Luminespib plus pemetrexed in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer
Despite recent advances in therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the prognosis for patients with metastatic disease who progress after prior therapy remains poor. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone which facilitates protein trafficking, stabilization, and folding. HSP90 is induced in stress states including cancer [1]. HSP90 mediates numerous oncogenic driver proteins important in NSCLC pathogenesis including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zorawar S. Noor, Jonathan W. Goldman, William E. Lawler, Bijoy Telivala, Fadi Braiteh, Brian A. DiCarlo, Kathleen Kennedy, Brad Adams, Xiaoyan Wang, Benjamin Jones, Dennis J. Slamon, Edward B. Garon Source Type: research

Variation in the time to treatment for stage III and IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer patients for hospitals in the Netherlands
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous group of tumors that make up approximately 73% of lung cancers in the Netherlands [1]. 75% of patients with NSCLC are diagnosed with a tumor already at an advanced stage (stage IIIA, IIIB or IV) [2]. These patients typically have a poor prognosis. For example, median survival times are approximately 2 and 9 months, for untreated patients with stage IV NSCLC and systemically treated patients with stage IV NSCLC, respectively [3]. In order to improve their survival, increased emphasis is put on targeted therapy and immunotherapy in NSCLC [4,5]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M. van de Ven, V.P. Ret èl, H. Koffijberg, W.H. van Harten, M.J. IJzerman Source Type: research

The prognostic value of early onset, CT derived loss of muscle and adipose tissue during chemotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer
Despite recent developments in cancer diagnostics and treatment modalities, mortality rates maintain high in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)[1]. One of the factors contributing to high mortality rates is progressive unintentional weight loss of body weight and muscle mass (i.e. cachexia [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: J.H.R.J. Degens, K.J.C. Sanders, E.E.C. de Jong, H.J.M. Groen, E.F. Smit, J.G. Aerts, A.M.W.J. Schols, A-M.C. Dingemans Source Type: research

Optimal adjuvant therapy in clinically N2 non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery: The importance of pathological response and lymph node ratio
Multimodality therapy is the current standard of care for resectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Approximately 10% of all NSCLC cases present as stage IIIA-N2, and for these individuals, disease control and overall survival (OS) remain poor, with 5-year survival rates of 23% [1]. Based on randomized trials and a meta-analysis demonstrating improved OS with the addition of induction chemotherapy (CT) plus surgery versus surgery alone, induction chemotherapy is a reasonable option for resectable stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC [2,3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ashwin Shinde, Zachary D. Horne, Richard Li, Scott Glaser, Erminia Massarelli, Marianna Koczywas, Loretta Erhunmwunsee, Karen L. Reckamp, Benny Weksler, Ravi Salgia, Sushil Beriwal, Arya Amini Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab for Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer: Efficacy and Safety in Everyday Clinical Practice
Immune checkpoint inhibition has profoundly improved survival in a subset of patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) [1 –4]. As many as 68% of NSCLC tumors express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1); binding of PD-L1 to programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) on activated T cells prevents an antitumor immune response [4]. Pembrolizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to PD-1, inhibits its interaction with PD-L1 [1]. As a first line treatment for aNSLC patients with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥ 50% not harbouring genomic tumor alterations (i.e., Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mut...
Source: Lung Cancer - May 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Doran Ksienski, Elaine S. Wai, Nicole Croteau, Ashley T. Freeman, Angela Chan, Leathia Fiorino, Edward G. Brooks, Zia Poonja, David Fenton, Georgia Geller, Sarah Irons, Mary Lesperance Source Type: research

Effects of Pharmacokinetics-related Genetic Polymorphisms on the Side Effect Profile of Afatinib in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cancer worldwide with an estimated 2+ million newly diagnosed cases annually [1]. Despite the decreasing incidence of mortality, LC accounts for more than 1.2 million deaths annually, with an age-standardized 5-year net survival rate of only 10 to 20% [2]. There are two main types of LC: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC). NSCLC accounts for approximately 85% of all LC cases [3]. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are administered as the first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hideki Hayashi, Hirotoshi Iihara, Chiemi Hirose, Yoshihisa Fukuda, Mika Kitahora, Daizo Kaito, Komei Yanase, Junki Endo, Yasushi Ohno, Akio Suzuki, Tadashi Sugiyama Source Type: research

Afatinib is effective in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma with uncommon EGFR p.L747P and p.L747S mutations
Use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has proven effective therapy for advanced lung adenocarcinoma with mutant EGFR [1 –4]. The exon 21 p.L858R mutation and exon 19 deletions (19DEL) are the most common mutations and are sensitive to EGFR TKIs [5–7]. However, uncommon EGFR mutations have shown various responses to different EGFR TKIs [8–10]. An irreversible ErbB family blocker, afatinib, was found to be more e ffective against uncommon EGFR mutations than the first-generation TKIs gefitinib and erlotinib [8–10]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sheng-Kai Liang, Jen-Chung Ko, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Jin-Yuan Shih Source Type: research

Baseline predictors of negative and incomplete pleural cytology in patients with suspected pleural malignancy - data supporting ‘direct to lat’ in selected groups
Malignant Pleural Effusion (MPE) is common and often causes incapacitating breathlessness, requiring emergency hospitalization. Although MPE management can usually be generalized, precise tumour sub-typing and molecular profiling is required for treatment planning. [1] Detailed diagnostics also need to be completed quickly, in patients who may be physically debilitated, using the minimum number of invasive tests in combination with active palliation of symptoms. Pleural fluid aspiration (or thoracentesis) is a simple early investigation and allows transudative or infective causes to be identified rapidly. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Selina Tsim, Sarah Paterson, Douglas Cartwright, Christopher J Fong, Laura Alexander, Caroline Kelly, Jayne Holme, Matthew Evison, Kevin G Blyth Source Type: research

Comparative study of EGFR mutations detected in malignant pleural effusion, plasma and tumor tissue in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide [1]. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) treatment has significantly improved the prognosis of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR gene mutations. Lung cancer tissue obtained by surgery or biopsy is commonly used for categorizing tumors for clinical decisions[2 –4], however, because in patients considered for EGFR-TKI therapy present in advanced stages, diagnostic materials are often limited to small biopsies, which may contain insufficient tumor cells for molecular analysis [5], approaches to d...
Source: Lung Cancer - May 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shuhang Wang, Hanxiao Chen, Jia Zhong, Haifeng Qin, Hua Bai, Jun Zhao, Jie Wang Source Type: research

Impact of KRAS Mutation Subtype and Concurrent Pathogenic Mutations on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Outcomes
Activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene are the most common genetic driver in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), appearing in about 25% of adenocarcinomas and 3% of squamous cell carcinomas [1,2]. Despite their prevalence, the prognostic impact of KRAS mutations remains uncertain. A pooled analysis of phase III clinical trials evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage NSCLC determined that KRAS mutations had a negligible impact on overall survival (OS) in patients randomized to observation [3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jacqueline V. Aredo, Sukhmani K. Padda, Christian A. Kunder, Summer S. Han, Joel W. Neal, Joseph B. Shrager, Heather A. Wakelee Source Type: research

Misclassification of the actual causes of death and its impact on analysis: A case study in non-small cell lung cancer
Accurate estimation of long-term survival is crucial to the understanding of disease prognosis and cancer-specific mortality. However, what complicates the compilation of this data is the possibility of patients dying from causes unrelated to cancer. Patient with lung cancer, for example, die from either lung cancer or non-lung cancer causes. In these instances, when the occurrence of one outcome precludes the occurrence of the other, these two outcomes are considered competing events [1,2]. In the presence of competing events, epidemiologic studies commonly report cancer-specific mortality as the cumulative incidence of c...
Source: Lung Cancer - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kay See Tan Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MCL1 inhibition enhances the therapeutic effect of MEK inhibitors in KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of 16% among patients with all stages of the disease [1]. The majority of lung cancers are classified as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype of NSCLC. Certain subtypes of lung adenocarcinomas are treatable by effective molecular targeted drugs. For example, tyrosine kinase inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are highly effective against EGFR-mutant and ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas, respectively [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Makoto Tada, Toshiyuki Sumi, Yusuke Tanaka, Sachie Hirai, Miki Yamaguchi, Masahiro Miyajima, Toshiro Niki, Hiroki Takahashi, Atsushi Watanabe, Yuji Sakuma Source Type: research

Salvage surgery after definitive chemo-radiotherapy for patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Despite all treatment advances, lung cancer is still the main cause of death worldwide. [1] Approximately 30% of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients are diagnosed with locally advanced disease. Treatment for resectable stage IIIA remains controversial. [2,3] Guidelines recommendations include definitive chemoradiotherapy, induction chemotherapy followed by surgery, and induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection. [4,5] (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Laura Romero-Vielva, Santiago Viteri, Irene Moya-Horno, Jos é Ignacio Toscas, José Antonio Maestre-Alcácer, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Rafael Rosell Source Type: research

Lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces: CT features and Pathologic correlation
The definition of cystic airspace was first standardized by the Fleischner Society in 1996 [1] and was described as an enlarged unit of peripheral air-containing lung that was surrounded by a wall of variable thickness. This definition was updated in 2009 [2]. Cystic airspace-related abnormalities differ among cases and include emphysematous bullae, congenital or fibrotic cysts, subpleural blebs, bronchiectatic airways, and distended distal airspaces [3], most of which are indicative of benign lesions. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yingran Shen, Xinnan Xu, Yunfei Zhang, Weitong Li, Jie Dai, Siming Jiang, Tong Wu, Haomin Cai, Alan Sihoe, Jingyun Shi, Gening Jiang Source Type: research

Impact of MET inhibitors on survival among patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring MET exon 14 mutations: a retrospective analysis
The identification of targetable genomic mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has transformed the treatment approach for cancers harboring alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1, and BRAF.[1 –8] Mutations in MET exon 14 (METex14) or its flanking introns have recently been identified as a distinct molecular subtype of lung cancer, occurring in approximately 3% of NSCLCs,[9–11] and several recent reports have demonstrated that these cancers can respond to treatment with MET tyrosine k inase inhibitors (TKIs).[9–19] However, whether treat...
Source: Lung Cancer - May 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mark M. Awad, Giulia C. Leonardi, Sasha Kravets, Suzanne E. Dahlberg, Alexander Drilon, Sinead A. Noonan, D. Ross Camidge, Sai-Hong I. Ou, Daniel B. Costa, Shirish M. Gadgeel, Conor E. Steuer, Patrick M. Forde, Viola W. Zhu, Yoko Fukuda, Jeffrey W. Clark, Source Type: research

Effect on quality of life of cisplatin added to single-agent chemotherapy as first-line treatment for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: joint analysis of MILES-3 and MILES-4 randomised phase 3 trials
Chemotherapy remains a cornerstone of advanced lung cancer treatment even after some target based agents have been developed and, more recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors are proving effective. A low rate of patients (about 20%), indeed, is eligible for target based agents, and immune checkpoint inhibitors do actually represent only one possible line of treatment (first or second depending on the drug and the PDL1 expression) and do not yet promise to let chemotherapy disappear from the clinical scenario of lung cancer. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alessandro Morabito, Maria Carmela Piccirillo, Paolo Maione, Andrea Luciani, Luigi Cavanna, Laura Bonanno, Virginio Filipazzi, Silvana Leo, Saverio Cinieri, Floriana Morgillo, Marco Angelo Burgio, Domenica Ferrara, Francesco Rosetti, Roberto Bianco, Fabri Source Type: research

Inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway in Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality globally and is classified as either Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) upon pathology review. [1,2] The main histologic types of NSCLC include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. [2] The majority of patients have non-curable disease stage at the time of diagnosis. Advances in systemic treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapies and immune check point inhibitors have improved prognosis in recent years. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: A. Dimou, A. Bamias, H. Gogas, K. Syrigos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acquired KRAS mutation and loss of low-level MET amplification after durable response to crizotinib in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma
Over the last years, a growing number of genetic alterations has been identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) predicting response to targeted treatment. Beside mutations in EGFR and BRAF as well as rearrangements of ROS1 and ALK, aberrations of MET have been subject to preclinical and clinical research. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Richard Riedel, Sebastian Michels, Carina Heydt, Janna Siemanowski, Carsten Kobe, Anne Bunck, Stephan Sch äfer, Rieke N. Fischer, Matthias Scheffler, Diana S.Y. Abdulla, Lucia Nogová, Sophia Koleczko, Sabine Merkelbach-Bruse, Reinhard Büttner, Jürgen Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of blood transfusion in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy
Lung Cancer (LC) is the most common cancer worldwide and the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. In 2012, approximately 1.8 million patients had LC worldwide, with 1.6 million deaths occurring in the same year. Due to recent innovations and developments in LC treatment, mortality has started to decrease in both men and women, but even so prognosis is still poor, with a 5-year survival rate being less than 15%. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all LC cases [1,2]. Stage I, II, and III patients are treated with surgery, chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy, or combined-modality approach. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Abdullah Sakin, Suleyman Sahin, Nurgul Yasar, Cumhur Demir, Serdar Arici, Caglayan Geredeli, Sener Cihan Source Type: research

Combination of icotinib and chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced lung adenocarcinoma in patients with sensitive EGFR mutations: a randomized controlled study
Lung cancer has the highest incidence and mortality among malignant tumors, and lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer [1,2]. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs, hereinafter referred to as TKIs) offer significantly greater efficacy than chemotherapy in patients with TKI-sensitive EGFR mutations, and for this reason, TKIs are now the first-line therapy for advanced lung adenocarcinoma in patients with sensitive EGFR mutations [3,4]. Although the progression-free survival (PFS) of these patients has been extended with the use of TKIs, after 10 –14 months of treatm...
Source: Lung Cancer - May 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lisheng Xu, Qian Qi, Yan Zhang, Jiadong Cui, Ruijuan Liu, Yu Li Source Type: research

Challenging BRAF/EGFR co-inhibition in NSCLC using sequential liquid biopsies
A 68-year-old female never-smoker received a diagnosis of stage-IV lung adenocarcinoma (cT2N3M1b) in October 2014. Testing of oncodriver mutational status at time of diagnosis in the initial bronchial biopsy identified an EGFRdel19 mutation (c.2235_2249del,p.Glu746_Ala750del). Four cycles of pemetrexed/cisplatin/bevacizumab were administered as first-line therapy. At progression, the patient was treated with afatinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sensitizing EGFR mutations (Fig. 1). After a first phase of partial clinical response according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) V.1.1 crite...
Source: Lung Cancer - May 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: J. Solassol, J.A. Vendrell, R. Senal, P. Audran, F. Leenhardt, X. Quantin Source Type: research

Safety evaluation of nivolumab added concurrently to radiotherapy in a standard first line chemo-radiotherapy regimen in stage III non-small cell lung cancer - the ETOP NICOLAS trial
Clinical efficacy of ionizing radiation is usually attributed to induced DNA damage, resulting in direct tumour cell death. The existence of radiation-induced immune mechanisms of tumour control have been described in preclinical models [1]. In the clinical setting, it has been postulated that local radiotherapy could promote local and systemic anti-cancer immune response inducing a phenomenon called “immunogenic cell death” amongst other mechanisms and suggesting that mobilization of antitumour immunity might be a determinant of the overall clinical efficacy of RT on targeted and distant tumours [2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: S. Peters, E. Felip, U. Dafni, C. Belka, M. Guckenberger, A. Irigoyen, E. Nadal, A. Becker, H. Vees, M. Pless, A. Martinez-Marti, A. Tufman, M. Lambrecht, N. Andratschke, A.C. Piguet, M. Kassapian, H. Roschitzki-Voser, M. Rabaglio-Poretti, R.A. Stahel, J. Source Type: research

Impact of KEAP1/NFE2L2/CUL3 mutations on duration of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations occur in approximately 30% of cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are important drivers in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. [1] The last few years have seen the development of several FDA approved EGFR targeted therapies, which have significantly improved progression free survival while achieving more favorable side effect profiles compared to chemotherapy for patients with sensitizing mutations in EGFR [2 –34]. However, despite the development of new therapies, acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is inevitable and progress...
Source: Lung Cancer - May 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jessica A. Hellyer, Henning Stehr, Millie Das, Sukhmani K. Padda, Kavitha Ramchandran, Joel W. Neal, Maximilian Diehn, Heather A. Wakelee Source Type: research

Real-world lung cancer screening decision-making: barriers and facilitators
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in the US and the leading cause of cancer death [1]. Following the results of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which showed a 20% relative reduction in lung cancer mortality with annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) [2], several professional societies have recommended annual LDCT screening for high-risk individuals meeting age and pack-year criteria [3 –6]. Since implementation of this recommendation, screening uptake in the US has been low and variable, with screening rates of 4%-6% among high-risk smokers [7–10]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Margaret Lowenstein, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Nancy J. Burke, Leah Karliner, Sunny Wang, Melissa Peters, Amy Lozano, Celia P. Kaplan Source Type: research

Selumetinib in patients receiving standard pemetrexed and platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced or metastatic KRAS wildtype or unknown non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized, multicenter, phase II study. Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG) IND.219
Lung cancer is the leading cause of world-wide cancer related mortality [1]. With the introduction of new agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and checkpoint inhibitors, the treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is rapidly changing [2,3]. Despite significant advances, prognosis for lung cancer patients is still poor and new treatment approaches are necessary. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Barbara Melosky, Penelope Bradbury, Dongsheng Tu, Marie Florescu, Anthony Reiman, Garth Nicholas, Naveen Basappa, Jeffrey Rothenstein, John R. Goffin, Scott A. Laurie, Paul Wheatley-Price, Natasha Leighl, Glenwood Goss, M. Neil Reaume, Charles Butts, Nevi Source Type: research

c-MET as a biomarker in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer
Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and its receptor cellular Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition factor (c-MET), a heterodimeric tyrosine kinase receptor, are frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and represents an oncogenic signaling pathway of major interest in NSCLC. c-MET protein overexpression, gene amplification and exon 14 splicing mutation (METex14) have been proposed as potential prognostic biomarkers as well as predictive biomarkers for targeted therapy, albeit their role in the clinical setting has not been firmly established yet [1,2]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Georgios Tsakonas, Johan Botling, Patrick Micke, Chris Rivard, Linnea LaFleur, Johanna Mattsson, Teresa Boyle, Fred R. Hirsch, Simon Ekman Source Type: research

Somatic mutation of LRP1B is associated with tumor mutational burden in patients with lung cancer
Immunocheckpoint inhibitors (ICI), such as nivolumab, atezolizumab and pembrolizumab, have shown significant clinical efficacy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1 –3]. One emerging biomarker for predicting response to ICI therapy is tumor mutational burden (TMB) [4]. Lung cancer patients with high-TMB (≥ 10 mutations per megabase, mut/MB) showed significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) when treated with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chem otherapy (median PFS 7.2 months vs. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shaowei Lan, Hui Li, Ying Liu, Lixia Ma, Xianhong Liu, Yan Liu, Shi Yan, Ying Cheng Source Type: research

Correlation Between Serum Adenosine Deaminase Activity and Efficacy of Anti-Programmed Cell Death-1 Antibody
Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent an important development in the treatment of advanced cancers. In cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effectiveness of anti –programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibody therapies such as nivolumab [1] or pembrolizumab [2] has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. However, the response to anti–PD-1 therapy differed from responses to previous treatments, which included durable response, slow response, pseudoprogres sion and hyperprogression. Such unconventional response patterns made it difficult to differentiate patients who responded to treatment from thos...
Source: Lung Cancer - April 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Masafumi Saiki, Takahiro Yoshizawa, Yosuke Dotsu, Ryo Ariyasu, Junji Koyama, Tomoaki Sonoda, Ken Uchibori, Shingo Nishikawa, Satoru Kitazono, Noriko Yanagitani, Atsushi Horiike, Makoto Nishio Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Adjuvant chemotherapy following stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with lower overall survival: A National Cancer Database Analysis” [Lung Cancer, Volume 130 (April) (2019) 162–168]
The authors regret that the word “survival” was omitted by the publisher from the originally published title. The correct and complete title is, “Adjuvant chemotherapy following stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with lower overall survival: A National Cancer Database Analy sis.” (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Corey C. Foster, Chad G. Rusthoven, David J. Sher, Lawrence Feldman, Mary Pasquinelli, Michael T. Spiotto, Matthew Koshy Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Analysis of central nervous system efficacy in the J-ALEX study of alectinib versus crizotinib in ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer” [Lung Cancer 121 (July) (2018) Pages 37–40]
The authors regret an error in Figure 1, whereby parts B and C of the figure should be reversed. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Makoto Nishio, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Tetsuya Mitsudomi, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Tomohiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Kuriki, Ali Zeaiter, Tomohide Tamura Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Propensity-matched analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected Stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer patients
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide [1]. Surgical resection is the main treatment of choice for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [2,3]. Tumor recurrence is the major cause of treatment failure after resection [4,5]. Beginning with the report of a significant survival difference related to receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) from the International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial (IALT) [6], five multi-institutional randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated statistically significant survival advantages associated with ACT for patients with completely resected NSCLC [6 –10]...
Source: Lung Cancer - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xiao Li, Chao Zhang, Zewen Sun, Fan Yang, Rongxin Xiao, Xizhao Sui, Guanchao Jiang, Wenzhao Zhong, Jun Wang Source Type: research

Comment on: "Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in people with workplace exposure to asbestos"
We read with interest the article by Maisonneuve et al. [1] concerning Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in those with asbestos-exposure in the workplace. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Edward J.A. Harris, A.W. Musk, Nicholas DeKlerk, Fraser J.H. Brims Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone as first-line treatment for stage IV squamous non-small cell lung cancer: A phase 1b and randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase 2 trial in Japan” [Lung Cancer, 129 (March) (2019) 55–62]
The authors regret that despite our best care and attention, we have discovered three errors in Table 3, as well as two corresponding errors in the text. In Table 3, Treatment-emergent adverse events of special interest and hematologic treatment-emergent adverse events, one error on the AESI row for Skin reactions and two errors on the AESI row for Conjunctivitis have been corrected in Table 3 below . (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Satoshi Watanabe, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Hiroshi Sakai, Katsuyuki Hotta, Mitsuhiro Takenoyama, Kazuhiko Yamada, Shunichi Sugawara, Yuichi Takiguchi, Yukio Hosomi, Keisuke Tomii, Seiji Niho, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Makoto Nishio, Yuichiro Ohe, Terufumi Kato, Toshi Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Intra-cranial efficacy of brigatinib in an ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer patient presenting leptomeningeal carcinomatosis
Survivals of advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK –positive) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have dramatically changed since the development of efficient ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi). However, ALK-positive patients seem to relapse more commonly in the central nervous system (CNS), considered as a sanctuary site. Whether brain metastases (BM) or lepto-meningeal disease (LMD), both are associated with very poor prognosis [1]. Though there is evidence of intracranial activity of 1st generation ALK TKi - crizontib to 2nd and next-generations TKi alectinib, ceretinib against BM, few cases report th...
Source: Lung Cancer - April 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elisabeth Gaye, Margaux Geier, Paul Bore, Marine Guillo ïque, Francois Lucia, Gilles Quéré, Sylvie Gouva, Gilles Robinet, Renaud Descourt Source Type: research

Correspondence regarding "Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in people with workplace exposure to asbestos"
We read with interest the article by Maisonneuve et al. [1] concerning Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in those with asbestos-exposure in the workplace. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Edward JA Harris, AW (Bill) Musk, Nicholas DeKlerk, Fraser JH Brims Source Type: research

Cause-and-Effect Relationship Between FGFR1 Expression and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a disappointing five-year survival rate of approximately 15% [1]. Due to the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis, the prognosis is often poor, and therapeutic options are limited. The presence of multiple metastases renders surgical resection inadequate, and resistance to treatment is a growing problem. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the most common group of lung cancer (approximately 80% of cases), and activating mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), e.g., in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene, are frequ...
Source: Lung Cancer - April 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Johan Vad-Nielsen, Kristine Raaby Gammelgaard, Tina Fuglsang Daugaard, Anders Lade Nielsen Source Type: research

Comparative effectiveness of multi-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery for surgically resected or intact large brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)occur in approximately one-third of patients and their presence is associated with poor prognosis, neurological deterioration, and diminished quality of life, requiring urgent treatment [1]. For these patients, surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) are the most common local treatments. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Giuseppe Minniti, Claudia Scaringi, Gaetano Lanzetta, Dimitri Anzellini, Federico Bianciardi, Barbara Tolu, Roberta Morace, Andrea Romano, Mattia Osti, PierCarlo Gentile, Sergio Paolini Source Type: research

Endobronchial and surgical treatment of pulmonary carcinoid tumors: A systematic literature review
Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are family of the neuro-endocrine tumors (NET), originating from the neuro-endocrine Kulchitsky cells, and comprise around 2% of all pulmonary cancers [1]. By morphological analysis, carcinoid tumors can be classified as typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), depending on mitotic cell count (TC 0-2 and AC 2-10 per 2-mm ²) and on the presence of necrosis (AC) [2]. AC’s exhibit a slightly more aggressive behaviour with a higher rate of recurrences and tendency to metastasize when compared to TC [1]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: E.M.B.P. Reuling, C. Dickhoff, P.W. Plaisier, H.J. Bonjer, J.M.A. Daniels Tags: Review Source Type: research

Tuberous sclerosis complex: a rare etiology of multiple subsolid nodules
Subsolid nodules (SSN) are increasingly detected due to widespread use of thoracic computer tomography (CT) in regular clinical practice. The most recent Fleischner Society guidelines published in 2017 [1] proposed a specific algorithm for patients with multiple SSN. After an initial follow-up CT examination at 3-6 months that confirms persistence of SSNs, the most suspicious nodules must be identified in order to decide further management. Particularly suspicious SSN are those with a growing solid component, a solid component ≥ 8 mm, or those with lobulated margins or cystic components. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lea Lantu éjoul, Guillaume Pontarollo, Emilie Reymond, Marie Brevet, Françoise Thivolet-Béjui, Gilbert R Ferretti Source Type: research

Lung cancer incidence in female rises significantly in urban sprawl of Shanghai after introduction of LDCT screening
Lung cancer, causing about 600,000 of deaths each year, is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women, in China [1]. The morbidity and mortality rates of lung cancer in both urban and rural Chinese populations are higher than the worldwide average, presenting a major public health issue and imposing an enormous burden on patients, health-care professionals and society in China [2]. The average 5-year survival rate of lung cancer in China is 15%, and is more often diagnosed at advanced clinical stages where treatment is typically non-curative [3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fei Liang, Chunxiao Wu, Haiyan Gu, Meiying Zhu, Zeliang Xuan, Yonggen Jiang, Haiquan Chen, Chen Fu, Ying Zheng Source Type: research

The incidence of ALK inhibitor-related pneumonitis in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Precision medicine approaches based on genomic abnormalities have brought a paradigm shift in the treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the past decades. [1] Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors for oncogenic ALK gene rearranged NSCLC, noted in 3.6 to 4.4% of patients with NSCLC, [2,3] is one of the leading examples of precision oncology for lung cancer. In 2011, crizotinib received accelerated approval for the ALK-positive locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC by U.S. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chong Hyun Suh, Kyung Won Kim, Junhee Pyo, Hiroto Hatabu, Mizuki Nishino Source Type: research

Sequencing of therapy following first-line afatinib in patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer
The development of several highly effective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), along with expanding knowledge about mechanisms of acquired resistance and tumour evolution offers the possibility of sequential therapy in patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, the optimal sequence of therapy is unknown. Five EGFR TKIs are available: the first-generation reversible TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib; the second-generation irreversible ErbB family blockers, afatinib and dacomitinib; and the third-generation EGFR-wild-type sparing, irreversible TKI, ...
Source: Lung Cancer - April 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Keunchil Park, Jaafar Bennouna, Michael Boyer, Toyoaki Hida, Vera Hirsh, Terufumi Kato, Shun Lu, Tony Mok, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Kenneth O ’Byrne, Luis Paz-Ares, Martin Schuler, Denis Moro Sibilot, Eng-Huat Tan, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yi-Long Wu, James C-H. Yang, Source Type: research

Demography, patterns of care and survival outcomes in patients with malignant tumors of trachea: A systematic review and individual patient data analysis of 733 patients
Malignant tumor of the trachea (MTT) is a rare disease [1,2] comprising around 0.01-0.4% of all cancer cases. In the US, incidence of these tumors is less than 0.2 per 1, 00,000 population [3,4]. Frequently, these tumors are diagnosed late as they present with non-specific symptoms and are often mis-diagnosed as asthma or other respiratory disorder. A wide range of histological subtypes has been described in the literature adding to the heterogeneity of presentation, treatment and outcome of these tumors. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Supriya Mallick, Rony Benson, Prashanth Giridhar, Angel Rajan Singh, Goura K Rath Source Type: research

Patients with SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcoma and severe skeletal-related events
SMARCA4 is one of the core catalytic subunits of the SWI/SNF complex and its inactivation has been reported in several aggressive tumors with high-grade undifferentiated rhabdoid morphology including small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT).1 Recent genetic analysis revealed a group of undifferentiated thoracic malignancies with SMARCA4 inactivation presenting as compressive tumors often involving the mediastinum, with or without lung involvement, and occurring in relatively young patients and displaying aggressive behavior with poor prognosis. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kei Kunimasa, Harumi Nakamura, Kazuko Sakai, Motohiro Tamiya, Madoka Kimura, Takako Inoue, Kazumi Nishino, Hanako Kuhara, Shin-ichi Nakatsuka, Kazuto Nishio, Fumio Imamura, Toru Kumagai Source Type: research

Clinical features and outcomes of pulmonary lymphoma: A single center experience of 180 cases
Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) is extremely rare, accounting for only 0.4% of all lymphomas and less than 0.5% of all primary lung tumors[1,2]. PPL is defined as a lymphoma confined to the lung with or without hilar lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis or up to 3 months thereafter, and predominantly affects adults with a median age of about 60 years[1,3 –5]. Approximately 30% to 40% of patients are asymptomatic at initial presentation. Other patients may present non-specific clinical symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from other lung cancers, such as cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and chest pain. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mu-Chen Zhang, Min Zhou, Qi Song, Shuo Wang, Qing Shi, Li Wang, Fu-hua Yan, Jie-Ming Qu, Wei-Li Zhao Source Type: research

Association of TP53 Mutations with Response and Longer Survival under Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has significantly influenced clinical therapeutic strategies for most cancer subtypes, notably in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors, such as nivolumab or pembrolizumab, and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors (e.g. atezolizumab) have significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with aNSCLC, achieving outstanding duration of disease control compared to standard platinum-based frontline chemotherapy or second-line docetaxel chemotherapy [1 –3]. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - April 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sandra Assoun, Nathalie Theou-Anton, Marina Nguenang, Aur élie Cazes, Claire Danel, Baptiste Abbar, Johan Pluvy, Valérie Gounant, Antoine Khalil, Céline Namour, Solenn Brosseau, Gérard Zalcman Source Type: research