Safety and efficacy of first-line dacomitinib in Asian patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer: results from a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial (ARCHER 1050)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the standard first-line treatment for patients with sensitizing EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1]. Pivotal studies on first-generation EGFR TKIsgefitinib and erlotinib have confirmed improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) but failed to demonstrate a statistically significant overall survival (OS) benefit over chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC [2 –9]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ying Cheng, Tony S. Mok, Xiangdong Zhou, Shun Lu, Qing Zhou, Jianying Zhou, Yingying Du, Ping Yu, Xiaoqing Liu, Chengping Hu, You Lu, Yiping Zhang, Ki Hyeong Lee, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Rolf Linke, Chew Hooi Wong, Yiyun Tang, Fanfan Zhu, Keith D. Wilner, Yi-L Source Type: research

Lymphatic drainage of lung cancer follows an intersegmental pathway within the visceral pleura
The standard treatment for early-stage lung cancer is surgery, consisting of an anatomical pulmonary resection with systematic lymph-node dissection. Generally, a lobar surgical resection is performed, although the possibility of a segmentectomy is also possible for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially for peripheral tumors (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alex Fourdrain, Julien Epailly, Chlo é Blanchard, Olivier Georges, Jonathan Meynier, Pascal Berna Source Type: research

The evolving landscape of biomarker testing for non-small cell lung cancer in Europe
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide [1]. Across Europe in 2018, there were an estimated 388,000 lung cancer-related deaths, which was higher than those related to colorectal cancer and breast cancer combined [2]. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ∼84 % of all lung cancer cases [3], imposing a substantial social and financial burden in Europe [4,5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Keith M. Kerr, Fr édéric Bibeau, Erik Thunnissen, Johan Botling, Aleš Ryška, Jürgen Wolf, Katarina Öhrling, Peter Burdon, Umberto Malapelle, Reinhard Büttner Tags: Review Source Type: research

Clinical utility of plasma EGFR mutation detection with quantitative PCR in advanced lung cancer: a meta-analysis
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) are associated with a substantially higher objective response rate (ORR) and longer progression-free survival (PFS) than chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive advanced lung adenocarcinoma (1). EGFR mutation testing is recommended in all advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but reports estimate that only 40-80% of these patients were tested in practice due to insufficient tissue and poor performance status (2). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peey-Sei Kok, Kirsty Lee, Sally Lord, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Rafael Rosell, Koichi Goto, Thomas John, Yi-Long Wu, Tony S.K. Mok, Chee Khoon Lee Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Re-expression of LKB1 in LKB1-mutant EKVX cells leads to resistance to paclitaxel through the up-regulation of MDR1 expression” [Lung Cancer 88/2 (2015) 131–138]
The authors regret that there was an error in the labelling of plasmid K78I. All the cell lines containing mutant LKB1 should be labelled K78I, not K78M, throughout this article. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kaisheng Mao, Fakeng Liu, Xiuju Liu, Fadlo R. Khuri, Adam I. Marcus, Mingsong Li, Wei Zhou Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Safety of Pemetrexed plus Platinum in Combination with Pembrolizumab for Metastatic Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Post Hoc Analysis of KEYNOTE-189
The approvals of several immune checkpoint inhibitors have advanced the standard-of-care for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in first-line settings and after platinum-based chemotherapy treatment failure [1 –3]. The ability of immune checkpoint inhibitors to restore tumor-specific T cell responses has resulted in substantial improvement of survival outcomes [4,5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Edward B. Garon, Joachim Aerts, Jong Seok Kim, Catherine E. Muehlenbein, Patrick Peterson, Maria Teresa Rizzo, Shirish M. Gadgeel Source Type: research

Targeting rare and non-canonical driver variants in NSCLC – an uncharted clinical field
Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often present with metastatic disease, have a poor prognosis, and are leading cancer-related deaths worldwide. [1] Life expectancy with palliative chemotherapy alone does not exceed one-and-a half years.[2 –4] Recently, the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has facilitated long-term disease control in about 20–30 % of metastatic NSCLC and median overall survival approaching 2 years.[3–6] Nevertheless, the implementation of targeted therapies, such as kinase inhibitors for EGFR/BR AF/ALK/ROS1-mutated tumors have facilitated even longer surviv...
Source: Lung Cancer - February 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anna-Lena Volckmar, Petros Christopoulos, Martina Kirchner, Michael Allg äuer, Olaf Neumann, Jan Budczies, Eugen Rempel, Peter Horak, Julia Glade, Hannah Goldschmid, Huriye Seker-Cin, Regine Brandt, Mark Kriegsmann, Jonas Leichsenring, Hauke Winter, Mart Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Inhibition of IGF1R enhances 2-deoxyglucose in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer” [Lung Cancer 123 (2018) 36–43]
The authors regret that there was an error in the labelling of plasmid K78I. All the cell lines containing mutant LKB1 should be labelled K78I, not K78 M, throughout this article. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fakeng Liu, Yuan Liu, Xiuju Liu, Kaisheng Mao, Diansheng Zhong, Adam I. Marcus, Fadlo R. Khuri, Shi-Yong Sun, Yulong He, Wei Zhou Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Preoperative chest computed tomography evaluation for predicting intraoperative lung resection strongly depends on interpreters experience
Ultimate goal of curative intent surgery is microscopic complete tumor resection with adequate safety margin and radical lymphadenectomy, yet sparing as much lung parenchyma as possible to optimize survival while preserving pulmonary function and quality of life. This goal was achieved by developing bronchovascular resection and reconstruction techniques in patients whose cardiopulmonary function was too compromised to undergo pneumonectomy for centrally located tumors [1 –4]. In a meta-analysis based on 19 studies and a total of 3878 patients comparing sleeve lobectomy and pneumonectomy, morbidity, mortality, locore...
Source: Lung Cancer - February 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stephane Collaud, Yazan Alnajdawi, Theresa Stork, Till Pl önes, Dirk Stefani, Keita Tokuishi, Daniel Valdivia, Mohamed Zaatar, Balazs Hegedüs, Lale Umutlu, Hubertus Hautzel, Clemens Aigner Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Regulation of immune microenvironment may enable MET-altered NSCLC patients to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors
Targeted therapies have remained standard treatment for patients with driving alterations. After exhaustion of targeted therapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapies have been the ultimate resort for these patients [1,2]. However, the role of immunotherapy remains a controversial issue for patients with oncogenic driver gene mutations. For instance, EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients were reported to be resistant to immunotherapy [3]. Patients with KRAS-mutant or BRAF-mutant NSCLC derived an increased benefit from immunotherapy than EGFR-mutant NSCLC [4,5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chenyue Zhang, Haiyong Wang Source Type: research

Dose-dependence in acquisition of drug tolerant phenotype and high RYK expression as a mechanism of osimertinib tolerance in lung cancer
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used for the first-line treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations. Currently, five EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, dacomitinib, and osimertinib) are clinically available in the US as well as in Japan. Following the FLAURA trial, which demonstrated the superiority of front-line osimertinib in both progression-free and overall survival compared with gefitinib/erlotinib, many physicians prefer to use osimertinib as a front-line treatment [1]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shuta Ohara, Kenichi Suda, Toshio Fujino, Akira Hamada, Takamasa Koga, Masaya Nishino, Masato Chiba, Masaki Shimoji, Toshiki Takemoto, Junichi Soh, Tetsuya Mitsudomi Source Type: research

The source of the tumor tissue should be taken into consideration when distinguishing tumor mutational burden scores
Tumors are genetic diseases that involve the accumulation of somatic mutations [1 –2]. The tumor mutational burden (TMB), defined as the total number of somatic mutations in the coding regions of tumor cell genes, is a potential biomarker of the response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. That is, higher TMBs are associated with improved responses and prolonged sur vival in patients undergoing ICI treatment [3]. Accordingly, the establishment of a TMB threshold to classify tumors as high TMB versus low TMB is vital in the era of precision medicine. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chenyue Zhang, Haiyong Wang Source Type: research

Survival analysis for non-squamous NSCLC patients harbored STK11 or KEAP1 mutation receiving atezolizumab
Targeted therapies aiming at oncogenic aberrations and immunotherapies has transformed treatment strategies in NSCLC. Patients harboring EGFR mutations, ROS1 rearrangements or ALK positive lung cancer could benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in terms of response and survival [1 –3]. Immunotherapies, typicalized by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), could elicit durable antitumor responses in NSCLC [4–6]. Unfortunately, only a subgroup of patients could derive clinical benefit, suggesting the ur gent need to develop novel bio...
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xiaoling Shang, Zhenxiang Li, Jian Sun, Chenglong Zhao, Jiamao Lin, Haiyong Wang Source Type: research

Controversies and challenges in the pathologic examination of lung resection specimens after neoadjuvant treatment
Following the recognition that neoadjuvant chemotherapy improved outcomes over surgery alone and that the survival benefit of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy is very similar, (overall 5%) [1 –4], preoperative platinum-doublet chemotherapy has become an attractive treatment strategy for patients with resectable stage IB to IIIA lung cancer [5]. Neoadjuvant therapies also add the benefit of determining surrogate endpoints of clinical efficacy, namely clinical and pathological response, which can be measured at the time of tumor resection. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Annikka Weissferdt, Apar Pataer, Stephen G Swisher, John V Heymach, Don L Gibbons, Tina Cascone, Boris Sepesi Tags: Review Source Type: research

First-in-human study of inhaled Azacitidine in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer
Despite advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death. Although smoking identifies the population at risk that could benefit from a preventive strategy, multiple oral chemoprevention strategies have unfortunately failed1. An ideal chemoprevention strategy would require a non-toxic agent that is able to reverse genetic lesions central to the carcinogenesis process, administered in a selective manner to the at-risk bronchial epithelium. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Haiying Cheng, Yiyu Zou, Chirag D. Shah, Ni Fan, Tushar D. Bhagat, Rasim Gucalp, Mimi Kim, Amit Verma, Bilal Piperdi, Simon D. Spivack, Balazs Halmos, Roman Perez-Soler Source Type: research

Revealing the BRD4-NOTCH3 fusion: a novel hill in the cancer landscape
Transcript fusions have long been associated with cancer development. The recent use of comprehensive DNA/RNA sequencing in the cancer scenario has uncovered fusions that, today, are seen as optimal targets for personalized medicine, such as those involving genes ALK, FGFR and NTRK [1]. The most frequent cancer driver fusions emerged from data cohorts such as TCGA consortium [1]. However, rare driver fusions can only be observed using extremely large cohorts, remaining as potential targets to be explored [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fabiano de Almeida Costa, Mariane Tami Amano, Paula Fontes Asprino, Dean C. Pavlick, Cibele Masotti, Leonardo Testagrossa, Gilberto de Castro Source Type: research

PARD3-ALK: A novel ALK fusion gene identified in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma
In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is the key targetable oncogenic event. NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangements benefit from ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs), such as crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib, lorlatinib [1]. EML4-ALK is the most common type of ALK rearrangement; however, with the development of next generation sequencing (NGS), diverse ALK fusion partner genes have been identified, such as EML6, FBXO11, and CUX1 [2,3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liangwei Yang, Weidi Zhao, Huangkai Zhu, Xi Li, Guofang Zhao Source Type: research

Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) expression and its prognostic significance in histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma
Lung cancer is one of the most diagnosed and death-related cancers around the world [1]. The prognosis of lung cancer is poor and the overall 5-year survival rate remains less than 30% in most countries [2,3]. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the main histological subtype of lung cancer and accounts for about half of all lung cancer cases [4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhihua Li, Fang Li, Cheng Pan, Zhicheng He, Xianglong Pan, Quan Zhu, Weibing Wu, Liang Chen Source Type: research

The Role for Chemotherapy in 80 Years and Older Patients with Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A National Cancer Database Analysis
With over 228,820 estimated new cases diagnosed in 2020, lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in men and women in the United States [1]. Despite advances in the treatment of patients diagnosed with advanced stage lung cancer, overall prognosis is poor with 5-year survival rate ranging from (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zaheer Ahmed, Kevin Kennedy, Janakiraman Subramanian Source Type: research

Coexistence of a novel RGS18 downstream intergenic region ALK fusion and a THUMPD2-ALK fusion in a lung adenocarcinoma patient and response to crizotinib
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. One of the driver oncogene mutations in lung cancer is anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion, which is reported in approximately 5% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) [1]. To date, multifarious types of ALK fusion partners have been identified in NSCLC with heterogeneous clinical responses to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) [2]. Herein, a lung adenocarcinoma patient with a novel regulator of G protein signaling 18 (RGS18) downstream intergenic region ALK fusion and THUMP domain-containing protein 2 (THUMPD2)-ALK double fusion variant...
Source: Lung Cancer - February 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yan-li Wang, Zhen-zhen Wu, Heng-rui Zhang, Dong-sheng Chen, Xin Zhao Source Type: research

Calculated indices of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhalation for lung cancer screening and early detection
Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide [1]. Lung cancer-related mortality accounts for about 20 % of all cancer deaths in China, and this proportion is projected to increase to 40 % by 2030 [2]. Lung cancer at its early stage is typically silent. Even when symptoms are present, they are nonspecific, and patients with smoking history often attribute dyspnea and cough to their smoking. An advanced stage at lung cancer diagnosis results in fewer chances of curative treatment [3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xing Chen, Kanhar Ghulam Muhammad, Channa Madeeha, Wei Fu, Linxin Xu, Yanjie Hu, Jun Liu, Kejing Ying, Liying Chen, Gorlova Olga Yurievna Source Type: research

KRAS G12C-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a real-world cohort from the German prospective, observational, nation-wide CRISP Registry (AIO-TRK-0315)
With an incidence of 2,09 million new cases in 2018, lung cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of the cases [1,2]. Despite advancements in personalized treatment and precision medicine, the overall five-year survival rate of patients with advanced NSCLC in Germany remains low at 15-21% [3,4]. The most frequent oncogenic driver mutations are found in the KRAS gene, occurring in 20-40% of the NSCLC cases in Western populations [5 –7]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Martin Sebastian, Wilfried E.E. Eberhardt, Petra Hoffknecht, Martin Metzenmacher, Thomas Wehler, Konrad Kokowski, J ürgen Alt, Wolfgang Schütte, Reinhard Büttner, Lukas C. Heukamp, Albrecht Stenzinger, Martina Jänicke, Annette Fleitz, Stefan Zacharias Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Risk Stratification Scheme for Synchronous Oligometastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Developed by a Multicentre Analysis
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Almost half of new NSCLC patients have stage IV disease at diagnosis. Stage IV patients are usually considered inoperable and treated solely with systemic therapy and/or palliative strategies [1]. The median survival was (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lorenzo Spaggiari, Luca Bertolaccini, Francesco Facciolo, Filippo Tommaso Gallina, Federico Rea, Marco Schiavon, Stefano Margaritora, Maria Teresa Congedo, Marco Lucchi, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Marco Alloisio, Edoardo Bottoni, Giampiero Negri, Angelo Carretta, Source Type: research

A unique small cell lung carcinoma disease progression model shows progressive accumulation of cancer stem cell properties and CD44 as a potential diagnostic marker
Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a histological subtype of lung carcinoma with a 5  year survival rate of only 6% after diagnosis [1]. Although only representing about 10% of total lung cancer incidence, SCLC has the highest mortality rate. SCLCs can be categorized into two cellular subtypes based on the presence (classic SCLC) or absence (variant SCLC) of neuroendocrine (NE) ma rkers like neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), synaptophysin (SYP) and chromogranin A (CHGA) [2,3]. However, recent understandings of the molecular biology of SCLC suggest that these subtypes maybe present as a subset of cells within on...
Source: Lung Cancer - February 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Win Sen Heng, Milind Pore, Coby Meijer, T. Jeroen N. Hiltermann, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Reinoud Gosens, Frank A.E. Kruyt Source Type: research

Where the nose is going to help the eye: Sniffing lung cancer
Lung cancer screening is by many seen as the way to improve cancer survival. Both the NLST and the more recent NELSON trial support this notion but there is ample space for improvement [1,2]. For one, the false positivity rate of low dose CT based screening is a serious issue, further subjecting persons with an incidental nodule to invasive biopsy procedures and putting a psychological burden on these patients [3,4]. If there are fewer false-positive nodules, there is less need for further work-up and the risk of complications, especially from invasive diagnostic examinations including surgery. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kevin Lamote, Michel M. Van den Heuvel Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Impact of Subsequent Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment on Overall Survival With Avelumab vs Docetaxel in Platinum-Treated Advanced NSCLC: Post Hoc Analyses From the Phase 3 JAVELIN Lung 200 Trial
Avelumab is a human anti –programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) IgG1 antibody that has shown durable antitumor activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with a range of tumor types [1–7]. Avelumab has been approved as monotherapy for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma and for urothelial carcinoma that has not progressed (first-line maintenance therapy) or progressed (second-line therapy) with platinum-containing chemotherapy, as well as in combination with axitinib as first-line treatment for renal cell carcinoma [8,9]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Keunchil Park, Mustafa Özgüroğlu, Johan Vansteenkiste, David Spigel, James C.-H. Yang, Marcis Bajars, Mary Ruisi, Juliane Manitz, Fabrice Barlesi Source Type: research

Lung cancer research and its citation on clinical practice guidelines
Globally, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of, mostly avoidable, mortality and morbidity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) it accounted for 16.2% of the world total of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributable to cancer in 2000, and 17.1% in 2015 [1,2]. As the world becomes better off economically, and people live longer, cancer tends to increase and there is increased exposure to risk factors such as tobacco [3]. Lung cancer, which accounted for only 1.18% of all DALYs in 2000, had increased its toll to 1.56% in 2015, or by 32%. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elena Pallari, Magnus Eriksson, Annika Billhult, Tommy Billhult, Ajay Aggarwal, Grant Lewison, Richard Sullivan Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Comparative study of EGFR mutations detected in malignant pleural effusion, plasma and tumor tissue in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung” [Lung Cancer 135 (2019) 116–122]
The authors regret that the first author affiliation was listed incorrectly. The correct affiliation can be found above. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shuhang Wang, Hanxiao Chen, Jia Zhong, Haifeng Qin, Hua Bai, Jun Zhao, Jie Wang Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - February 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lung cancer prediction by Deep Learning to identify benign lung nodules
Adequate differentiation of benign and malignant small-to-intermediate sized, 5 – 15 mm, pulmonary nodules detected by computed tomography (CT) is a challenge for radiologists. With the improvement of CT scanners, an increasing number of these pulmonary nodules are detected, both in routine clinical care and in a lung cancer screening setting. Approximately 50% of smokers h ave a pulmonary nodule,[1] and 25% have more than one, although less than 1% of these nodules are malignant.[1] Nodule classification for both incidentally detected and screening detected nodules are based on nodule type, size, and growth, ...
Source: Lung Cancer - January 31, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marjolein A. Heuvelmans, Peter M.A. van Ooijen, Sarim Ather, Carlos Francisco Silva, Daiwei Han, Claus-Peter Heussel, William Hickes, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Petr Novotny, Heiko Peschl, Mieneke Rook, Roman Rubtsov, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Maria T. Tsakok, Source Type: research

Rapid development of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection during chemoradiotherapy followed by durvalumab treatment in a locally advanced NSCLC patient
We report the case of a patient with unresectable locally advanced NSCLC who developed MAC disease with cavitary lesions during treatment with the PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor durvalumab after receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 30, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Keisuke Baba, Tatsuya Yoshida, Mika Shiotsuka, Osamu Kobayashi, Satoshi Iwata, Yuichiro Ohe Source Type: research

Safety of g-csf with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in limited-stage small cell lung cancer - secondary analysis of the randomised phase 3 convert trial
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 13% of all lung cancer cases and is associated with poor prognosis due to a rapid doubling time, early dissemination and an aggressive systemic nature [1]. Thirty percent of patients are diagnosed with limited-stage disease (LS-SCLC) and the standard of care in this group is concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (cCTRT) leading to 5-year survival rates of 20-30%. [2 –5] However cCTRT is associated with significant toxicity, in particular haematological toxicity, which can impact on the delivery of full dose cCTRT. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 30, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fabio Gomes, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Hitesh Mistry, Andrea Bezjak, Nicolas Pourel, Pierre Fournel, Jan Van Meerbeeck, Fiona Blackhall Source Type: research

Breath profile as composite biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis
In 2018, an estimated 2,093,816 cases of lung cancer (LC) worldwide resulted in approximately 1,761,007 deaths accounting for 18.4% of cancer-related deaths[1]. A key challenge for efforts to reduce the mortality is the lack of specific symptoms at early stage when the disease was still restricted in lung and had more chances to be cured[2]. Early symptoms containing persistent cough, shortness of breath, chest pain and wheezing are often misinterpreted, which leads to misdiagnosis of patients with regional stage lung cancer[3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 29, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yingchang Zou, Yu Wang, Zaile Jiang, Yuan Zhou, Ying Chen, Yanjie Hu, Guobao Jiang, Duan Xie Source Type: research

Association of Severe Lymphopenia and Disease Progression in Unresectable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Definitive Chemoradiation and Immunotherapy
The immune system plays a crucial role in cancer surveillance and anti-tumor activity. Lymphocytes are integral in the immune tumor response, assisting in adaptive and immune responses and direct destruction of tumor cells [1 –3]. Additionally, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) that block programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed death 1 (PD-1), or cytotoxic t-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) receptors have been utilized to upregulate T-cell activity and improve tumor cell killing [4–6]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 27, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cole Friedes, Turja Chakrabarti, Sarah Olson, Laura Prichett, Julie R. Brahmer, Patrick J. Forde, Ranh K. Voong, Kristen A. Marrone, Vincent K. Lam, Christine L. Hann, Stephen R. Broderick, Richard J. Battafarano, Jinny S. Ha, Errol L. Bush, Stephen C Yan Source Type: research

Risk of development of brain metastases according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS lung adenocarcinoma classification in advanced and metastatic disease
Lung cancer is a health problem of global proportions. Even though lung cancer shows a declining incidence and mortality globally, it remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. [1,2] Approximately 16 to 22% of all advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients had BM at diagnosis, and up to 30-54% will develop them throughout the disease [3]. Lung Adenocarcinoma (LADC) represents more than 50% of current cases and is strongly related to central nervous involvement (24-35.7%) compared to other histologies. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 27, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Oscar Arrieta, Alejandro Avil és Salas, Andrés F. Cardona, Diego Díaz-García, Luis Lara-Mejía, Ixel Escamilla, Ariana Pereira García, Enrique Caballé Pérez, Luis E. Raez, Christian Rolfo, Rafael Rosell Source Type: research

Are There Imaging Characteristics That Can Distinguish Separate Primary Lung Carcinomas from Intrapulmonary Metastases Using Next-Generation Sequencing as a Gold Standard?
The diagnosis of lung cancer has increased with the widespread use of diagnostic imaging. It is estimated that in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), multiple tumor nodules are identified in approximately 15% of patients through screening programs [1 –4]. NSCLC can also spread to the lung parenchyma via intrapulmonary metastases (IPMs) in an intricate multistep process that is influenced not only by genetic and epigenetic factors [5] but also by a complex array of tumor-host interactions [6–8]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jose Arimateia Batista Araujo-Filho, Jason Chang, Maria Mayoral, Andrew J. Plodkowski, Rocio Perez-Johnston, Stephanie Lobaugh, Junting Zheng, Valerie W. Rusch, Natasha Rekhtman, Michelle S. Ginsberg Source Type: research

Examination of Factors Associated with Lymph Node Metastases in Lung Carcinoids: Results from a Single Institution Retrospective Cohort Study
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms that can arise at sites throughout the body, with the most common sites being the lung and gastrointestinal (GI) tract [1]. Most data on the management of lung NETs stems from the study of GI NETs, although specific studies dedicated to lung NETs are emerging [2]. Well-differentiated NETs of the lung, also known as typical and atypical carcinoids (referred to as lung carcinoids hereafter), are relatively well-behaved biologically with a decreased incidence of lymph node and distant metastases compared to poorly differentiated lung NETs (i.e. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mythili P. Pathipati, Thomas K. Yohannan, Lu Tian, Kathleen Hornbacker, Jalen A. Benson, Gerald J Berry, Natalie S. Lui, Pamela L. Kunz, Sukhmani K. Padda Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant anti-programmed death-1 immunotherapy by pembrolizumab in resectable non-small cell lung cancer: first clinical experience
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide [1]. In early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) curative intent surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment and provides the best hope for a cure. Despite the complete resection of the tumor, however, the risk of tumor relapse in nodal positive stage II and III disease is still high. The 5-year survival rate in pathologically proven N1-positive NSCLC is 49% and is even worse in patients with N2 nodal disease with 36% [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Florian Eichhorn, Laura V. Klotz, Mark Kriegsmann, Helge Bischoff, Marc A. Schneider, Thomas Muley, Katharina Kriegsmann, Uwe Haberkorn, Claus Peter Heussel, Rajkumar Savai, Inka Zoernig, Dirk Jaeger, Michael Thomas, Hans Hoffmann, Hauke Winter, Martin E. Source Type: research

Erratum to “Association of baseline peripheral-blood eosinophil count with immune checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis and clinical outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors” [Lung Cancer 150 (2020) 76–82]
The publisher regrets that there was an error in the ninth author name. The correct name can be found above. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xiangling Chu, Jing Zhao, Juan Zhou, Fei Zhou, Tao Jiang, Sen Jiang, Xiwen Sun, Xiaofang You, Fengying Wu, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou, Chunxia Su Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

RNA splicing and aggregate gene expression differences in lung squamous cell carcinoma between patients of West African and European ancestry
In the United States, lung and bronchus cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed and is responsible for the largest number of deaths from cancer (1). Black males and females combined have the highest number of new cases and deaths per 100,000 persons for lung and bronchus cancer (1), a disparity that likely results from a complex interplay among social, psychosocial, lifestyle, environmental, health system, and biological determinants of health (2). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: April E. Deveaux, Tyler A. Allen, Muthana Al Abo, Xiaodi Qin, Dadong Zhang, Brendon M. Patierno, Lin Gu, Jhanelle E. Gray, Chad V. Pecot, Holly K. Dressman, Shannon J. McCall, Rick A. Kittles, Terry Hyslop, Kouros Owzar, Jeffrey Crawford, Steven R. Patier Source Type: research

The impact of osimertinib ’ line on clonal evolution in EGFRm NSCLC through NGS-based liquid biopsy and overcoming strategies for resistance
Until lately, the 1st-line treatment for patients with an advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, included 1st-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for example gefitinib and erlotinib, and the 2nd-generation TKI, afatinib, which were all found to have superior efficacy compared with standard platinum-based chemotherapy treatment [1,2]. Although an initial response is often seen; most patients develop an acquired resistance after a median of 9-15 months[3 –5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vered Fuchs, Laila Roisman, Waleed Kian, Levin Daniel, Julia Dudnik, Hovav Nechushtan, Iris Goldstein, Addie Dvir, Lior Soussan-Gutman, Roxana Grinberg, Roni Gillis, Nir Peled Source Type: research

A reply to “Cardiac dysfunction due to Osimertinib”
We appreciate the interest in our article detailing the clinical characteristics of osimertinib-induced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction [1] and Anand ’s comments. We also referred to some limitations in the discussion, but as he pointed out, our study was retrospective and only 65% of patients were able to undergo echocardiogram before and after osimertinib. The number of analysis object cases is not sufficient at all. Such cases as requiring e chocardiogram after osimertinib administration are likely to be cases of suspected osimertinib-induced cardiac dysfunction and we may overestimate the decr...
Source: Lung Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kei Kunimasa Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor remodels tumor microenvironment by upregulating LAG-3 in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), which elicit durable clinical responses, have drastically revolutionized treatment patterns in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1 –3]. Preclinical studies have proved that a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene could upregulate tumor PD-L1 expression through signal pathways such as PI3K-AKT-mTOR, Hippo-YAP and IL6-JAK-STAT3, theoretically supporting the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in NSCLC patients having EGF R mutations [4–6]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Juan Zhou, Xin Yu, Likun Hou, Jing Zhao, Fei Zhou, Xiangling Chu, Yan Wu, Caicun Zhou, Chunxia Su Source Type: research

Serum soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) and fibulin-3 levels correlate with baseline malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tumor volumes but are not useful as biomarkers of response in an immunotherapy trial
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive pleural malignancy with poor survival with most patients succumbing to their disease within the first year following diagnosis. Precision medicine can provide important clinical insights that help to determine the prognosis at diagnosis, allow for increasing treatment intensity in selected patients and follow therapeutic responses. As a result, there is a clinical need for additional prognostic and predictive biomarkers for MPM therapy to aid in precision diagnostics for this patient population. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sharyn I. Katz, Leonid Roshkovan, Ian Berger, Joseph S. Friedberg, Evan W. Alley, Charles B. Simone, Andrew R. Haas, Keith A. Cengel, Daniel H. Sterman, Steve M. Albelda Source Type: research

Surprising impact of stromal TIL ’s on immunotherapy efficacy in a real-world lung cancer study
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer types and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality [1]. The majority of patients have advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Systemic treatment has been remarkably changed in the recent years, mainly by the implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), resulting in significant improvement of quality of life and survival [2]. Anti-Programmed Death-(Ligand)1 (anti-PD-(L)1) antibodies are currently part of the treatment for virtually all advanced NSCLC patients without targetable mutations. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: S. Hashemi, M.F. Fransen, A. Niemeijer, N. ben Taleb, I. Houda, J. Veltman, A. Becker- Commissaris, H. Daniels, L. Crombag, T. Radonic, Jongeneel, S. Tarasevych, E. Looysen, M. van Laren, M. Tiemessen, V. van Diepen, K. Maassen-van den Brink, E. Thunniss Source Type: research

Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) as a possible therapeutic target and its application to radioimmunotherapy using 125I-labelled anti-DLK1 antibody in lung cancer models (HOT1801 and FIGHT004)
Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world today and is a leading cause of death due to cancer [1]. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80% of all cases of lung cancer. In developed countries, close to 70% of patients with NSCLC present with locally advanced or metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, when curative treatment typically is no longer feasible [2]. Recently, new antineoplastic agents have been developed for the treatment of NSCLC by molecularly targeted therapies or immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hironori Takagi, Songji Zhao, Satoshi Muto, Hiroshi Yokouchi, Hiroshi Nishihara, Toshiyuki Harada, Hikaru Yamaguchi, Hayato Mine, Masayuki Watanabe, Yuki Ozaki, Takuya Inoue, Takumi Yamaura, Mitsuro Fukuhara, Naoyuki Okabe, Yuki Matsumura, Takeo Hasegawa, Source Type: research

Caspr2 autoantibody-associated Morvan syndrome predating thymoma relapse by 30 months
A 63-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with thymoma B2 in 2002 during work-up for ocular myasthenia gravis. In 2015, thirteen years after thymectomy, he experienced difficulties playing the trumpet (he was an avid trumpet player). Mild myasthenia due to pleural recurrence of thymoma was discovered (stage IV-A). He underwent induction chemotherapy (3 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel), followed by a left-sided extrapleural pneumonectomy. Once discharged and recuperated, he went on vacation to the Dominican Republic, during which he developed loss of appetite and a vague abdominal pain. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pegah Masrori, Hannah Vaesen Bentein, Jo Raskin, Massimiliano Montagna, Livia De Picker, Ilse De Volder, Paul E. Van Schil, Annelies Janssens, Rudy Mercelis Source Type: research