. Blasberg, Daniel J. Boffa Source Type: research

Progress of malignant mesothelioma research in basic science: A review of the 14th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMig2018)
Malignant mesothelioma is associated with long-term exposure to asbestos [1 –3]. Consequently, asbestos consumption is banned or controlled in a large number of industrialized countries and should be banned worldwide to reduce the incidence of asbestos-related diseases [4–6]. However, the incidence of mesothelioma continues to go up due to the long latency period of 20- 50 years between exposure and the development of mesothelioma [7,8]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Licun Wu, Irene Dell'Anno, Moshe Lapidot, Yoshitaka Sekido, Mei-Lin Chan, Mikihiro Kohno, Veronique Serre-Beinier, Emanuela Felley-Bosco, Marc de Perrot Tags: Review Source Type: research

The Circulating Pool of Functionally Competent NK and CD8+ Cells Predicts the Outcome of anti-PD1 Treatment in Advanced NSCLC
Cancer development and progression are complex and dynamic processes regulated by non-random adaptations resulting from a continuous interaction between the tumor and its microenvironment. A delicate although active balance is established with the host in which cancer editing through immune checkpoints involvement ultimately triggers anti- or pro-tumorigenic contexts. In this scenario, specific inhibitors of several checkpoint related pathways have received particular attention due to an unparalleled efficacy in advanced hematologic and solid malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1 –3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giulia Mazzaschi, Francesco Facchinetti, Gabriele Missale, Diana Canetti, Denise Madeddu, Alessandra Zecca, Michele Veneziani, Francesco Gelsomino, Matteo Goldoni, Sebastiano Buti, Paola Bordi, Franco Aversa, Andrea Ardizzoni, Federico Quaini, Marcello Ti Source Type: research

Efficacy of afatinib or osimertinib plus cetuximab combination therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer with EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide [1]. However, in recent decades, the elucidation of key molecular mechanisms contributed to the improvement of prognosis in patients with lung cancer, especially in those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [2]. In 2004, an association between somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and the response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment were reported by several groups [3,4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hanako Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Junko Hamamoto, Keita Masuzawa, Tetsuo Tani, Shigenari Nukaga, Toshiyuki Hirano, Keigo Kobayashi, Tadashi Manabe, Hideki Terai, Shinnosuke Ikemura, Ichiro Kawada, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima Source Type: research

Imaging in Pleural Mesothelioma: A Review of the 14th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group
The biennial conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMig) includes a dedicated imaging session that features recent advances in imaging research and clinical adaptation of imaging technology in the diagnosis and evaluation of mesothelioma [1 –5]. Imaging continues to play a critical role in the evaluation and surveillance of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients, and researchers continue to seek ways to enhance, optimize, and extend the many roles that imaging has in the MPM setting. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Samuel G. Armato, Roslyn J. Francis, Sharyn Katz, Guntulu Ak, Isabelle Opitz, Eyjolfur Gudmundsson, Kevin G. Blyth, Ashish Gupta Source Type: research

Promising preclinical platform for evaluation of immuno-oncology drugs using Hu-PBL-NSG lung cancer models
Recent development of checkpoint inhibitors has shed light on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients without targetable alterations. The excitement about using immunotherapy to treat NSCLC has been driven by results from clinical studies evaluating antibodies to programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) [1]. A strategy targeting immune checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1 showed promising clinical benefits and introduced a paradigm shift in treatment by showing significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival compared to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC [2...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kyoung Ho Pyo, Jae Hwan Kim, Ji-Min Lee, Sung Eun Kim, Jae Seok Cho, Sun Min Lim, Byoung Chul Cho Source Type: research

Interest in lifestyle advice at lung cancer screening: determinants and preferences
The European position statement on lung cancer screening recommends low dose computed tomography for high risk populations, with smoking cessation advice offered alongside (1). The prevalence of tobacco smoking ranges from 10-38% between European countries (2). In England, 17% of adults smoke (3). However, data from lung screening trials suggests smoking prevalence is likely to be higher among lung screening attendees (4 –6); within the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) pilot trial, 38.3% of the screening arm were current smokers (4). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Claire Stevens, Samuel G. Smith, Samantha L Quaife, Charlotte Vrinten, Jo Waller, Rebecca J. Beeken Source Type: research

Real-life efficacy of osimertinib in pretreated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR T790M mutation
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer death in Western countries [1]. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form (80 –85%) of lung cancers. At the time of diagnosis, most patients with NSCLC present with metastatic or advanced disease [2]. Activating mutations of the gene encoding the tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are present in about 10% of NSCLC patients in France [3] and more than 90% of these mutations are reported in exons 19 − 21 [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jean Bernard Auliac, Maurice P érol, David Planchard, Isabelle Monnet, Marie Wislez, Hélène Doubre, Florian Guisier, Eric Pichon, Laurent Greillier, Bénédicte Mastroianni, Chantal Decroisette, Roland Schott, Sylvestre Le Moulec, Jennifer Arrondeau, A Source Type: research