Daily life processes predict long-term development in explicit and implicit representations of Big Five traits: Testing predictions from the TESSERA (Triggering situations, Expectancies, States and State Expressions, and ReActions) framework.
This study examined daily life processes and their contribution to long-term continuity and change in explicit and implicit representations of Big 5 traits. The TESSERA framework (Wrzus & Roberts, 2017) served as theoretical background to derive predictions on 3 linked research questions (RQ) regarding (a) trait-state associations (RQ1); (b) antecedents and consequences of personality states (RQ2); as well as (c) processes of personality development (RQ3). We assessed Big 5 traits using self-ratings (i.e., BFI-44) and implicit association tests 4 times across 2 years in a sample of 382 younger (Mage = 21.57 years) and ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Quintus M, Egloff B, Wrzus C Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Evaluations of empathizers depend on the target of empathy.
Abstract Psychological research on empathy typically focuses on understanding its effects on empathizers and empathic targets. Little is known, however, about the effects of empathy beyond its dyadic context. Taking an extradyadic perspective, we examined how third-party observers evaluate empathizers. Seven experiments documented that observers' evaluations of empathizers depend on the target of empathy. Empathizers (vs. nonempathizers) of a stressful experience were respected/liked more when the empathic target was positive (e.g., children's hospital worker), but not when the target was negative (e.g., White sup...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wang YA, Todd AR Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

When "enemies" become close: Relationship formation among Palestinians and Jewish Israelis at a youth camp.
When "enemies" become close: Relationship formation among Palestinians and Jewish Israelis at a youth camp. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2020 Sep 17;: Authors: White S, Schroeder J, Risen JL Abstract Having close relationships with outgroup members is an especially powerful form of intergroup contact that can reduce prejudice. Rather than examine the consequences of forming close outgroup relationships, which has previously been studied as part of intergroup contact theory, we examine how outgroup relationships-relative to ingroup relationships-form in the first place. We collected 7 years of data fr...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: White S, Schroeder J, Risen JL Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Smile pretty and watch your back: Personal safety anxiety and vigilance in objectification theory.
Abstract Objectification Theory posits that everyday encounters with sexual objectification carry a diffuse nonspecific sense of threat that engenders personal safety anxiety in women. In this article, we provide direct evidence for this tenet across 5 studies and 1,665 participants using multiple methods. Study 1 (N = 207) and Study 2 (N = 161) explored and confirmed the factor structure of the Personal Safety Anxiety and Vigilance Scale (PSAVS), a measure of personal safety anxiety, and provided evidence for the reliability and construct validity of its scores. Study 3 (N = 363) showed that personal safety anxie...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Calogero RM, Tylka TL, Siegel JA, Pina A, Roberts TA Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Unveiling an exclusive link: Predicting behavior with personality, situation perception, and affect in a preregistered experience sampling study.
Abstract Affect and situation perception are intertwined in any given situation, but the extent to which both predict behavior jointly and uniquely has not yet been systematically examined so far. Using 2 studies with experience sampling methodology (ESM), we examine how trait-like variables (Big Six, trait affect, general situation experience) and state-like variables (momentary affect, happiness, and situation perception) account for variance in self-reported behavioral states of the Big Six. In Study 1, we reanalyzed data from Sherman, Rauthmann, Brown, Serfass, and Jones (2015) and found that situation percept...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Horstmann KT, Rauthmann JF, Sherman RA, Ziegler M Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Multiple categorization and intergroup bias: Examining the generalizability of three theories of intergroup relations.
Abstract Research on intergroup bias usually focuses on a single dimension of social categorization. In real life, however, people are aware of others' multiple group memberships and use this information to form attitudes about them. The present research tests the predictive power of identification, perceived conflict, and perceived symbolic threat in explaining the strength of intergroup bias on various dimensions of social categorization in multiple categorization settings. We conduct a factorial survey experiment, manipulating 9 dimensions of social categorization in diverse samples from 4 countries (n = 12,810...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Grigoryan L, Cohrs JC, Boehnke K, van de Vijver FAJR, Easterbrook MJ Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

"Human status criteria: Sex differences and similarities across 14 nations": Correction to Buss et al. (2020).
Discussion outlines important next steps in understanding the psychology of status. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 32940518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology)
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Buss DM, Durkee PK, Shackelford TK, Bowdle BF, Schmitt DP, Brase GL, Choe JC, Trofimova I Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Theories of power: Perceived strategies for gaining and maintaining power.
Abstract What does it take to gain and maintain power? Aristotle believed that power was afforded to individuals that acted in virtuous ways that promote the greater good. Machiavelli, nearly 2,000 years later, argued to great effect that power could be taken through the use of manipulation, coercion, and strategic violence. With these historical perspectives as a conceptual foundation, we validate a 2-factor measure of theories of power (TOPS; Study 1), which captures lay theories of how power is gained and maintained among family members, at work, and in international politics (Study 2). We differentiate TOPS fr...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ten Brinke L, Keltner D Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Race-status associations: Distinct effects of three novel measures among White and Black perceivers.
Abstract Race is fraught with meaning, but unequal status is central. Race-status associations (RSAs) link White Americans with high status and Black Americans with low status. RSAs could occur via observation of racially distributed jobs, perceived status-related stereotypic attributes, or simple ranking. Nine samples (N = 3,933) validate 3 novel measures of White = high status/Black = low status RSAs-based on jobs, rank, and attributes. First, RSA measures showed clear factor structure, internal validity, and test-retest reliability. Second, these measures differentially corresponded to White Americans' hierarch...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dupree CH, Torrez B, Obioha O, Fiske ST Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Gendered racial boundary maintenance: Social penalties for White women in interracial relationships.
Abstract Throughout American history, formal laws and social norms have discouraged interracial romantic relationships. Interracial relationships blur the boundaries between racial groups, challenging the essentialized racial categories that define Whiteness as an exclusive, high status identity. Whites, who are the most resistant to interracial marriage of any racial group, have used their dominant position in American society to enforce norms against interracial relationships. Despite the importance of racial homogamy to White identity and status, we argue that gender roles make violating norms against intimate ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stillwell A, Lowery BS Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Miscalibration in predicting one's performance: Disentangling misplacement and misestimation.
l G Abstract When people predict their performance, they can be miscalibrated in two ways-they may mispredict how they will perform relative to others (misplacement) and how they will perform in absolute terms (misestimation). Prior work has yielded contradictory conclusions about the relative direction of these two types of miscalibration. Some research found that they occur in opposite directions-that is, that people who believe they are better than average (BTA) tend to underestimate their absolute performance, whereas those who believe they are worse than average (WTA) tend to overestimate their performance. O...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Engeler I, Häubl G Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Physiological linkage during shared positive and shared negative emotion.
Abstract Physiological linkage refers to the degree to which peoples' physiological responses change in coordinated ways. Here, we examine whether and how physiological linkage relates to incidents of shared emotion, distinguished by valence. Past research has used an "overall average" approach and characterized how physiological linkage over relatively long time periods (e.g., 10-15 min) reflects psychological and social processes (e.g., marital satisfaction, empathy). Here, we used a "momentary" approach and characterized whether physiological linkage over relatively short time periods (i.e.,...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chen KH, Brown CL, Wells JL, Rothwell ES, Otero MC, Levenson RW, Fredrickson BL Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

A matter of taste: Gustatory sensitivity predicts political ideology.
Abstract Previous research has shown that political attitudes are highly heritable, but the proximal physiological mechanisms that shape ideology remain largely unknown. Based on work suggesting possible ideological differences in genes related to low-level sensory processing, we predicted that taste (i.e., gustatory) sensitivity would be associated with political ideology. In 4 studies (combined N = 1,639) we test this hypothesis and find robust support for this association. In Studies 1-3, we find that sensitivity to the chemicals PROP and PTC-2 well established measures of taste sensitivity-are associated with ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - September 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ruisch BC, Anderson RA, Inbar Y, Pizarro DA Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Envy and help giving.
Abstract In this research, we explored and demonstrated a relatively implicit and covert means of undermining envied targets-namely, helping them in a way that retains their future dependence, rather than in a way that increases their autonomy. In four studies, we varied our envy manipulations, measured the extent to which these manipulations trigger malicious motivations, and examined the consequences in terms of intended (Studies 1-2) and actual (Studies 3-4) helping behaviors. In Study 4, we also measured and tested the role of individual differences in terms of proneness to malicious versus benign envy. Taken ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Montal-Rosenberg R, Moran S Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Reducing implicit racial preferences: III. A process-level examination of changes in implicit preferences.
Abstract Implicit bias change was initially assumed to reflect changes in associations, but subsequent research demonstrated that implicit bias change can also reflect changes in control-oriented processes that constrain the expression of associations. The present research examines the process-level effects of 17 different implicit bias-reduction interventions and one sham intervention by analyzing data from more than 20,000 participants who completed an intervention condition or a baseline control condition followed by a race Implicit Association Test (IAT). To identify the processes influenced by each interventi...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Calanchini J, Lai CK, Klauer KC Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Social anxiety and liking: Towards understanding the role of metaperceptions in first impressions.
Abstract A core component of social anxiety is the constant concern about what others think of the self. Could such metaperceptions-beliefs about how others view the self-play a role in relationship initiation attempts? In the present research, we examined whether metaperceptions may contribute to why people higher in social anxiety experience difficulties in initial interactions. In 2 first-impressions contexts, a platonic getting-acquainted context (Study 1: N = 544; 2,878 dyads) and a speed dating context (Study 2: N = 376; 4,797 dyads), we explored the roles of 2 components of metaperceptions: meta-positivity ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tissera H, Gazzard Kerr L, Carlson EN, Human LJ Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

When racism and sexism benefit Black and female politicians: Politicians' ideology moderates prejudice's effect more than politicians' demographic background.
Abstract Using large samples that are nationally diverse or nationally representative (total N = 44,836), this article presents evidence that citizens' prejudice does not usually benefit or undermine politicians who are from a particular demographic group, as many past studies assumed; instead, citizens' prejudice is associated with support for conservative politicians and opposition to liberal politicians, regardless of politicians' demographic background. Study 1a and Study 1b show that, regardless of the race and gender of real politicians, racism and sexism negatively predict support for liberal politicians, a...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bai H Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Attachment anxiety and the curvilinear effects of expressive suppression on individuals' and partners' outcomes.
Abstract Suppressing the expression of negative emotions tends to undermine individuals' and their partners' wellbeing. However, sometimes expressive suppression may be relatively innocuous given that individuals commonly withhold negative emotions in order to maintain close relationships, and this may be especially the case when expressive suppression is enacted by people who exhibit amplified expressions of negative emotions, such as those high in attachment anxiety. The current research examined when and for whom expressive suppression may be more or less costly by testing whether the curvilinear effect of indi...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Girme YU, Peters BJ, Baker LR, Overall NC, Fletcher GJO, Reis HT, Jamieson JP, Sigal MJ Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Trust in everyday life.
Abstract Although trust plays a pivotal role in many aspects of life, very little is known about the manifestation of trust and distrust in everyday life. In this work, we integrated several prior approaches to trust and investigated the prevalence and key determinants of trust (vs. distrust) in people's natural environments, using preregistered experience-sampling methodology. Across more than 4,500 social interactions from a heterogeneous sample of 427 participants, results showed high average levels of trust, but also considerable variability in trust across contexts. This variability was attributable to aspect...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Weiss A, Michels C, Burgmer P, Mussweiler T, Ockenfels A, Hofmann W Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Minimal but not meaningless: Seemingly arbitrary category labels can imply more than group membership.
Abstract Minimal group paradigms tend to involve contrived group distinctions, such as dot estimation tendencies and aesthetic preferences. Researchers assume that these novel category distinctions lack informational value. Our research tests this notion. Specifically, we used the classic overestimator versus underestimator and Klee versus Kandinsky minimal group paradigms to assess how category labels influence minimal group responses. In Study 1, we show that participants represented ingroup faces more favorably than outgroup faces, but also represented overestimator and underestimator category labels differentl...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hong Y, Ratner KG Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Hiding success.
Abstract Self-promotion is common in everyday life. Yet, across 8 studies (N = 1,687) examining a broad range of personal and professional successes, we find that individuals often hide their successes from others and that such hiding has relational costs. We document these effects among close relational partners, acquaintances, and within hypothetical relationships. Study 1 finds that targets feel less close to and more insulted by communicators who hide rather than share their successes. Study 2 finds that hiding success harms relationships both when the success is eventually discovered and when it is not. Studi...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Roberts AR, Levine EE, Sezer O Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

I'm up here! Sexual objectification leads to feeling ostracized.
Abstract Theory and research demonstrate that women are frequently the targets of sexually objectifying behavior, viewed and treated by others as mere objects for pleasure and use. When sexually objectified, attention is principally focused on scrutinizing and valuing their physical features, whereas their internal attributes (e.g., thoughts, feelings, personhood) may be largely ignored (Bartky, 1990). Although the processes and negative effects associated with sexual objectification have been examined extensively, no work has examined the "ignoring" component of sexual objectification. We reasoned that ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dvir M, Kelly JR, Tyler JM, Williams KD Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

When every day is a high school reunion: Social media comparisons and self-esteem.
Abstract Although past research has shown that social comparisons made through social media contribute to negative outcomes, little is known about the nature of these comparisons (domains, direction, and extremity), variables that determine comparison outcomes (post valence, perceiver's self-esteem), and how these comparisons differ from those made in other contexts (e.g., text messages, face-to-face interactions). In 4 studies (N = 798), we provide the first comprehensive analysis of how individuals make and respond to social comparisons on social media, using comparisons made in real-time while browsing news fee...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Midgley C, Thai S, Lockwood P, Kovacheff C, Page-Gould E Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The streaking star effect: Why people want superior performance by individuals to continue more than identical performance by groups.
We present evidence in 9 studies (n = 2,625) for the Streaking Star Effect-people's greater desire to see runs of successful performance by individuals continue more than identical runs of success by groups. We find this bias in an obscure Italian sport (Study 1), a British trivia competition (Study 2), and a tennis competition in which the number of individual versus team competitors is held constant (Study 3). This effect appears to result from individual streaks of success inspiring more awe than group streaks-and that people enjoying being awe-inspired. In Studies 4 and 5, we found that the experience of awe inspired b...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Walker J, Gilovich T Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The new identity theft: Perceptions of cultural appropriation in intergroup contexts.
Abstract Cultural appropriation has been described and discussed within academic and everyday discourse, but little research has examined its role in the psychological context of intergroup relations. We sought to examine whether minority and majority group members (i.e., Black and White Americans) would differentially judge instances of cultural exchange as cultural appropriation. Five experiments (3 were preregistered on OSF) using a variety of potential cases of cultural appropriation demonstrated that Black participants were more likely than White participants to view these incidents as appropriation when they...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mosley AJ, Biernat M Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Disrupting the system constructively: Testing the effectiveness of nonnormative nonviolent collective action.
Abstract Collective action research tends to focus on motivations of the disadvantaged group, rather than on which tactics are effective at driving the advantaged group to make concessions to the disadvantaged. We focused on the potential of nonnormative nonviolent action as a tactic to generate support for concessions among advantaged group members who are resistant to social change. We propose that this tactic, relative to normative nonviolent and to violent action, is particularly effective because it reflects constructive disruption: a delicate balance between disruption (which can put pressure on the advantag...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Shuman E, Saguy T, van Zomeren M, Halperin E Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Do life events lead to enduring changes in adult attachment styles? A naturalistic longitudinal investigation.
Abstract Research has shown that a variety of life events are associated with changes in adult attachment styles. What is unknown, however, is the extent to which those changes are transient or enduring. To investigate this issue, we followed a sample of over 4,000 people in a multiwave longitudinal study in which people naturalistically experienced a variety of life events (e.g., starting new relationships, changing jobs, average n across events = 392). This allowed us to examine people's attachment trajectories before (Mwaves = 6.51) and after (Mwaves = 8.04) specific life events took place, for spans of time ra...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fraley RC, Gillath O, Deboeck PR Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Friendship jealousy: One tool for maintaining friendships in the face of third-party threats?
Abstract Friendships can foster happiness, health, and reproductive fitness. However, friendships end-even when we might not want them to. A primary reason for this is interference from third parties. Yet, little work has explored how people meet the challenge of maintaining friendships in the face of real or perceived threats from third parties, as when our friends inevitably make new friends or form new romantic relationships. In contrast to earlier conceptualizations from developmental research, which viewed friendship jealousy as solely maladaptive, we propose that friendship jealousy is one overlooked tool of...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Krems JA, Williams KEG, Aktipis A, Kenrick DT Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Mobilized or marginalized? Understanding low-status groups' responses to social justice efforts led by high-status groups.
We presented information about a nonprofit organization seeking to address gender (Study 1, N = 198) or racial (Study 2, N = 216) inequality, in which the leadership team was manipulated to include a numerical majority of either high-status group members or low-status group members. Members of low-status groups who read about the majority high-status leadership team reported lower levels of collective action intentions, compared with those who read about the majority low-status leadership team. Mediation analyses (Studies 1 and 2) and an experimental-causal-chain design (Study 3, N = 405) showed that lower collective actio...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - August 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Iyer A, Achia T Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Stability and change in vocational interests after graduation from high school: A six-wave longitudinal study.
Abstract Vocational interests shape major life decisions and predict major life outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand how vocational interests develop in young adulthood, a time when young people begin to make their own life decisions. In the present study, we investigated stability and change in vocational interests across a time span of 10 years, including the transition from high school to postsecondary education and the transition into the labor market. Using a large data set comprised of 3,023 German young adults, we provide descriptive information about the longitudinal development of vocational...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stoll G, Rieger S, Nagengast B, Trautwein U, Rounds J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Understanding Whites' perceptions of multicultural policies: A (non)zero-sum framework?
Abstract Non-Hispanic Whites can perceive multicultural diversity policies as excluding their group and threatening their identity. However, increasing demographic diversity and the proliferation of organizational diversity efforts may have led Whites to view multicultural policies in more nonzero-sum ways. Reanalyzing nationally representative data, Study 1 showed that over the past 10 years, White Americans have become more supportive of diversity policies that explicitly recognize group memberships and have become less likely to view these policies as harmful to their group. Five experiments further showed that...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ballinger T, Crocker J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Partisan ideological attitudes: Liberals are tolerant; the intelligent are intolerant.
Abstract In this article we examine intolerance toward ideological outgroups, conceptualized as the negativity of the attitudes of liberals and conservatives toward their ideological outgroup. We show that conservatives are more ideologically intolerant than liberals and that the more intelligent are more ideologically intolerant than the less intelligent. We also show that the differences between liberals and conservatives and the differences between the more and less intelligent depend on ideological extremity: They are larger for extreme than for moderate ideologists. The implication of these results to questio...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ganzach Y, Schul Y Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Act boldly: Important life decisions, courage, and the motivated pursuit of risk.
Abstract How do people respond to risk in important life decisions? For example, when presented with the opportunity to leave one's job to start a business-a risky proposition for most-or to stay put-often a safer course of action-what do people choose? The current work explores the idea that important life decisions offer people the opportunity to display a highly valued psychological characteristic: courage. Specifically, important life decisions often combine the critical preconditions for a risky choice to be viewed as courageous-fear, purpose, agency, and the availability of risky options with an appropriate ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gal D, Rucker DD Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Testing prospective effects in longitudinal research: Comparing seven competing cross-lagged models.
Abstract In virtually all areas of psychology, the question of whether a particular construct has a prospective effect on another is of fundamental importance. For decades, the cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) has been the model of choice for addressing this question. However, CLPMs have recently been critiqued, and numerous alternative models have been proposed. Using the association between low self-esteem and depression as a case study, we examined the behavior of seven competing longitudinal models in 10 samples, each with at least four waves of data and sample sizes ranging from 326 to 8,259. The models were c...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Orth U, Clark DA, Donnellan MB, Robins RW Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Do people realize how their partners make them feel? Relationship enhancement motives and stress determine the link between implicitly assessed partner attitudes and relationship satisfaction.
Abstract Do people realize the evaluative feelings that are spontaneously activated by their partner? If so, do they use those evaluations when judging their romantic relationships? To answer these questions, we investigated the association between automatic partner attitudes and judgments of relationship satisfaction in 7 studies. Study 1 was a meta-analysis of 86 correlations that revealed a very weak association between implicitly and explicitly assessed relationship evaluations, and Studies 2a-2c revealed that people failed to accurately report their automatic partner attitudes even when specifically asked to ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hicks LL, McNulty JK, Faure R, Meltzer AL, Righetti F, Hofmann W Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Reminder avoidance: Why people hesitate to disclose their insecurities to friends.
Abstract People seek and receive support from friends through self-disclosure. However, when self-disclosures reveal personal insecurities, do people rely on friends as an audience as they normally do? This research demonstrates that they do not. Five preregistered studies show that disclosers exhibit a weaker preference for friends as an audience when disclosures involve revealing personal insecurities than when they involve revealing other neutral or negative personal information. This effect is observed despite that the only alternative audience available to disclosers in these studies is a stranger. We theoriz...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kim S, Liu PJ, Min KE Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Are work activities related to interest change over time? A 22-year longitudinal study.
Abstract Research has shown that vocational interests are important predictors of a number of life outcomes. Therefore, understanding individuals' vocational interests can also help to explain and predict their attitudes, behavior, and motives. The goal of the present study was to examine changes in vocational interests over time and explore whether these changes could be partially explained by employees' interactions with their work environments. We started by developing a theoretical framework that links interest development to the broader notion of person-environment (P-E) fit. Using a sample of 933 individuals...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nye CD, Wille B, Amory J, De Fruyt F Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Perceiving personality through the grapevine: A network approach to reputations.
We present a novel paradigm that integrates the network approach with interpersonal perception research. We apply that paradigm to study the consensus, accuracy, positivity bias, and consequences of personality trait information in hearsay-based reputations. In 2 preregistered studies (N = 260 and 369), we created naturalistic micronetworks in the lab in which participants interacted and got to know one another, then later described each other to naïve third parties. Across studies, we use the extended Social Accuracy Model (Wessels, Zimmermann, Biesanz, & Leising, 2020) and an extension of the domain-wise correla...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Costello CK, Srivastava S Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Meta-humanization reduces prejudice, even under high intergroup threat.
Abstract Meta-dehumanization, the perception your group has been given less than human qualities, contributes to a vicious cycle of outgroup dehumanization and hostility, such as hate crimes and support for discriminatory policies. Minimal research has investigated potential benefits of meta-humanization, or perceiving your group has been given dignified qualities. Across 7 studies (N = 1,261) in Canada and the United Kingdom, we focus on Muslim-non-Muslim relations and provide the first empirical evidence to suggest that (a) there is an indirect effect of meta-humanization through outgroup humanization that reduc...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pavetich M, Stathi S Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Pursuing interpersonal value: An interdependence perspective.
Abstract The current research examined the interpersonal implications of pursuing goals to be valued by others as a relationship partner, termed interpersonal value goals. Across 3 experiments, a large cross-sectional study, 2 daily experience studies, and a 1-year longitudinal study with behavioral observation of conflict interactions, the pursuit of interpersonal value was associated with higher quality interactions and relationships, as suggested by multiple outcomes, including responsive and prosocial behavior, adoption of compassionate goals, confidence in being valued, more positive sentiments from interacti...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lemay EP, Ryan JE, Teneva N Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Moderators of intergroup evaluation in disadvantaged groups: A comprehensive test of predictions from system justification theory.
We examined hypotheses proposed by System Justification Theory (SJT; Jost, Banaji, & Nosek, 2004) regarding intergroup evaluation in disadvantaged groups, using large samples of online participants (total N = 715,721), spanning 8 intergroup domains and 14 nations. Using a meta-analytic approach, we tested these hypotheses at the individual level (as SJT is generally articulated), as well as at the social group level. Consistent with SJT, individual-level analyses revealed that disadvantaged groups demonstrated outgroup favoritism on Implicit Association Tests (IATs; i.e., implicit measures), but demonstrated ingroup fa...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Essien I, Calanchini J, Degner J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

(Un)happiness and voting in U.S. presidential elections.
Abstract A rapidly growing literature has attempted to explain Donald Trump's success in the 2016 U.S. presidential election as a result of a wide variety of differences in individual characteristics, attitudes, and social processes. We propose that the economic and psychological processes previously established have in common that they generated or electorally capitalized on unhappiness in the electorate, which emerges as a powerful high-level predictor of the 2016 electoral outcome. Drawing on a large dataset covering over 2 million individual surveys, which we aggregated to the county level, we find that low le...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ward G, De Neve JE, Ungar LH, Eichstaedt JC Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The dynamic relationship between contact opportunities, positive and negative intergroup contact, and prejudice: A longitudinal investigation.
We examined (research question 1) whether prejudice increases or decreases with increased contact opportunities; (research question 2) whether the rate of change in prejudice is related to the rate of change of positive/negative contact; (research question 3) whether the trajectories of change in prejudice shift as a function of the histories of prior positive/negative contact; and (research question 4) whether the rate of change in positive/negative contact frequencies depends on prior prejudice levels. Across both studies, prejudice increased with increased contact opportunities, as did positive and negative contact freq...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kotzur PF, Wagner U Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Subjective likelihood and the construal level of future events: A replication study of Wakslak, Trope, Liberman, and Alony (2006).
Abstract C. J. Wakslak, Y. Trope, N. Liberman, and R. Alony (2006) examined the effect of manipulating the likelihood of future events on level of construal (i.e., mental abstraction). Over 7 experiments, they consistently found that subjectively unlikely (vs. likely) future events were more abstractly (vs. concretely) construed. This well-cited, but understudied finding has had a major influence on the construal level theory (CLT) literature: Likelihood is considered to be 1 of 4 psychological distances assumed to influence mental abstraction in similar ways (Trope & Liberman, 2010). Contrary to the original ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Calderon S, Mac Giolla E, Ask K, Granhag PA Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Merged minds: Generalized shared reality in dyadic relationships.
Abstract Many everyday conversations, whether between close partners or strangers interacting for the first time, are about the world external to their relationship, such as music, food, or current events. Yet, the focus of most research on interpersonal relationships to date has been on the ways in which partners perceive each other and their relationship. We propose that one critical aspect of interpersonal interactions is developing a sense of dyadic, generalized shared reality-the subjective experience of sharing a set of inner states (e.g., thoughts, feelings, or beliefs) in common with a particular interacti...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rossignac-Milon M, Bolger N, Zee KS, Boothby EJ, Higgins ET Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Psychological affordances help explain where a self-transcendent purpose intervention improves performance.
Abstract Lay theory interventions instill situation-general ways of thinking, often using short reading and writing exercises, and they have led to lasting changes in behavior and performance in a wide variety of policy domains. Do they work in all contexts? We suggest that lay theory intervention effects depend on psychological affordances, which are defined as cues that allow individuals to view a lay theory as legitimate and adaptive in that context. The present research directly and experimentally tested this hypothesis using the example of a "purpose for learning" lay theory intervention, which taug...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Reeves SL, Henderson MD, Cohen GL, Steingut RR, Hirschi Q, Yeager DS Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Human "resources"? Objectification at work.
Human "resources"? Objectification at work. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2020 Jul 13;: Authors: Belmi P, Schroeder J Abstract People behave differently when at work than not at work; for example, they are less interested in making close friends and use more transactional language (networking vs. socializing). These examples hint at a broader phenomenon: that people engage in more objectification-treating people akin to objects-in work contexts than non work contexts. We propose that objectification is more prevalent at work because people engage in more calculative and strategic thinking (i.e., makin...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Belmi P, Schroeder J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

Category salience and racial bias in weapon identification: A diffusion modeling approach.
We report 6 experiments that provide a mechanistic account of how category salience affects weapon identification bias elicited by male faces varying in race (Black, White) and age (men, boys). Behavioral analyses of error rates and response latencies revealed that, when race was salient, faces of Black versus White males (regardless of age) facilitated the classification of objects as guns versus tools. When a category other than race was salient, racial bias in behavior was reduced, though not eliminated. In Experiments 1-4, racial bias was weaker when participants attended to a social category besides race (i.e., age). ...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Todd AR, Johnson DJ, Lassetter B, Neel R, Simpson AJ, Cesario J Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

The self-congruity effect of music.
Abstract Music is a universal phenomenon that has existed in every known culture around the world. It plays a prominent role in society by shaping sociocultural interactions between groups and individuals, and by influencing their emotional and intellectual life. Here, we provide evidence for a new theory on musical preferences. Across three studies we show that people prefer the music of artists who have publicly observable personalities ("personas") similar to their own personality traits (the "self-congruity effect of music"). Study 1 (N = 6,279) and Study 2 (N = 75,296) show that the public...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Greenberg DM, Matz SC, Schwartz HA, Fricke KR Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research

A matter of flexibility: Changing outgroup attitudes through messages with negations.
Abstract Attitudes toward outgroups are an important determinant of peaceful coexistence in diverse societies, but it is difficult to improve them. The current research studies the impact of messages with negations on outgroup attitudes, more specifically on outgroup trust. All studies were preregistered. Using different target groups, Studies 1 and 2 provide evidence for the prediction that communicating negations (e.g., "they are not deceptive") enhances outgroup trust (more so than affirmations, such as "they are reliable," and no messages) among people who are initially low in outgroup trus...
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - July 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Winter K, Scholl A, Sassenberg K Tags: J Pers Soc Psychol Source Type: research