Incorporating circulating tumor DNA detection to radiographic assessment for treatment response in advanced EGFR-mutant lung cancer
Advances in precision medicine have led to many changes in drug development for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Since the landmark IPASS study for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mutant NSCLC, [1] many more molecular subtypes of NSCLC are being recognized, with testing of their complementary targeted therapies. With improvement in assay technology such as next-generation sequencing, NSCLC is subdivided into many smaller subgroups. As these molecular subtypes have low prevalence, traditional randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may neither be feasible nor will provide timely results. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peey-Sei Kok, Kirsty Lee, Sally Lord, Thomas John, Ian Marschner, Yi-Long Wu, Tony S.K. Mok, Chee Khoon Lee Source Type: research

Short communication: Pathologic responses in oligometastatic NSCLC patients treated with neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade with and without chemotherapy followed by surgery
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) represent a standard-of-care first-line treatment in the palliative setting and are applied in stage IIIB NSCLC patients as maintenance therapy after chemoirradiation. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tobias Boch, Nikolaj Frost, Linna Sommer, Tobias R. Overbeck, Christoph Thomas Michaeli, Chrisoph J. Szuszies, Niklas Beumer, Charles D. Imbusch, Hauke Winter, Michael Thomas, Julia Roeper, Melanie Janning, Frank Griesinger, Martin Wermke, Sonja Loges Source Type: research

Genetic landscape of patients with ALK-rearranged non –small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and response to ceritinib in ASCEND-1 study
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene is present in 3 –7% of patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the most common partner being echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4).1,2 Crizotinib was the first ALK inhibitor (ALKi) approved for patients with ALK-rearranged (ALK+) NSCLC, although the duration of disease control is generally short lived. Common acquired resistance mechanisms to crizotinib include ALK resistance mutations (∼30%),3 ALK amplification/copy number gain (∼10%), and activation of alternative oncogenic drivers (∼45%), with the remaining (∼15%...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: D.S-W. Tan, M. Thomas, D-W. Kim, S. Szpakowski, P. Urban, R. Mehra, L.Q.M. Chow, S. Sharma, B.J. Solomon, E. Felip, D.R. Camidge, J. Vansteenkiste, L. Petruzzelli, S. Pantano, A.T. Shaw Source Type: research

Impact of treatment timing and sequence of immune checkpoint inhibitors and anti-angiogenic agents for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Currently, anti-angiogenic agents (AAs) and immunotherapy are major components of standard therapies for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several molecular-targeted agents that target the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have achieved positive outcomes. Bevacizumab plus platinum-doublet chemotherapy has become the standard treatment for patients with treatment-na ïve advanced NSCLC [1]. Further, ramucirumab or nintedanib plus chemotherapy have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for previously treated advanced NSCLC [2,3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kinnosuke Matsumoto, Takayuki Shiroyama, Tomoki Kuge, Kotaro Miyake, Yuji Yamamoto, Midori Yoneda, Makoto Yamamoto, Yujiro Naito, Yasuhiko Suga, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Shohei Koyama, Kota Iwahori, Haruhiko Hirata, Izumi Nagatomo, Yoshito Takeda, Atsushi Kuma Source Type: research

Risk factors of nephrotoxicity of maintenance pemetrexed in patients with metastatic non-squamous non-small cell carcinoma of lung
Pemetrexed has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) in combination with platinum for the treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)(1) and malignant mesothelioma(2). Maintenance therapy after induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed has been shown to prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In the PARAMOUNT trial, for patients who had objective response or stable disease after four cycles of doublet chemotherapy, maintenance pemetrexed improved the PFS by 1.3 months and OS by 2.9 months, when compared with placebo (3). (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang Chun Kwok, Ka Yan Chiang, James Chung Man Ho, David Chi Leung Lam, Mary Sau Man Ip, Terence Chi Chun Tam Source Type: research

“Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma”
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon cancer which is linked aetiologically to asbestos exposure. Patients present with symptomatic pleural effusions, dyspnoea, cough, chest wall pain, or systemic symptoms such as weight loss and fatigue. With the increasing use of computed tomography (CT) scanning, presentation as an incidental finding of small pleural effusion or pleural thickening is not uncommon. Although peritoneal, testicular and pericardial mesothelioma also occur, here we focus on pleural mesothelioma as evidence for checkpoint blockade has almost entirely been generated in this group. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anna K Nowak, Wee Loong Chin, Synat Keam, Alistair Cook Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cryobiopsy as a reliable technique for the preoperative identification of micropapillary/solid components in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoma is currently the most common histologic type of primary lung cancer [1]. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society classification proposed the division of lung adenocarcinomas into five major predominant subtypes (lepidic, acinar, papillary, micropapillary [MIP], and solid [SOL]) and variant subtypes (invasive mucinous, colloid, fetal, and enteric adenocarcinoma) [2]. This classification is considered to be correlated with clinical prognosis and is currently used worldwide. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mikito Suzuki, Yuji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Imabayashi, Takashi Teishikata, Takaaki Tsuchida, Hisao Asamura, Yasushi Yatabe Source Type: research

CCL19 associates with lymph node metastasis and inferior prognosis in patients with small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive subtype of lung cancer [1] . Majority of them were initially diagnosed as extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC)[2 –4]. Although chemotherapy plus immunotherapy has been the standard of care in front setting, the prognosis in patients with extensive SCLC is still dismal with a median OS of around 12 months[5]. Therefore, a deeper understanding of SCLC pathogenesis to develop potential novel approaches are urge ntly needed. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Qian Liu, Meng Qiao, Zoltan Lohinai, Shiqi Mao, Yingying Pan, Yan Wang, Shuo Yang, Fei Zhou, Tao Jiang, Xianghua Yi, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou, Fred R. Hirsch Source Type: research

Treatment patterns and outcomes for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in England in 2013 –2017: A nationwide CAS registry analysis from the I-O Optimise initiative
In a rapidly evolving cancer treatment landscape, there is a need to assess how newer therapies, such as immunotherapies, are impacting real-world patient survival in order to guide future treatment decisions. Establishing a pre-immunotherapy “baseline” helps to accurately monitor and understand changes in patient management and overall survival (OS) as these therapies start to be used clinically. Real-world data are a valuable and complementary source of evidence to clinical trials, and they provide information that can help to asse ss the use and impact of new therapies in routine clinical practice. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 9, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Paul Baas, Melinda J. Daumont, Laure Lacoin, John R. Penrod, Robert Carroll, Sudhir Venkatesan, Harveen Ubhi, Alan Calleja, Michael Snee Source Type: research

Randomized controlled clinical trial is needed for toxicity of IMRT VS 3D-CRT in PORT for LA-NSCLC
To the Editor: (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rong Li, Ruiyang Suo, Jia Zhang Source Type: research

Effect of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation on the prognosis of pathological stage II –IIIA (8th edition TNM classification) primary lung cancer after curative surgery
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is a driver gene mutation in pulmonary adenocarcinoma [1]. EGFR mutations account for more than half of the driver gene mutations in pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Japan, and 85 –90% of EGFR mutations are exon 19 deletion mutations (Ex19) or exon 21 L858R point mutations (Ex21) [2,3]. Proliferative cell signals from mutated EGFR strongly influence the survival of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells, and a class of molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs, known as EGFR-tyrosine kin ase inhibitor (TKI), is used to curb these signals and enhance the anticancer effects [4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tetsuya Isaka, Hiroyuki Ito, Haruhiko Nakayama, Tomoyuki Yokose, Haruhiro Saito, Hiroyuki Adachi, Jun Miura, Shunsuke Shigefuku, Akitomo Kikuchi, Yasushi Rino Source Type: research

Treatment strategies for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer in the real-life ESME cohort
Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer worldwide, and is associated to 1.6 million annual deaths [1]. Among the different histological types of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common (80 –85%). Stage III, locally-advanced disease is diagnosed in about one third of patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer. In such situations, radical resection is generally not possible because tissues adjacent to the primary tumor or lymph nodes are invaded by tumor cells [2,3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicolas Girard, Maurice Perol, Ga ëtane Simon, Clarisse Audigier Valette, Radj Gervais, Didier Debieuvre, Roland Schott, Xavier Quantin, Bruno Coudert, Hervé Lena, Matthieu Carton, Mathieu Robain, Thomas Filleron, Christos Chouaid Source Type: research

Comparative Clinical Outcomes for Patients With Advanced NSCLC Harboring EGFR Exon 20 Insertion Mutations and Common EGFR Mutations
In patients with advanced NSCLC harboring exon 19 deletions or L858R substitution mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS)[1 –5] and overall survival (OS)[6] compared with chemotherapy. These 2 mutation types, referred to here as common EGFR mutations (cEGFR), constitute approximately 80% to 90% of all EGFR mutations.[7–9] Clinical trials of the first-generation EGFR TKIs gefitinib and erlotinib [2,3,10–13] and seco nd-generation EGFR TKI afatinib [4–6] in patie...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lyudmila Bazhenova, Anna Minchom, Santiago Viteri, Joshua M. Bauml, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Shirish M. Gadgeel, Jos é Manuel Trigo, Daniel Backenroth, Tracy Li, Anil Londhe, Parthiv Mahadevia, Nicolas Girard Source Type: research

Diverse responses to EGFR-TKIs in patients with concurrent germline and somatic EGFR mutations
To the editor, (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yifen Wu, Meiling Yang, Rongrong Chen, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Shun Lu Source Type: research

Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) in suspected malignant pleural effusion. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is defined as the presence of malignant cells in pleural fluid or pleural biopsy specimens. Worldwide the most common causes are lung cancer, breast cancer and malignant lymphoma1. MPE incidence is expected to increase as increasing number of person are at risk of disseminated cancer due to rising life expectancy, and more long-term cancer survivors2. A correct diagnosis of MPE is important, as MPE denotes disseminated disease and a poor prognosis with a mean survival of 8 months3. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Katrine Fjaellegaard, Jesper Koefod Petersen, Simon Reuter, Barbara Malene Fischer, Oke Gerke, Jos é M. Porcel, Paul Frost Clementsen, Christian B. Laursen, Rahul Bhatnagar, Uffe Bodtger Source Type: research

Coexistence of a novel NBEA-ALK, EML4-ALK double-fusion in a lung adenocarcinoma patient and response to alectinib: a case report
Lung cancer was a leading cause of death worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer [1]. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are observed in 3.4-6.7 % of NSCLC patients [2,3], especially in mild or non-smokers [4]. Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 gene (EML4)-ALK variant is the most frequent fusion in NSCLC [5], and more ALK fusions are detected with explosive advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS). Currently, ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the first-line treatment for patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Qi Liang, Huanhuan Xu, Yiqian Liu, Weiming Zhang, Chongqi Sun, Meng Hu, Yizhi Zhu, Shanyue Tan, Xian Xu, Sumeng Wang, Lingxiang Liu Source Type: research

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI), Hippocampal avoidance (HA) Whole Brain Radiotherapy (WBRT) and Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): where do we stand?
SCLC is an aggressive form of lung cancer with a natural history that often involves rapid tumour growth, early dissemination, early treatment resistance and ultimately poor outcomes (5-year overall survival [OS] (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cathryn Crockett, Jos é Belderbos, Antonin Levy, Fiona McDonald, Cecile Le Péchoux, Corinne Faivre-Finn Source Type: research

The Highlights of the 15th international conference of the international mesothelioma interest group – do molecular concepts challenge the traditional approach to pathological mesothelioma diagnosis?
The 15th and first virtual iMig meeting was held May 7-9, 2021 [1]. It was striking that nearly all of the speakers in the Pathology Session highlighted challenges pathologists currently face in mesothelioma diagnosis, with the focus of the presentations on ancillary techniques, which was only recently included in the WHO classification [2]. The present study summarizes the work presented by the different speakers of this session [3 –8]. The WHO excludes cytology samples from diagnosis of mesothelioma in situ, but cytology diagnosis of mesothelioma (usually in conjunction with clinical information) is provided in som...
Source: Lung Cancer - November 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sonja Klebe, Francoise Galateau Salle, Rossella Bruno, Luka Brcic, Heather I Chen-Yost, Marie-Claude Jaurand Tags: Review Source Type: research

The effect of home-based preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation before lung resection: a retrospective cohort study
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the five-year survival rate remains low[1]. Lung resection is curative and the primary treatment for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)[2]. Despite the development of surgical approaches, postoperative complications occur in approximately 30% of cases after lung resection[3], and result in higher 30-day readmissions and reduced overall survival[4]; therefore, preventing postoperative complications are very important. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takashi Saito, Rei Ono, Yugo Tanaka, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Maho Okumura, Daisuke Makiura, Junichiro Inoue, Takashi Fujikawa, Shin Kond, Tatsuro Inoue, Yoshimasa Maniwa, Yoshitada Sakai Source Type: research

In Vitro Validation Study of HER2 and HER4 Mutations Identified in an Ad hoc Secondary Analysis of the LUX-Lung 8 Randomized Clinical Trial
The LUX-Lung 8 randomized trial (LL8) demonstrated a prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung after treatment with afatinib compared with erlotinib. A secondary analysis of the LL8 reported that the presence of rare HER2/HER4 mutations may be partly responsible for this result. Patients with HER2 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.06/p-value 0.02) or HER4 (HR 0.21/p-value unreported) mutations had longer PFS after treatment with afatinib. However, the biological function of these mutations is unclear. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - November 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Akira Hamada, Kenichi Suda, Takamasa Koga, Toshio Fujino, Masaya Nishino, Shuta Ohara, Masato Chiba, Masaki Shimoji, Toshiki Takemoto, Junichi Soh, Tetsuro Uchida, Tetsuya Mitsudomi Source Type: research

Comprehensive Metastatic Ablation in Advanced NSCLC through Biology-Guided Radiotherapy – A Path Forward?
Our patients often ask, “Why can't you give radiation to all the spots of cancer in my body?”. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 29, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andrea R. Filippi, Marina Garassino, Shervin M. Shirvani, Jill Feldman, Kristin A. Higgins Source Type: research

Heavy mutagenesis by tobacco leads to lung adenocarcinoma tumors with KRAS G12 mutations other than G12D, leading KRAS G12D tumors —on average—to exhibit a lower mutation burden
In a recent analysis of lung adenocarcinoma tumor sequences from TCGA [1], Gao et al. [2] observed that tumors with KRAS G12D mutation have significantly lower tumor mutational burden (TMB) than tumors with other common KRAS G12 mutations, such as G12A, G12C, and G12V. With support from PD-L1 expression data, the authors posit that among KRAS G12 variants, G12D has distinct oncogenic effects: “KRAS G12D drives immune suppression and might be a negative predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors.” However, there has been insufficient data from large cohort studies to verify any heterog...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 28, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chichun Tan, Jeffrey D. Mandell, Krishna Dasari, Vincent L. Cannataro, Jorge A. Alfaro-Murillo, Jeffrey P. Townsend Source Type: research

Trends and variations in the treatment of stage I-III small cell lung cancer from 2008 to 2019: a nationwide population-based study from the Netherlands
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 12% of all lung cancer diagnoses worldwide and is often ( ∼70%) metastasized at first presentation [1]. Almost all patients without distant metastases are diagnosed with locoregionally advanced disease [2]. Historically, SCLC was classified either as limited (disease confined to one hemithorax and regional lymph nodes that can be encompassed in the same radiation portal as the primary tumor) or extensive disease (the remainder). Limited disease roughly translates into the potentially curable TNM stages I-III, whereas extensive disease translates into stage IV [3]...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 27, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jelle Evers, Lizza E.L. Hendriks, Katrien De Jaeger, Robin Wijsman, Dirk De Ruysscher, Chris Terhaard, Maurice van der Sangen, Sabine Siesling, Henk Struikmans, Mieke J. Aarts Source Type: research

Clinical implementation of value based healthcare: impact on outcomes for lung cancer patients
The aim of Value based Healthcare is to improve the quality of care for patients, focusing on outcomes that really matter to patients (1). While at first sight, one would argue that mortality of a given disease is the primary outcome that matters most to patients, this is not always the case, especially not in very severe illness with a poor prognosis and treatments with a potential negative impact on the daily quality of life of patients. Lung cancer is such a disease, where not only “hard” outcomes as overall survival and progression free survival deserve attention. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 25, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ingel Demedts, Ulrike Himpe, Jelle Bossuyt, Geert Anthoons, Hannelore Bode, Bernard Bouckaert, Kris Carron, Stephanie Dobbelaere, Heidi Mari ën, Peter Van Haecke, Wim Verbeke Source Type: research

Propensity score matched analysis for the role of surgery in stage III small cell lung cancer based on the eighth edition of the TNM classification: a population study of the US SEER database and a Chinese hospital
Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide [1]. In China, lung cancer has replaced liver cancer as the first cause of death among all the malignant tumors [2]. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 13% of all newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and commonly has a poor prognosis [3]. In addition to tobacco smoking, which is the primary risk factor to lung cancer, other risks including radon gas, exposure to asbestos, radiation and environmental pollution cannot be ignored [4]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lin Gao, Lan Shen, Kaixuan Wang, Shun Lu Source Type: research

Quality of life after VATS lung resection and SABR for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a longitudinal study
Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK, accounting for almost 13% of all new cancer cases (2017)[1]. When Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is diagnosed at an early-stage (Stage I-II), surgical resection is the main guideline-recommended curative treatment, with five-year survival rates from 90% for Stage IA to 65% for Stage IIA[2]. Open lung resection has been increasingly replaced by a minimal access video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) resulting in reduced complications and faster recovery[3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cecilia Pompili, Zoe Rogers, Kate Absolom, Patricia Holch, Beverly Clayton, Matthew Callister, Johnathan Robson, Alessandro Brunelli, Kevin Franks, Galina Velikova Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “eNose analysis for early immunotherapy response monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer” [Lung Cancer 160 (2021) 36–43]
The authors regret that absolute sensor differences were not calculated “by subtracting sensor values measured after six weeks of treatment from sensor values measured at baseline for each sensor”, as mentioned in the “Statistical analysis” section, page 3 of the Supplementary appendix, but “by subtracting sensor values measured at baseline from sensor values measured after six weeks of treatment for each sensor”. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alessandra I.G. Buma, Mirte Muller, Rianne de Vries, Peter J. Sterk, Vincent van der Noort, Marguerite Wolf-Lansdorf, Niloufar Farzan, Paul Baas, Michel M. van den Heuvel Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Clinical Validation of Guardant360 CDx as a Blood-Based Companion Diagnostic for Sotorasib
In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the treatment paradigm has markedly evolved with the emergence of therapies that target specific molecular abnormalities [1 –3]; such as activating alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) [4,5]. An important target for therapy, and one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in NSCLC [6,7], is the Kirsten rat sarcom a viral oncogene homology p.G12C mutation (KRAS G12C), which is found in approximately 13% of all patients with NSCLC [8,9] and associated with decr...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joshua M. Bauml, Bob T. Li, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Ramaswamy Govindan, Alessandra Curioni Fontecedro, Christophe Dooms, Toshiaki Takahashi, Andrew W. Duda, Justin I. Odegaard, Fernando Cruz-Guilloty, Liming Jin, Ying Zhang, Abraham Anderson, Ferdinandos Skou Source Type: research

Title: A phase I/II study of osimertinib in EGFR exon 20 insertion mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer
EGFR exon 20 insertion (EGFR ex20ins) mutations comprise about 4-12% [1 –4] of EGFR mutations, which is the third most common category of mutations detected in NSCLC. More than 60 types of EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations have been reported till date [5]. In-frame insertions at exon 20 push the C-helix into its inward position and promote the active conformation of EG FR, which induce ligand-independent activation of EGFR [2]. In clear contrast to common EGFR mutations such as the point mutation in exon 21 L858R and in-frame deletions in exon 19 of EGFR, EGFR ex20ins mutations are known to be resistant to clinically ...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hiroyuki Yasuda, Eiki Ichihara, Jun Sakakibara-Konishi, Yoshitaka Zenke, Shinji Takeuchi, Masahiro Morise, Katsuyuki Hotta, Mineyoshi Sato, Shingo Matsumoto, Azusa Tanimoto, Reiko Matsuzawa, Katuyuki Kiura, Yuta Takashima, Seiji Yano, Junji Koyama, Takahi Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Thoracic surgery improved overall survival in patients with stage IIIB –IV epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinoma who received and responded to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide.[1] Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in Taiwan,[2] accounting for approximately 45.65% and 79.62% of total cases in men and women, respectively.[3] Active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations were found in more than 50% of Asian patients with lung adenocarcinoma; this percentage is higher than that observed in Caucasian patients.[3] EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines as the first-line treatment for patients with stage IIIB –IV non&ndas...
Source: Lung Cancer - October 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yu-Ning Chien, Yi-Chun Lin, Chia-Lun Chang, Wei-Chun Lin, Szu-Yuan Wu Source Type: research

The effect of tumor size and metastatic extent on the efficacy of first line pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with high PD-L1 expressing advanced NSCLC tumors
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer types and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths [1]. In metastatic stage NSCLC, the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) revolutionized the treatment landscape. Currently, pembrolizumab monotherapy is the standard of care in NSCLC patients with high tumor PD-L1 expression (PD-L1 ≥50%) [4]. However, despite promising results, not all patients benefit from ICI therapy. This highlights not only the need for better therapies, but also the need for insight in selecting the right therapy for the right patients based on strong predictive biomarkers. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexandra Schakenraad, Sayed Hashemi, Jos Twisk, Ilias Houda, Ezgi Ulas, Johannes M.A. Daniels, Joris Veltman, I. Bahce Source Type: research

Phase 1 multicenter study of the HSP90 inhibitor SNX-5422 plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with lung cancers
Targeted therapies are current care standards for various oncogene-driven lung cancers. However, chemotherapy is still an important therapeutic option because resistance to targeted therapy eventually develops. Attempts to improve on the outcomes achieved with chemotherapy alone have led to the development of combination therapies that include a chemotherapy backbone. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Martin Gutierrez, Robin Guo, Giuseppe Giaccone, Stephen V. Liu, Zhonglin Hao, Christie Hilton, James M Hinson, Mark G. Kris, Everardus Otto Orlemans, Alexander Drilon Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Clinical utility of next-generation sequencing-based ctDNA testing for common and novel ALK fusions” [Lung Cancer 159 (2021) 66–73]
The authors regret that there was an error in the authorship and affiliation lists. The correct authorship and affiliations are listed above. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - October 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sebastian Mondaca, Emily S. Lebow, Azadeh Namakydoust, Pedram Razavi, Jorge S. Reis-Filho, Ronglai Shen, Michael Offin, Hai-Yan Tu, Yonina Murciano-Goroff, Chongrui Xu, Alex Makhnin, Andres Martinez, Nick Pavlakis, Stephen Clarke, Malinda Itchins, Adrian Source Type: research

Electronic Patient-Reported Outcomes Monitoring during lung cancer chemotherapy: a nested cohort within the PRO-TECT pragmatic trial (AFT-39)
Lung cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer with more than 200,000 cases and the leading cause of cancer death with more than 130,000 fatalities nationally estimated for 2020.[1,2] Despite increasing survival rates,[1] more than 90% of lung cancer patients still report uncontrolled symptoms (e.g. dyspnea, cough, pain), which negatively impact their quality of life.[3] However, symptoms are commonly missed or underestimated by providers caring for cancer patients.[4] Therefore, systems to remotely monitor patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been developed, with studies demonstrating improved detection of disea...
Source: Lung Cancer - September 29, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gita N. Mody, Angela M. Stover, Mian Wang, Bellinda L. King-Kallimanis, Jennifer Jansen, Sydney Henson, Arlene E. Chung, Mattias Jonsson, Antonia Bennet, Angela B. Smith, William A. Wood, Alison Deal, Brenda Ginos, Amylou C. Dueck, Deborah Schrag, Ethan B Source Type: research

Lung cancer-associated T cell repertoire as potential biomarker for early detection of stage I lung cancer
Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer, and 5-year survival in patients with lung cancer varies depending on stage at diagnosis[1,2]. Although the 5-year survival rate of stage I lung cancer could reach as high as 68 ~92%[3], only 20.8% of patients with stage I lung cancer were diagnosed in China. Currently, LDCT screening is recommended for high-risk individuals of early detection of stage I lung cancer[4]. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% relative reduction in lung cancer mortality for annual screening over three years with LDCT to chest radiography[5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 28, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Min Li, Chunliu Zhang, Shichao Deng, Li Li, Shiqing Liu, Jing Bai, Yaping Xu, Yanfang Guan, Xuefeng Xia, Lunquan Sun, David P. Carbone, Chengping Hu Source Type: research

The role of surgery in the treatment of oligoprogression after systemic treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer
About half of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have metastatic disease at first presentation [1 –3]. Furthermore, many patients with local or locally advanced NSCLC will develop metachronous metastasis during the course of the disease [4,5]. Metastatic NSCLC is considered incurable with a high cancer related mortality rate [6–8]. Although survival has improved with the introduction of immu notherapy for advanced (stage IV) NSCLC, the disease will eventually progress [9–11]. For some patients, disease progression is limited to the primary tumour or to one or only a few distant metastasi...
Source: Lung Cancer - September 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: P.J.M. Joosten, A.J. de Langen, V. van der Noort, K. Monkhorst, H.M. Klomp, A.A.F.A. Veenhof, C. Dickhoff, E.F. Smit, K.J. Hartemink Source Type: research

Prognostic value of CYFRA 21.1 in malignant mesothelioma: A brief report of the randomized phase II trial NVALT19
To the Editor: (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cornedine J. de Gooijer, Vincent van der Noort, Daan van den Broek, Paul Baas, Jacobus A. Burgers Source Type: research

Advanced bronchoscopic techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lung cancer
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide [1]. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening in patients with a high risk profile for lung cancer demonstrated an improved early lung cancer detection and a decreased lung cancer mortality [2]. Future implementation of national lung cancer screening initiatives and a further rise in the clinical use of chest CT-scans will generate increasing numbers of lung lesions requiring evaluation. Although most lesions can be monitored with serial CT imaging, a substantial amount will require tissue verification to establish a diagnosis for further patient m...
Source: Lung Cancer - September 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: T. Kramer, J.T. Annema Tags: Review Source Type: research

Erratum to “Letter to the Editor: Comment on ‘Malignant pleural mesothelioma: Comparison of surgery-based trimodality therapy to medical therapy at two tertiary academic institutions’’’ [Lung Cancer 159 (2021) 127]
The publisher regrets that the authorship list was omitted from the header of this article. The correct authorship list can be found above (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alexander P.W.M. Maat, Robin Cornelissen, Ad J.J.C. Bogers, Edris A.F. Mahtab Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Sequential afatinib and osimertinib in patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC and acquired T790M: A global non-interventional study (UpSwinG)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are standard of care for the first-line treatment for patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1]. Currently, three generations of EGFR TKI are available for use and have differences in mechanism of action [1]. First-generation EGFR TKIs (erlotinib and gefitinib) reversibly inhibit EGFR, while second-generation EGFR TKIs (afatinib and gefitinib) act as irreversible ErbB family blockers. The third-generation EGFR TKI, osimertinib, irreversibly blocks mutated EGFR, including the gatekeeper resistance mutation, T790M, but...
Source: Lung Cancer - September 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sanjay Popat, Hyun Ae Jung, Shin Yup Lee, Maximilian J. Hochmair, Seung Hyeun Lee, Carles Escriu, Min Ki Lee, Maria R. Migliorino, Yong Chul Lee, Nicolas Girard, Hasan Daoud, Angela M ärten, Satoru Miura Source Type: research

Pre-surgical assessment of mediastinal lymph node metastases in patients having ≥ 30 mm non-small-cell lung cancers
More small lung cancers are being identified, partly due to increasing use of computed tomography (CT) and CT screening. The 8th edition lung cancer staging classification recognized this trend and therefore subdivided Stage IA (T1a-1cN0M0) cancers, 30  mm or less in maximum diameter, measured in three dimension, into three T-categories (T1a, T1b, T1c). The N-lymph node categories (N0-N3) and M−categories remained unchanged, with mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) being designated as N2 or N3 lymph nodes. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yeqing Zhu, Qiang Cai, Yong Wang, Nan You, Rowena Yip, Dong-Seok Lee, Emanuela Taioli, Raja Flores, Claudia I. Henschke, David F. Yankelevitz Source Type: research

Pre-surgical Assessment of Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastases in Patients having ≤ 30 mm Non-small-cell Lung Cancers
More small lung cancers are being identified, partly due to increasing use of computed tomography (CT) and CT screening. The 8th edition lung cancer staging classification recognized this trend and therefore subdivided Stage IA (T1a-1cN0M0) cancers, 30 mm or less in maximum diameter, measured in three dimension, into three T-categories (T1a, T1b, T1c). The N-lymph node categories (N0-N3) and M-categories remained unchanged, with mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) being designated as N2 or N3 lymph nodes. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yeqing Zhu, Qiang Cai, Yong Wang, Nan You, Rowena Yip, Dong-Seok Lee, Emanuela Taioli, Raja Flores, Claudia I. Henschke, David F. Yankelevitz Source Type: research

A risk classification system predicting the cancer-specific survival for postoperative stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer patients without lymphovascular and visceral pleural invasion
Lung cancer is an important part of malignant tumors, with an annual incidence of 1,796,144 new deaths and 2,206,771 new cases in 2020 all over the world [1]. As the common histological type of lung cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mainly consists of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) [2]. For early stage NSCLC patients, curative-intent anatomic surgical resection is the standard of treatment strategy, whereas the onset of recurrence and metastasis after surgery often results in treatment failure and mortality [3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zegui Tu, Caili Li, Tian Tian, Qian Chen Source Type: research

Multicenter phase II trial of nintedanib plus docetaxel in second-line treatment in advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients refractory to first-line platin-based chemotherapy (REFRACT GFPC 02-15 study)
The management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has considerably changed with the discovery of oncogenic driver mutations (e.g., EGFR, ALK, BRAF, ROS 1), which are potential targets for therapy [1]. Another major breakthrough was the advent of PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy allowing patients with PD-L1>50% to be treated with pembrolizumab monotherapy and more recently, regardless of the level of PDL1, to be treated with a combination of pembrolizumab and chemotherapy [2,3]. However, most of these patients with advanced NSCLC receive platin-based chemotherapy associated or not to pembrolizumab as first-line ...
Source: Lung Cancer - September 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jean-Bernard Auliac, Isabelle Monnet, Acya Bizieux, Laurent Greillier, Margaux Geier, Lionel Falchero, Gwenaelle Le Garff, R égine Lamy, Florian Guisier, Charles Ricordel, Christos Chouaid, Alain Vergnenegre Source Type: research

Analysis of the baseline performance of five UK lung cancer screening programmes
Lung cancer is the world ’s leading cause of cancer related death1. In the United Kingdom (UK) there are over 45,000 new cases and 35,000 deaths each year2. The symptomatic presentation of lung cancer is characteristically associated with advanced disease when treatments are ineffective and survival is very poor. Screenin g high-risk smokers and former smokers with LDCT detects early stage disease, prior to the development of symptoms, and reduces lung cancer specific mortality. This has been definitively demonstrated in two large randomised controlled trials (RCT), the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) and the NE...
Source: Lung Cancer - September 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Haval Balata, Mamta Ruparel, Emma O'Dowd, Martin Ledson, John K. Field, Stephen W. Duffy, Samantha L Quaife, Anna Sharman, Sam Janes, David Baldwin, Richard Booton, Philip A.J. Crosbie Source Type: research

Programmed death-ligand 1 expression and its associations with clinicopathological features, prognosis, and driver oncogene alterations in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma
Recently, immunotherapies have marked a revolution in the treatment of lung cancer, especially the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) [1 –5]. The PD-1/PD-L1 axis is a major immune checkpoint signaling pathway. The interaction of PD-1 with PD-L1 inhibits T-cell activation, allowing tumor cells to bypass immune surveillance [6,7]. Therefore, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis enhances the activation of the immune response against tumors . Objective response rates of approximately 20% have been reported in clinical trials of second-line treatment with PD-1/PD-L1...
Source: Lung Cancer - September 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kazuya Takamochi, Kieko Hara, Takuo Hayashi, Shinji Kohsaka, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Suehara, Kenji Suzuki Source Type: research

Clinical relevance of circulating activin A and follistatin in small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC; accounting for approximately 13% –15% of all lung cancers) is a highly aggressive and widely metastatic malignancy with more than 200,000 new patients annually worldwide [1]. Although in some cases patients with localized limited-stage disease can be cured with surgery (and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy), the vast majority of patien ts are diagnosed with extensive-stage disease when the survival rates are poor (5-year net survival is less than 7%) [2–4]. Therefore, early diagnosis is crucial in order to improve survival outcomes. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nandor Barany, Anita Rozsas, Zsolt Megyesfalvi, Michael Grusch, Balazs Hegedus, Christian Lang, Kristiina Boettiger, Anna Schwendenwein, Anna Tisza, Ferenc Renyi-Vamos, Karin Schelch, Konrad Hoetzenecker, Mir Alireza Hoda, Sandor Paku, Viktoria Laszlo, Ba Source Type: research

Post-Operative Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Comparison of Radiation Therapy Techniques
The treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is challenging and depends on a nuanced approach to best optimize long term survival. One approach is upfront surgical resection with or without chemotherapy. Those undergoing surgical resection may be at risk for local recurrence, which may comprise up to 25% of post-surgical recurrences [1,2]. Post-operative recurrences occur rapidly, with most presenting within two years after surgery. Such recurrences may present with pulmonary symptoms including cough or dyspnea and salvage options are few and may cause undue morbidity. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vikram Jairam, Saamir Pasha, Pamela R. Soulos, Cary P. Gross, James B. Yu, Henry S. Park, Roy H. Decker Source Type: research