Tell it like it is: When politically incorrect language promotes authenticity.
Abstract When a person's language appears to be political-such as being politically correct or incorrect-it can influence fundamental impressions of him or her. Political correctness is "using language or behavior to seem sensitive to others' feelings, especially those others who seem socially disadvantaged." One pilot study, 6 experiments, and 3 supplemental experiments (N = 4,956) demonstrate that being politically incorrect makes communicators appear more authentic-specifically, less susceptible to external influence-albeit also less warm. These effects, however, are moderated by perceivers' political...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rosenblum M, Schroeder J, Gino F Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Development and change in attachment: A multiwave assessment of attachment and its correlates across childhood and adolescence.
We examined alternative developmental processes (i.e., long-term, catalytic, and short-term processes) that have not been previously distinguished in attachment research. Preregistered analyses revealed that nondevelopmental processes can explain the associations between almost all of the interpersonal variables of interest and attachment security, suggesting that previous research using traditional longitudinal methods may have misattributed nondevelopmental processes for developmental ones. For example, we found that friendship quality, although prospectively associated with attachment both in prior work and in the curre...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Khan F, Chong JY, Theisen JC, Fraley RC, Young JF, Hankin BL Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The beauty myth: Prescriptive beauty norms for women reflect hierarchy-enhancing motivations leading to discriminatory employment practices.
Abstract We proposed that the Prescriptive Beauty Norm (PBN), the injunctive demand for women to intensively pursue beauty, reflects motives to maintain gender hierarchy and translates into employment discrimination. In Studies 1a and 1b, the PBN (distinct from other "beauty myth" [Wolf, 1990] components; namely, bodily and grooming standards, and attainability beliefs) uniquely correlated with hierarchy-supporting values and ideologies. In Study 2, experimentally threatening (vs. affirming) gender hierarchy increased PBN endorsement among sexist (but not nonsexist) participants, an effect mediated by po...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ramati-Ziber L, Shnabel N, Glick P Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

A new perspective on the social functions of emotions: Gratitude and the witnessing effect.
Abstract We propose a novel theoretical and empirical approach to studying group-level social functions of emotions and use it to make new predictions about social consequences of gratitude. Here, we document the witnessing effect: In social groups, emotional expressions are often observed by third-party witnesses-family members, coworkers, friends, and neighbors. Emotional expressions coordinate group living by changing third-party witnesses' behavior toward first-party emotion expressers and toward second-party people to whom emotion is expressed. In 8 experiments (N = 1,817), we test this for gratitude, hypothe...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Algoe SB, Dwyer PC, Younge A, Oveis C Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

"Signaling when no one is watching: A reputation heuristics account of outrage and punishment In one-shot anonymous interactions": Correction to Jordan and Rand (2019).
"Signaling when no one is watching: A reputation heuristics account of outrage and punishment In one-shot anonymous interactions": Correction to Jordan and Rand (2019). J Pers Soc Psychol. 2019 Aug 12;: Authors: Abstract Reports an error in "Signaling when no one is watching: A reputation heuristics account of outrage and punishment in one-shot anonymous interactions" by Jillian J. Jordan and David G. Rand (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Apr 15, 2019, np). In the article, a printer error did not enable the authors to correct various erro...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The codevelopment of extraversion and friendships: Bonding and behavioral interaction mechanisms in friendship networks.
We examined whether selection and influence explain similarity in extraversion between friends in two independent samples. Similarity in extraversion predicted a higher likelihood of friendship selection across 4 years in Sample 1 (n = 1,698; Mage = 22.72, SD = 2.99; 49% female) and across a period of 16 weeks in Sample 2 (n = 131; Mage = 21.34, SD = 3.95; 77% female). Friends' extraversion predicted increases in young adults' extraversion in both samples. In Sample 2, we examined the interaction mechanisms underlying selection and influence by combining event-based experience-sampling network changes with diary data on fr...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: van Zalk MHW, Nestler S, Geukes K, Hutteman R, Back MD Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Benefits of daily support visibility versus invisibility across the adult life span.
Abstract Amid growing disagreement about the benefits of visible and invisible support, we tested daily associations among support visibility and changes in individual and relational well-being in young adult newlyweds (Study 1) and older married couples (Study 2). To extend past research, we assessed emotional and practical support visibility in 3 contexts (context-general, stress-related, and goal-related) each day. In both samples, reporting context-general or goal-related support receipt predicted increases in personal and relational well-being day-to-day. Further, direct comparison between visible and invisib...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jakubiak BK, Feeney BC, Ferrer RA Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Why do people believe in a "true self"? The role of essentialist reasoning about personal identity and the self.
Why do people believe in a "true self"? The role of essentialist reasoning about personal identity and the self. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2019 Aug;117(2):386-416 Authors: Christy AG, Schlegel RJ, Cimpian A Abstract Why do many people come to believe that they and others have a true self? We hypothesized that this belief emerges because people routinely rely on essentialist reasoning to understand personal identity and the self. Across eight studies, we found that (a) the features that participants attributed to the true self resembled the features typically attributed to essences (e.g., immutabil...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Christy AG, Schlegel RJ, Cimpian A Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Confused or curious? Openness/intellect predicts more positive interest-confusion relations.
Abstract Open people show greater interest in situations that are complex, novel, and difficult to understand-situations that may also be experienced as confusing. Here we investigate the possibility that openness/intellect is centrally characterized by more positive relations between interest and confusion. Interest and confusion are key states experienced during engagement with information and learning. However, little is known about the within-person relation between them, let alone individual differences in this relation. We tested our hypotheses by making use of different paradigms, stimuli, and participants....
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fayn K, Silvia PJ, Dejonckheere E, Verdonck S, Kuppens P Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Genetic and environmental variation in political orientation in adolescence and early adulthood: A Nuclear Twin Family analysis.
In this study, we investigated political orientation in adolescents (age: 16-18) and young adults (age: 21-25) in a cross-sectional Nuclear Twin Family Design. We used data of the German TwinLife project, including data from same-sex twins reared together, their biological parents, and nontwin full siblings. We found genetic variation in political orientation, which was significant in the older cohort, possibly indicating an increasing importance of active gene-environment correlation from adolescence to adulthood. Individual differences in political orientation because of passive gene-environment correlation and shared en...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hufer A, Kornadt AE, Kandler C, Riemann R Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

"The chains on all my people are the chains on me: Restrictions to collective autonomy undermine the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members": Correction to Kachanoff et al. (2019).
"The chains on all my people are the chains on me: Restrictions to collective autonomy undermine the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members": Correction to Kachanoff et al. (2019). J Pers Soc Psychol. 2019 Jul;117(1):98 Authors: Abstract Reports an error in "The chains on all my people are the chains on me: Restrictions to collective autonomy undermine the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members" by Frank J. Kachanoff, Donald M. Taylor, Julie Caouette, Thomas H. Khullar and Michael J. A. Wohl (Journal of Personality and Social Psych...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Social metacognition in moral judgment: Decisional conflict promotes perspective taking.
Abstract A series of studies explored people's metacognition about moral judgments. These studies begin by demonstrating a metacognitive asymmetry: When faced with a dilemma, consequentialist responders tend to feel more conflict than deontological responders, such that they feel more compelled to give the alternative response. As a consequence, they are aware that other people might make different judgments from them. Deontological responders, on the other hand, are less likely to consider giving the alternative response, and are therefore more likely to project their moral judgments onto others. Results from exp...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mata A Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The redundancy in cumulative information and how it biases impressions.
Abstract The present work identifies a so-far overlooked bias in sequential impression formation. When the latent qualities of competitors are inferred from a cumulative sequence of observations (e.g., the sum of points collected by sports teams), impressions should be based solely on the most recent observation because all previous observations are redundant. Based on the well-documented human inability to adequately discount redundant information, we predicted the existence of a cumulative redundancy bias. Accordingly, perceivers' impressions are systematically biased by the unfolding of a performance sequence w...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alves H, Mata A Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

"Using 26,000 diary entries to sshow ovulatory changes in sexual desire and behavior": Correction to Arslan et al. (2018).
"Using 26,000 diary entries to sshow ovulatory changes in sexual desire and behavior": Correction to Arslan et al. (2018). J Pers Soc Psychol. 2019 Jun 20;: Authors: Arslan RC, Schilling KM, Gerlach TM, Penke L Abstract Reports an error in "Using 26,000 diary entries to show ovulatory changes in sexual desire and behavior" by Ruben C. Arslan, Katharina M. Schilling, Tanja M. Gerlach and Lars Penke (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 27, 2018, np). In the original article the number of participants available for robustness checks should ha...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Arslan RC, Schilling KM, Gerlach TM, Penke L Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of procedures to change implicit measures.
Abstract Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures' effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that implicit measures can be changed, but effects are often relatively weak (|ds|
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Forscher PS, Lai CK, Axt JR, Ebersole CR, Herman M, Devine PG, Nosek BA Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

How the voice persuades.
Abstract Research has examined persuasive language, but relatively little is known about how persuasive people are when they attempt to persuade through paralanguage, or acoustic properties of speech (e.g., pitch and volume). People often detect and react against what communicators say, but might they be persuaded by speakers' attempts to modulate how they say it? Four experiments support this possibility, demonstrating that communicators engaging in paralinguistic persuasion attempts (i.e., modulating their voice to persuade) naturally use paralinguistic cues that influence perceivers' attitudes and choice. Rathe...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Van Zant AB, Berger J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Perceptions of a romantic partner's approach and avoidance motives: Accuracy, bias, and emotional cues.
We examined tracking accuracy and bias (mean-level and projection) in people's perceptions of their romantic partner's relationship approach and avoidance motives, similarity in partners' motives, and positive and negative emotions as potential cues used to make judgments about a partner's daily motives and motives during shared activities. Using data from 2 studies, 1 using daily diaries (N = 2,158 daily reports), the other using reports of shared activities (N = 1,228 activity reports), we found evidence of tracking accuracy and projection across samples; we also found evidence of mean-level bias such that people underpe...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: LaBuda JE, Gere J, Impett EA Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Is Martin Luther King or Malcom X the more acceptable face of protest? High-status groups' reactions to low-status groups' collective action.
Abstract Work on collective action focuses mainly on the perspective of disadvantaged groups. However, the dynamics of social change cannot be fully understood without taking into account the reactions of the members of advantaged groups to collective action by low-status groups. In 10 experiments conducted in 4 different intergroup contexts (N = 1349), we examine advantaged groups support for normative versus non-normative collective action by disadvantaged groups. Experiments 1a to 1e show that normative collective action is perceived as more likely to improve the disadvantaged group's position and that non-norm...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Teixeira CP, Spears R, Yzerbyt VY Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Testing the functional basis of first impressions: Dimensions for children's faces are not the same as for adults' faces.
Abstract Despite warnings not to "judge a book by its cover," people rapidly form facial impressions. In Oosterhof and Todorov's (2008) two-dimensional model of facial impressions, trustworthiness, and dominance underlie impressions and primarily function to signal the potential threat of others. Here, we test a key assumption of these models, namely that these dimensions are functional, by evaluating whether the adult-face dimensions apply to young children's faces. Although it may be functional for adults to judge adult faces on dimensions that signal threat, adults associate different social goals wit...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Collova JR, Sutherland CAM, Rhodes G Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Episodic simulation reduces intergroup bias in prosocial intentions and behavior.
Abstract People frequently feel less empathy for and offer less aid to out-groups in need relative to their in-groups. Most attempts aimed at reducing intergroup bias in helping emphasize group-focused cognitions and emotions. However, little is known about how the sensory properties of intergroup episodes informs intergroup decisions. Here we investigate whether episodic simulation (i.e., the ability to imagine events in a specific time and place) (a) increases participants' general willingness to help, and (b) decreases the difference in prosocial intentions and behavior toward in-group versus out-group targets....
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - June 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gaesser B, Shimura Y, Cikara M Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Consistency and change in idiographic personality: A longitudinal ESM network study.
Abstract The study of personality development primarily focuses on between-person, nomothetic assessments of personality using assessments of personality traits. An alternative approach uses individual, idiographic personality assessment, defining personality in reference to one's self rather than to others. Nomothetic approaches to personality development identify high levels of consistency in personality, even over decades. But the developmental pattern of idiographic personality is unclear, partially due to difficulties in assessing personality idiographically. We examine a number of traditional and novel idiog...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Beck ED, Jackson JJ Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

And the winner is . . . ? Forecasting the outcome of others' competitive efforts.
Abstract People frequently forecast the outcomes of competitive events. Some forecasts are about oneself (e.g., forecasting how one will perform in an athletic competition, school or job application, or professional contest), while many other forecasts are about others (e.g., predicting the outcome of another individual's athletic competition, school or job application, or professional contest). In this research, we examine people's forecasts about others' competitive outcomes, illuminate a systematic bias in these forecasts, and document the source of this bias as well as its downstream consequences. Eight experi...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kupor D, Brucks MS, Huang SC Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Metamotivational knowledge of the role of high-level and low-level construal in goal-relevant task performance.
Abstract Metamotivation research suggests that people may be able to modulate their motivational states strategically to secure desired outcomes (Scholer & Miele, 2016). To regulate one's motivational states effectively, one must at minimum understand (a) which states are more or less beneficial for a given task and (b) how to instantiate these states. In the current article, we examine to what extent people understand the self-regulatory benefits of high-level versus low-level construal (i.e., motivational orientations toward abstract and essential vs. concrete and idiosyncratic features). Seven experiments r...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nguyen T, Carnevale JJ, Scholer AA, Miele DB, Fujita K Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Intergroup contact, social dominance, and environmental concern: A test of the cognitive-liberalization hypothesis.
Abstract Intergroup contact is among the most effective ways to improve intergroup attitudes. Although it is now beyond any doubt that contact can reduce prejudice, in this article we provide evidence that its benefits can extend beyond intergroup relations-a process referred to as cognitive liberalization (Hodson, Crisp, Meleady, & Earle, 2018). We focus specifically on the impact of intergroup contact on environmentally relevant attitudes and behavior. Recent studies suggest that support for an inequality-based ideology (social dominance orientation [SDO]) can predict both intergroup attitudes and broader en...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Meleady R, Crisp RJ, Dhont K, Hopthrow T, Turner RN Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The social advantage of miscalibrated individuals: The relationship between social class and overconfidence and its implications for class-based inequality.
Abstract Understanding how socioeconomic inequalities perpetuate is a central concern among social and organizational psychologists. Drawing on a collection of findings suggesting that different social class contexts have powerful effects on people's sense of self, we propose that social class shapes the beliefs that people hold about their abilities, and that this, in turn, has important implications for how status hierarchies perpetuate. We first hypothesize that compared with individuals with relatively low social class, individuals with relatively high social class are more overconfident. Then, drawing on rese...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Belmi P, Neale MA, Reiff D, Ulfe R Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Does virtue lead to status? Testing the moral virtue theory of status attainment.
Abstract The authors perform one of the first empirical tests of the moral virtue theory of status attainment (MVT), a conceptual framework for showing that morality leads to status. Studies 1a to 1d are devoted to developing and validating a 15-item status attainment scale (SAS) to measure how virtue leads to admiration (virtue-admiration), how dominance leads to fear (dominance-fear), and how competence leads to respect (competence-respect). Studies 2a and 2b are an exploration of the nomological network and discriminant validity to show that peer-reported virtue-admiration is positively related to moral charact...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bai F, Ho GCC, Yan J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Sensing sociability: Individual differences in young adults' conversation, calling, texting, and app use behaviors in daily life.
ling SD Abstract Sociability as a disposition describes a tendency to affiliate with others (vs. be alone). Yet, we know relatively little about how much social behavior people engage in during a typical day. One challenge to documenting social behavior tendencies is the broad number of channels over which socializing can occur, both in-person and through digital media. To examine individual differences in everyday social behavior patterns, here we used smartphone-based mobile sensing methods (MSMs) in four studies (total N = 926) to collect real-world data about young adults' social behaviors across four communic...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Harari GM, Müller SR, Stachl C, Wang R, Wang W, Bühner M, Rentfrow PJ, Campbell AT, Gosling SD Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Can other-derogation be beneficial? Seeing others as low in agency can lead to an agentic reputation in newly formed face-to-face groups.
Abstract Whenever groups form, members readily and intuitively judge each other's agentic characteristics (e.g., self-confidence or assertiveness). We tested the hypothesis that perceiving others as low in these characteristics triggers agentic interpersonal behavior among perceivers, which benefits their own reputation in terms of agency. We analyzed data from a longitudinal field study (Study 1, n = 109), a multiwave laboratory study (Study 2, n = 311), and a preregistered experimental laboratory study (Study 3, n = 206). In Study 1, low other-perceptions of agency predicted agentic reputations at zero acquainta...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rau R, Nestler S, Geukes K, Back MD, Dufner M Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

What predicts who we approach for social support? Tests of the attachment figure and strong ties hypotheses.
Abstract Before people seek support for an issue, they must choose whom in their support network to approach. Two prominent supporter-selection hypotheses are the attachment figure hypothesis and the strong ties hypothesis, housed in psychology and sociology, respectively. People are expected to have a special preference for attachment figures and also for strong ties and to seek them more frequently than others. Despite the widespread acceptance of these hypotheses, neither has ever been tested, we argue, with the most appropriate methods for their claims. Moreover, no one has ever tested whether the 2 theories m...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kammrath LK, Armstrong BF, Lane SP, Francis MK, Clifton M, McNab KM, Baumgarten OM Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

How was your day? Convergence of aggregated momentary and retrospective end-of-day affect ratings across the adult life span.
Abstract Daily diary studies and experience sampling studies examine day-to-day variations in affect using different rating types: The former typically collect retrospective affect reports at the end of the day, whereas the latter collects multiple momentary assessments across the day. The present study examined the convergence of (aggregated) momentary assessments collected repeatedly within a day and retrospective assessments collected at the end of the day. Building on prior research on the memory-experience gap and the peak-and-end rule we predicted that participants would report more intense retrospective aff...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Neubauer AB, Scott SB, Sliwinski MJ, Smyth JM Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Parallel lives: Intergroup contact, threat, and the segregation of everyday activity spaces.
Abstract Although intergroup contact can reduce prejudice, opportunities to experience such contact are often constrained by systems of segregation. Work on this problem has focused on divisions entrenched within institutions of residence, education, and employment. Our research employed a complementary approach, which treated segregation as the outcome of individuals' movements over time within everyday life spaces. Taking as a case study Catholics' and Protestants' use of public environments in north Belfast, we used GPS tracking technology, combined with GIS analytics, to explore the time geography of residents...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - May 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dixon J, Tredoux C, Davies G, Huck J, Hocking B, Sturgeon B, Whyatt D, Jarman N, Bryan D Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

How does it feel to be treated like an object? Direct and indirect effects of exposure to sexual objectification on women's emotions in daily life.
Abstract Exposure to sexual objectification is an everyday experience for many women, yet little is known about its emotional consequences. Fredrickson and Roberts' (1997) objectification theory proposed a within-person process, wherein exposure to sexual objectification causes women to adopt a third-person perspective on their bodies, labeled self-objectification, which has harmful downstream consequences for their emotional well-being. However, previous studies have only tested this model at the between-person level, making them unreliable sources of inference about the proposed intraindividual psychological con...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Koval P, Holland E, Zyphur MJ, Stratemeyer M, Knight JM, Bailen NH, Thompson RJ, Roberts TA, Haslam N Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Two signals of social rank: Prestige and dominance are associated with distinct nonverbal displays.
Abstract Converging evidence suggests that high rank is communicated through various nonverbal behaviors (e.g., expansiveness), but prior studies have not examined whether 2 distinct forms of high rank-known as prestige and dominance-are communicated through distinct nonverbal displays. Given the divergent messages that prestigious and dominant leaders need to send in order to attain and retain their place in the social hierarchy, theoretical accounts would suggest that individuals use distinct sets of nonverbal behaviors to communicate these 2 forms of high rank. In the present research, we tested this hypothesis...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Witkower Z, Tracy JL, Cheng JT, Henrich J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

"A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition": Correction to Fiske et al. (2002).
"A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition": Correction to Fiske et al. (2002). J Pers Soc Psychol. 2019 Apr 25;: Authors: Fiske ST, Cuddy AJ, Peter G, Xu J Abstract Reports an error in "A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition" by Susan T. Fiske, Amy J. C. Cuddy, Peter Glick and Jun Xu (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002[Jun], Vol 82[6], 878-902). In the fourth paragraph of the Status Predicts Compete...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fiske ST, Cuddy AJ, Peter G, Xu J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Understanding contemporary forms of exploitation: Attributions of passion serve to legitimize the poor treatment of workers.
Abstract The pursuit of passion in one's work is touted in contemporary discourse. Although passion may indeed be beneficial in many ways, we suggest that the modern cultural emphasis may also serve to facilitate the legitimization of unfair and demeaning management practices-a phenomenon we term the legitimization of passion exploitation. Across 7 studies and a meta-analysis, we show that people do in fact deem poor worker treatment (e.g., asking employees to do demeaning tasks that are irrelevant to their job description, asking employees to work extra hours without pay) as more legitimate when workers are presu...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kim JY, Campbell TH, Shepherd S, Kay AC Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Learning what to inhibit: The influence of repeated testing on the encoding of gender and age information.
ne BK Abstract Psychological research has devoted considerable attention to the relationship between the multiple category dimensions that can be extracted from faces. In the present studies, we investigated the role of experience and learning on the way the social perceiver deals with multiple category dimensions. Specifically, we tested whether learning which of 2 dimensions is the most relevant to the task at hand influences the encoding and retrieval of both task-relevant and irrelevant dimensions. In our studies, participants went through several cycles, each consisting of a study and a test phase. We manipul...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Palma TA, Garcia-Marques L, Marques P, Hagá S, Payne BK Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The empirical structure of narrative identity: The initial Big Three.
Abstract A robust empirical literature suggests that individual differences in the thematic and structural aspects of life narratives are associated with and predictive of psychological well-being. However, 1 limitation of the current field is the multitude of ways of capturing these narrative features, with little attention to overarching dimensions or latent factors of narrative that are responsible for these associations with well-being. In the present study we uncovered a reliable structure that accommodates commonly studied features of life narratives in a large-scale, multi-university collaborative effort. A...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: McLean KC, Syed M, Pasupathi M, Adler JM, Dunlop WL, Drustrup D, Fivush R, Graci ME, Lilgendahl JP, Lodi-Smith J, McAdams DP, McCoy TP Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Signaling when no one is watching: A reputation heuristics account of outrage and punishment in one-shot anonymous interactions.
Abstract Moralistic punishment can confer reputation benefits by signaling trustworthiness to observers. However, why do people punish even when nobody is watching? We argue that people often rely on the heuristic that reputation is typically at stake, such that reputation concerns can shape moralistic outrage and punishment even in one-shot anonymous interactions. We then support this account using data from Amazon Mechanical Turk. In anonymous experiments, subjects (total n = 8,440) report more outrage in response to others' selfishness when they cannot signal their trustworthiness through direct prosociality (s...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jordan JJ, Rand DG Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Norm-based spontaneous categorization: Cultural norms shape meaning and memory.
We present 4 experiments showing that, in relying on contrasting cultural norms of reciprocity (Studies 1 and 2) and spiritual purity (Studies 3 and 4), Indians and Americans differ in their interpretation of and memory for identical information. Studies 1 (N = 123) and 3 (N = 78), utilizing cued-recall, and Studies 2 (N = 143) and 4 (N = 79), utilizing multiple-choice incidental-memory tests, show cultural differences in memory and categorization in culturally relevant normative domains. In Studies 1 and 2 Americans, applying their own culture-specific reciprocity norms, were more likely than Indians to interpret gifts gi...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Goyal N, Adams M, Cyr TG, Maass A, Miller JG Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

"The longitudinal links of personality traits, values, and well-being and self-esteem: A five-wave study of a nationally representative sample": Correction to Fetvadjiev and He (2018).
This study examines longitudinally the stability of traits and values, their mutual effects, and their effects on affective and cognitive well-being and self-esteem. We analyzed data from a nationally representative panel in The Netherlands, spanning 5 time points spread across 8 years (n = 5,159 to 7,021 per time point, total N = 11,890). We estimated latent state-trait models with autoregression and random-intercepts cross-lagged panel models to account for the trait-like, time-invariant stability of the constructs. Traits were more stable than values. The bidirectional effects tended to be significant, but could be dist...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Securing the future: Threat to self-image spurs financial saving intentions.
Abstract This research examines when and why a threat to self-image influences saving intentions. Data from a set of seven studies, comprising a large-scale survey and 6 experiments, show that when individuals experience a self-image threat, they generate negative expectations about their future. Consequently, these individuals show a greater propensity to save money compared with nonthreatened individuals. We demonstrate that this effect diverges from the effects of environmental threats (e.g., resource scarcity) on saving, and find that it is more likely to occur among individuals with strong rather than weak be...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Steinhart Y, Jiang Y Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Debriefed but still troubled? About the (in)effectiveness of postexperimental debriefings after ego threat.
Abstract Psychological researchers often use powerful experimental manipulations to temporarily reduce participants' well-being. Postexperimental debriefings are intended to eliminate such detrimental effects. However, experimentally induced beliefs can persevere even when the underlying information is explicitly discredited. The present research investigates, in the context of ego-threatening manipulations, whether postexperimental debriefings reestablish participants' prestudy conditions. In 6 studies, participants received false feedback about their intelligence (Studies 1 and 5) or their attractiveness and lik...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Miketta S, Friese M Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Compassion magnifies third-party punishment.
Abstract The last decades of research have provided overwhelming evidence that compassion fosters a vast range of behaviors toward reducing suffering of others. In this regard, compassion has been described as a prosocial tendency par excellence, fostering helping behavior across a variety of social situations. With the present contribution, we apply a differentiated perspective on compassion. Building on just deserts theory, we argue that when other individuals suffer from unjust actions, compassion for the suffering individuals can foster harmful tendencies toward those who caused the suffering (i.e., third-part...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pfattheicher S, Sassenrath C, Keller J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Agentic narcissism, communal narcissism, and prosociality.
We present a first large-scale, systematic, and multimethod investigation linking the two. In 2 studies (N1 = 688, N2 = 336), we assessed grandiose narcissism comprehensively (i.e., agentic and communal narcissism) and examined its relations with instantiations of prosociality, namely, objective prosociality (actual behavior in Study 1; round-robin informant-reports in a real-life setting in Study 2) and subjective prosociality (self-perceptions in Studies 1 and 2). We obtained a consistent set of results. Agentic narcissism was related to lower objective prosociality and lower subjective prosociality. Communal narcissism,...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nehrlich AD, Gebauer JE, Sedikides C, Schoel C Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The language of well-being: Tracking fluctuations in emotion experience through everyday speech.
We examined language using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program (LIWC; theoretically created dictionaries) and open-vocabulary themes (clusters of data-driven semantically-related words). Although some studies give the impression that LIWC's positive and negative emotion dictionaries can be used as indicators of emotion experience, we found that when computed on spoken language, LIWC emotion scores were not significantly associated with self-reports of state emotion experience. Exploration of other categories of language variables suggests a number of hypotheses about substantive everyday correlates of momentary p...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - April 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sun J, Schwartz HA, Son Y, Kern ML, Vazire S Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Enjoy it again: Repeat experiences are less repetitive than people think.
Abstract What would it be like to revisit a museum, restaurant, or city you just visited? To rewatch a movie you just watched? To replay a game you just played? People often have opportunities to repeat hedonic activities. Seven studies (total N = 3,356) suggest that such opportunities may be undervalued: Many repeat experiences are not as dull as they appear. Studies 1-3 documented the basic effect. All participants first completed a real-world activity once in full (Study 1, museum exhibit; Study 2, movie; Study 3, video game). Then, some predicted their reactions to repeating it whereas others actually repeated...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - March 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: O'Brien E Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Twice-told tales: Self-repetition decreases observer assessments of performer authenticity.
Abstract People often engage in self-repetition-repeating the same story, joke, or presentation across different audiences. While behaving consistently has generally been found to enhance perceptions of authenticity, 10 studies demonstrate that performers who are revealed to be self-repeating are perceived as less authentic. We find convergent evidence that this effect is driven by observers' implicit assumption that social interactions are unique. Self-repetitions violate this assumption, leading observers to judge performers as inauthentic because they are thought to be falsely presenting their performance as un...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - March 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gershon R, Smith RK Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Beyond attractiveness: A multimethod approach to study enhancement in self-recognition on the Big Two personality dimensions.
Abstract Self-enhancement refers to the phenomenon that individuals tend to have unrealistically positive self-views. Traditional measures of self-enhancement typically imply self-evaluations and reference values, such as evaluations by others or evaluations of the average other. Comparing individuals' self-evaluations with such reference values, however, bears risks. It is not evident that the reference values are more accurate than the self-evaluations and it is not possible to distinguish self-enhancers from individuals who are indeed superior to others. Here, we present two novel methods to measure self-enhanc...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - March 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Walker M, Keller M Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The preference for distributed helping.
Abstract Whether deciding how to distribute donations to online requesters or divide tutoring time among students, helpers must often determine how to allocate aid across multiple individuals in need. This paper investigates the psychology underlying helpers' allocation strategies and tests preferences between two types of allocations: distribution (allocating help to multiple requesters) and concentration (allocating help to a single requester). Six main experiments and three follow-up experiments (n = 3,016) show a general preference for distributing help, because distribution feels procedurally fairer than conc...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sharps DL, Schroeder J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Growing STEM: Perceived faculty mindset as an indicator of communal affordances in STEM.
Abstract As students explore science and engineering fields, they receive messages about what competencies are required in a particular field, as well as whether they can reach their goals by entering the field. Faculty members convey information both about whether students might have the ability to succeed in a particular field and also whether students might want to succeed in a particular field-is this career one that serves the values or goals of the student? We hypothesize a novel pathway through which growth versus fixed mindset messages communicated by faculty affect students. Specifically, we explore wheth...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - March 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fuesting MA, Diekman AB, Boucher KL, Murphy MC, Manson DL, Safer BL Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research