Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Renin and Aldosterone Concentrations in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure: The EVITA Trial.
Authors: Zittermann A, Ernst JB, Prokop S, Fuchs U, Dreier J, Kuhn J, Knabbe C, Börgermann J, Berthold HK, Pilz S, Gouni-Berthold I, Gummert JF Abstract Objective: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25([OH]2D) is considered to be a negative endogenous regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), but the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the RAAS is inconclusive. Design: In this prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, we assessed in 165 patients with heart failure (vitamin D group: n = 83; placebo group: n = 82) the effect of three years of vitamin D supplementation w...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Chromogranin A: From Laboratory to Clinical Aspects of Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Authors: Di Giacinto P, Rota F, Rizza L, Campana D, Isidori A, Lania A, Lenzi A, Zuppi P, Baldelli R Abstract Background. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are characterized by having behavior and prognosis that depend upon tumor histology, primary site, staging, and proliferative index. The symptoms associated with carcinoid syndrome and vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors are treated with octreotide acetate. The PROMID trial assesses the effect of octreotide LAR on the tumor growth in patients with well-differentiated metastatic midgut NETs. The CLARINET trial evaluates the effects of lanreotide in patients with nonf...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Changes in the Responsiveness of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis to Kisspeptin-10 Administration during Pubertal Transition in Boys.
In this study, healthy boys were classified into 5 Tanner stages of puberty (n = 5/stage). Human kisspeptin-10 was administered to boys at each Tanner stage and to adult men (n = 5) as an IV bolus for comparison. Serial blood samples were collected for 30 min pre- and 120 min post-kisspeptin injection periods at 30 min interval for measuring plasma LH and testosterone levels. There was insignificant effect of kisspeptin on LH and testosterone levels in boys of Tanner stages I-III. At Tanner stage IV, the effect of kisspeptin on plasma LH was insignificant. However, a paired t-test on a log-transformed ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 27, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Value of Apoptotic, Antiapoptotic, and Cell Proliferation Markers in the Treatment of Graves' Disease.
Conclusion. In GD, the hyperthyroid state was associated with a lower antiapoptotic effect on thyroid cells. RIT, beta-blockers, and thionamide act by stimulating apoptosis of thyrocytes by intrathyroidal lymphocytes. PMID: 30018638 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Chicken Is a Useful Model to Investigate the Role of Adipokines in Metabolic and Reproductive Diseases.
Authors: Mellouk N, Ramé C, Barbe A, Grandhaye J, Froment P, Dupont J Abstract Reproduction is a complex and essential physiological process required by all species to produce a new generation. This process involves strict hormonal regulation, depending on a connection between the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and peripheral organs. Metabolic homeostasis influences the reproductive functions, and its alteration leads to disturbances in the reproductive functions of humans as well as animals. For a long time, adipose tissue has been recognised as an endocrine organ but its ability to secrete and release...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Prolactin Is a Strong Candidate for the Regulation of Luteal Steroidogenesis in Vizcachas (Lagostomus maximus).
In conclusion, both the PRLR and LHR expressions in the ovary would define the success of gestation in vizcachas by modulating the levels of 20α-HSD and 3ß-HSD, which ultimately determine the level of serum P4 throughout gestation. PMID: 30013596 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

The Roles of Thyroid and Thyroid Hormone in Pancreas: Physiology and Pathology.
Authors: Chen C, Xie Z, Shen Y, Xia SF Abstract It is widely accepted that thyroid hormones (THs), secreted from the thyroid, play important roles in energy metabolism. It is also known that THs also alter the functioning of other endocrine glands; however, their effects on pancreatic function have not yet been reviewed. One of the main functions of the pancreas is insulin secretion, which is altered in diabetes. Diabetes, therefore, could be related to thyroid dysfunction. Earlier research on this subject focused on TH regulation of pancreas function (such as insulin secretion) or on insulin function through TH-me...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

The Role of Uron and Chlorobenzene Derivatives, as Potential Endocrine Disrupting Compounds, in the Secretion of ACTH and PRL.
Authors: Sepp K, Laszlo AM, Molnar Z, Serester A, Alapi T, Galfi M, Valkusz Z, Radacs M Abstract Uron herbicides polluting the environment represent a serious concern for environmental health and may be regarded as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which influence the regulation of human homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the effect of EDC urons (phenuron: PU, monuron: MU, and diuron: DU) and chlorobenzenes on the basal release of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is a part of the adenohypophysis-adrenocortical axis. Hormone secretion in the presence of EDC was studied in two cell types: normal a...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Level Correlates with Lipoprotein Subfractions in Obese Nondiabetic Subjects.
Conclusion: The significant correlations between PAI-1 levels and lipoprotein subfractions indicate the link between PAI-1 and lipid metabolism in obesity. PMID: 30002679 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Diabetic Microvascular Complications.
Authors: Migdalis I, Czupryniak L, Lalic N, Leslie RD, Papanas N, Valensi P PMID: 29997650 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

GnRH Antagonist Improves Pubertal Cyclophosphamide-Induced Long-Term Testicular Injury in Adult Rats.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that the GnRHant administration before and after CPA in pubertal rats can protect long-term testicular injury induced by CPA via increased AR expression in the testes. PMID: 29983710 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Weight Mobility and Obesity in a Representative Sample of the US Adult Population.
We report the 1-year incidence and remission of obesity in a representative sample of the US population. Methods: Individuals from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) panel 17 were classified into standard obesity categories at enrollment and one year later. Incidence rates were calculated by age. Results: Although the overall prevalence of obesity remained nearly constant, remission rates from obesity (stratified by age) ranged from 11 to 27% while incidence rates ranged from 6 to 16%. For almost all age levels, the proportion of individuals leaving an obese or overweight state was greater than or equal to...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Apelin in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology of Different Species: A Critical Review.
Authors: Kurowska P, Barbe A, Różycka M, Chmielińska J, Dupont J, Rak A Abstract Apelin has been isolated from the bovine stomach extracts as an endogenous ligand of the previously orphan receptor APJ. Expression of the apelinergic system (apelin and APJ) was described in many organs where pleiotropic effects like regulation of food intake, body weight, or cardiovascular and immune function were described. Recent studies have shown that apelin also plays an important role in the regulation of female and male reproduction. Some data showed that the gene and protein of apelin/APJ are expressed in the hypotha...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Pregnancy Ketonemia and Development of the Fetal Central Nervous System.
This article is a literature review of ketones' effect on the central nervous system and an attempt to initiate discussion whether we should consider including ketonemia assessment into the standard care package for pregnant women with diabetes and begin some research on the explanation of its influence on fetal development. PMID: 29971100 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Adipokines in Semen: Physiopathology and Effects on Spermatozoas.
Authors: Elfassy Y, Bastard JP, McAvoy C, Fellahi S, Dupont J, Levy R Abstract Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and could be the link between obesity and infertility. Different studies investigated the involvement of adipokines in reproductive functions but only a few have looked into the male part. This review assesses adipokine functions on male reproductive parameters. Adiponectin seems to have a positive effect on sperm parameters, whereas other adipokines such as resistin or chemerin would have a rather deleterious effect on spermatogenesis. Semen parameters seem to be impacted when resistin and cheme...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Role of Lipotoxicity and Contribution of the Renin-Angiotensin System in the Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Authors: Connolly A, Leblanc S, Baillargeon JP Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and significant condition associated with hyperandrogenism, infertility, low quality of life, and metabolic comorbidities. One possible explanation of PCOS development is cellular dysfunction induced by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), that is, lipotoxicity, which could explain both the hyperandrogenemia and insulin resistance that characterize women with PCOS. The literature suggests that androgen biosynthesis may be induced by overexposure of androgen-secreting tissues to NEFA and/or defective NEFA metabolism, l...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Diagnostic Values of Free Triiodothyronine and Free Thyroxine and the Ratio of Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine in Thyrotoxicosis.
Conclusions: We demonstrated that the FT3/FT4 ratio was useful in differentiating GD from destructive thyroiditis. In addition, a relatively high expression of type 1 deiodinase in the thyroid might be responsible for the high FT3/FT4 ratio in patients with GD. PMID: 29971103 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Clinicopathological and Survival Outcomes of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Undergoing Dedifferentiation: A Retrospective Study from FUSCC.
Conclusions: The presence of dedifferentiated phenotypes can be responsible for the poor outcomes in WDTC patients. The AGES system demonstrates to be an optimal prognostic system for WDTC undergoing dedifferentiation. PMID: 29951093 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Nontoxic Multinodular Goitre and Incidental Thyroid Cancer: What Is the Best Surgical Strategy?-A Retrospective Study of 2032 Patients.
Authors: Kaliszewski K, Wojtczak B, Grzegrzółka J, Bronowicki J, Saeid S, Knychalski B, Forkasiewicz Z Abstract Objectives: A discussion with regard to the most optimal surgical procedure in nontoxic multinodular goitre (NTMNG). We assessed and compared three main types of operations in 2032 patients with NTMNG. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 2032 patients operated on in one center due to NTMNG. The observation period was 48 to 120 months (mean and SD: 87 ± 20). Results: The early complications included uni- and bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (URLNP, BR...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

A Randomised, Controlled Study of Different Glycaemic Targets during Gestational Diabetes Treatment: Effect on the Level of Adipokines in Cord Blood and ANGPTL4 Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.
Authors: Popova P, Vasilyeva L, Tkachuck A, Puzanov M, Golovkin A, Bolotko Y, Pustozerov E, Vasilyeva E, Li O, Zazerskaya I, Dmitrieva R, Kostareva A, Grineva E Abstract Our aim was to study the expression of adipokine-encoding genes (leptin, adiponectin, and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4)) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and adipokine concentration in cord blood from women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) depending on glycaemic targets. GDM patients were randomised to 2 groups per target glycaemic levels: GDM1 (tight glycaemic targets, fasting blood glucose 
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Decreased Retinal Thickness in Type 1 Diabetic Children with Signs of Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
Conclusions. PwT1DM with NPDR have increased odds of decreased retinal thicknesses and volumes. Whether these changes are reversible by improving metabolic control or not remains to be elucidated. PMID: 29853875 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Limited Joint Mobility Progression in Type 1 Diabetes: A 15-Year Follow-Up Study.
Authors: Labad J, Rozadilla A, Garcia-Sancho P, Nolla JM, Montanya E Abstract Objective: To assess the evolution of joint mobility over a period of 15 years in type 1 diabetic patients and healthy controls and to determine whether microalbuminuria is associated with a different evolution of joint mobility. Methods: Joint mobility of hand and wrist was determined in 63 patients with type 1 diabetes and 63 healthy subjects. Fifteen years later, 37 (58.7%) diabetic patients and 16 (25.4%) healthy subjects were studied again. Joint mobility was assessed with the Prayer sign and by measuring the angle of maximal fle...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed Tomography".
Corrigendum to "Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed Tomography". Int J Endocrinol. 2018;2018:2165342 Authors: Fountoulis G, Kerenidi T, Kokkinis C, Georgoulias P, Thriskos P, Gourgoulianis K, Fezoulidis I, Vassiou K, Vlychou M Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/6169721.]. PMID: 29853877 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

The Potential Role of miRNAs as New Biomarkers for Osteoporosis.
Authors: Materozzi M, Merlotti D, Gennari L, Bianciardi S Abstract Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder affecting up to 40% of postmenopausal women, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and strength leading to bone fragility and fractures. Despite the available tools for diagnosis and stratification of a fracture risk, bone loss occurs insidiously and osteoporosis is often diagnosed after the first fracture has occurred, with important health-related outcomes. Therefore, the need of markers that could efficiently diagnose bone fragility and osteoporosis is still necessary. Over the past few ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Impact of Long-Acting Somatostatin Analogues on Glucose Metabolism in Acromegaly: A Hospital-Based Study.
Authors: Shen M, Wang M, He W, He M, Qiao N, Ma Z, Ye Z, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Cai Y, ABuDuoReYiMu Y, Lu Y, Lu B, Shou X, Wang Y, Ye H, Li Y, Li S, Zhao Y, Cao X, Zhang Z Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the change in glucose tolerance in treatment-naïve patients with acromegaly after administration of SSA and to identify predictive factors of glucose impairment during SSA therapy. Methods: Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) was performed on 64 newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve patients with acromegaly both at pretreatment and 3 months after initiation of treatment with long-acting SSA. Insulin ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Stevia Nonsweetener Fraction Displays an Insulinotropic Effect Involving Neurotransmission in Pancreatic Islets.
Authors: Piovan S, Pavanello A, Peixoto GML, Matiusso CCI, de Moraes AMP, Martins IP, Malta A, Palma-Rigo K, da Silva Franco CC, Milani PG, Dacome AS, da Costa SC, de Freitas Mathias PC, Mareze-Costa CE Abstract Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni besides being a source of noncaloric sweeteners is also an important source of bioactive molecules. Many plant extracts, mostly obtained with ethyl acetate solvent, are rich in polyphenol compounds that present insulinotropic effects. To investigate whether the nonsweetener fraction, which is rich in phenolic compounds isolated from Stevia rebaudiana with the solvent ethyl ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Beta-Arrestin 1 Mediates Liver Thyrotropin Regulation of Cholesterol Conversion Metabolism via the Akt-Dependent Pathway.
Authors: Niu S, Li H, Chen W, Zhao J, Gao L, Bo T Abstract After activation, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are desensitized by β-arrestins (ARRBs). Moreover, ARRBs can initiate a second wave of signaling independent of G proteins. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is one of the GPCR members. In our previous study, TSHR was identified in the liver; the major role of TSHR in cholesterol metabolism was illustrated, as TSH could regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism via cAMP/PKA/CREB/HMGCR and SREBP2/HNF4α/CYP7A1 pathways. It has been reported that ARRB2 predominates over ARRB1 in TSHR inte...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Characterization of In Vivo Retinal Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy.
Conclusions: AOSLO imaging provides detailed, noninvasive in vivo visualization of DR lesions enhancing the assessment of morphological characteristics. These unique AOSLO attributes may enable new insights into the pathological changes of DR in response to disease onset, development, regression, and response to therapy. PMID: 29853882 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Akt/p27kip1 Pathway Is Not Involved in Human Insulinoma Tumorigenesis.
Authors: Díaz AG, de Lima AP, Garibaldi P, Rubio MLM, García F, Kral M, Bruno OD Abstract Insulinomas are pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), usually benign. Akt/p27kip1 is an intracellular pathway overexpressed in many pNET. There are no data regarding its expression in human insulinomas. We aimed to investigate the expression of Akt and p27kip1 in 24 human insulinomas and to compare them to their expression in normal surrounding islets. Staining was performed on embedded paraffin tissue using polyclonal antibodies against total Akt, p-Akt, p27kip1, and pp27kip1. p-Akt was the predominant form i...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Adiponectin: A New Regulator of Female Reproductive System.
Authors: Dobrzyn K, Smolinska N, Kiezun M, Szeszko K, Rytelewska E, Kisielewska K, Gudelska M, Kaminski T Abstract Adiponectin is the hormone that belongs to the group of adipokines, chemical agents mainly derived from the white adipose tissue. The hormone plays pleiotropic roles in the organism, but the most important function of adiponectin is the control of energy metabolism. The presence of adiponectin and its receptors in the structures responsible for the regulation of female reproductive functions, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, indicates that adiponectin may be involved in the female fer...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Young Adults Conceived by ICSI.
Authors: Belva F, Bonduelle M, Provyn S, Painter RC, Tournaye H, Roelants M, De Schepper J Abstract Background: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) conception presents the early embryo with a radically different environment, which may lead to permanent alterations to key cardiometabolic processes. Blood pressure, indicators of insulin resistance, and lipid profiles have previously been studied in offspring born after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and ICSI, with conflicting findings. Also, results in young adults born after ICSI are lacking. Aim: We investigated if young adult men and women conceived by ICSI ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Naturally Menopausal Women with Various Durations of Premenarche, Reproductive Periods, and Postmenopausal Stages".
Corrigendum to "Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Naturally Menopausal Women with Various Durations of Premenarche, Reproductive Periods, and Postmenopausal Stages". Int J Endocrinol. 2018;2018:8508059 Authors: Zhu XH, Yu B, Huang YQ, Zhou JN, Ge MH Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/5702716.]. PMID: 29853886 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Individuals Aged 15 Years and Above in Mizan-Aman Town, Southwest Ethiopia, 2016: A Cross Sectional Study.
Conclusion: In this study, higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus was observed than the IDFA-projected estimate of DM for Ethiopia. Modifiable associated risk factors were also identified. Therefore, targeting the prevention strategy to such modifiable risk factors might reduce the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and screening of DM particularly in those individuals having high WC, history of smoking habit, and hypertension needs attention. PMID: 29853887 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Changes in Body Compositions and Basal Metabolic Rates during Treatment of Graves' Disease.
Conclusions: Treatment of Graves' disease increased body weight and fat mass transiently with decreased REE. However, long-term compositional changes moved in a beneficial direction increasing lean mass and reinforcing muscle strength, following decreasing fat percentages. PMID: 29853888 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Prevalence, Predictive Factors, and Characteristics of Osteoporosis in Hyperthyroid Patients.
This study aims to determine the prevalence, predictive factors, and characteristics of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid patients. Method: Forty (40) hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls ages 21-50 years were recruited in this study. Questionnaires were administered to capture bio- and clinical data. Biochemical tests included blood, thyroid functions, intact parathyroid hormone, corrected calcium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 21. A p value 
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System as a Therapeutic Target in Late Injury Caused by Ischemia-Reperfusion.
Authors: Rodríguez-Lara SQ, García-Benavides L, Miranda-Díaz AG Abstract Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a well-known phenomenon that involves different pathophysiological processes. Connection in diverse systems of survival brings about cellular dysfunction or even apoptosis. One of the survival systems of the cells, to the assault caused by ischemia, is the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (also known as an axis), which is focused on activating diverse signaling pathways to favor adaptation to the decrease in metabolic supports caused by the hypoxia. In trying to ad...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Adaptive Modifications of Maternal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity during Lactation and Salsolinol as a New Player in this Phenomenon.
Authors: Hasiec M, Misztal T Abstract Both basal and stress-induced secretory activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are distinctly modified in lactating females. On the one hand, it aims to meet the physiological demands of the mother, and on the other hand, the appropriate and stable plasma cortisol level is one of the essential factors for the proper offspring development. Specific adaptations of HPA axis activity to lactation have been extensively studied in several animal species and humans, providing interesting data on the HPA axis plasticity mechanism. However, most of the data related ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiome Profile in Obesity: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Castaner O, Goday A, Park YM, Lee SH, Magkos F, Shiow STE, Schröder H Abstract Gut microbiome has been identified in the past decade as an important factor involved in obesity, but the magnitude of its contribution to obesity and its related comorbidities is still uncertain. Among the vast quantity of factors attributed to obesity, environmental, dietary, lifestyle, genetic, and others, the microbiome has aroused curiosity, and the scientific community has published many original articles. Most of the studies related to microbiome and obesity have been reported based on the associations between microb...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Uncoupling Protein 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Gene Polymorphisms in Association with Diabetes Susceptibility in Chinese Han Population with Variant Glucose Tolerance.
Conclusion: It probably could prevent insulin resistance in early stage by classifying the genotype of rs649446 and rs7109266 in UCP2. The GG genotype of rs2920502 in PPARγ had a decreased risk for diabetes. The TT genotype of rs3856806 in PPARγ had an increased risk for diabetes. PMID: 29849618 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Nonthionamide Drugs for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism: From Present to Future.
Authors: Suwansaksri N, Preechasuk L, Kunavisarut T Abstract Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrine disease. Although thionamide antithyroid drugs are the cornerstone of hyperthyroidism treatment, some patients cannot tolerate this drug class because of its serious side effects including agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity, and vasculitis. Therefore, nonthionamide antithyroid drugs (NTADs) still have an important role in controlling hyperthyroidism in clinical practice. Furthermore, some situations such as thyroid storm or preoperative preparation require a rapid decrease in thyroid hormone by combination treatment with...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Updates and Perspectives.
Authors: Guarino E, Delli Poggi C, Grieco GE, Cenci V, Ceccarelli E, Crisci I, Sebastiani G, Dotta F Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of carbohydrate intolerance, with onset or first recognition during second or third trimester of gestation. It is estimated that approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM and that its prevalence is rising all over the world. Thus, the screening for abnormal glucose levels is generally recommended as a routine component of care for pregnant women. However, additional biomarkers are needed in order to predict the onset or accurately...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Adult Height after Growth Hormone Treatment at Pubertal Onset in Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age: Results from a Belgian Registry-Based Study.
Conclusions: Short SGA adolescents starting GH therapy at an early pubertal stage have a modest and variable height gain. A normal AH can be expected in one third of the patients, especially in those with a smaller height deficit at onset of GH treatment. PMID: 29849621 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Circulating MicroRNAs in Elderly Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Authors: Catanzaro G, Besharat ZM, Chiacchiarini M, Abballe L, Sabato C, Vacca A, Borgiani P, Dotta F, Tesauro M, Po A, Ferretti E Abstract The circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly patients are still being defined. To identify novel miRNA biomarker candidates for monitoring responses to sitagliptin in such patients, we prospectively studied 40 T2D patients (age > 65) with HbA1c levels of 7.5-9.0% on metformin. After collection of baseline blood samples (t0), the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor (DPP-IVi) sitagliptin was added to the metformin reg...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Fatty Liver as a Potential Surrogate for Waist Circumference in the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study among Chinese Adults.
Authors: Jiang B, Gu T, Zhou K, Zheng Y, Guo Y, Lu Y Abstract Increased waist circumference (WC) is an essential component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Asians have been found to have more intra-abdominal adipose tissue than Caucasians, in spite of having smaller WC. The purpose of this study was to explore whether NAFLD could be used as a surrogate for MetS diagnosis in the normal WC population. A total of 9694 Chinese residents were selected from SPECT-China, a population-based survey of Chinese adults aged ≥ 18 years in East China. Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostatic model asses...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the HbA1c Reduction Cut Point for a Nonglycemic Effect on Cardiovascular Benefit of Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Based on Endpoint Events.
Authors: Wu Y, Tang L, Zhang F, Yan Z, Li J, Tong N Abstract Background: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a major cause of death among patients with diabetes but can be improved by certain hypoglycemic agents. However, adjudicating criteria on whether improvements are a glycemic or nonglycemic effect of these agents remain unclear. Methods: Hypoglycemic agents that produce a cardiovascular benefit in nondiabetic patients are considered to do so via a nonglycemic effect. We performed a subgroup analysis for primary and secondary prevention or very high risk of ASCVD in patients with type 2 diabe...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Emergence of Pituitary Adenoma in a Child during Surveillance: Clinical Challenges and the Family Members' View in an AIP Mutation-Positive Family.
We report a FIPA kindred with a heterozygous deletion in AIP, aiming to highlight the indications and benefits of genetic screening, variability in clinical presentations, and management challenges in this setting. Patients: An 18-year-old male was diagnosed with a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Two years later, his brother was diagnosed with a somatolactotrophinoma, and a small Rathke's cleft cyst and a microadenoma were detected on screening in their 17-year-old sister. Following amenorrhoea, their maternal cousin was diagnosed with hyperprolactinaemia and two distinct pituitary microadenomas. A ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Magnesium and Human Health: Perspectives and Research Directions.
Authors: Al Alawi AM, Majoni SW, Falhammar H Abstract Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body. It has several functions in the human body including its role as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions. Several studies have shown that hypomagnesemia is a common electrolyte derangement in clinical setting especially in patients admitted to intensive care unit where it has been found to be associated with increase mortality and hospital stay. Hypomagnesemia can be caused by a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. It can also be a side effect of several medications. Many studies have r...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Synergistic Effects of Dantrolene and Nimodipine on the Phenylephrine-Induced Contraction and ACh-Induced Relaxation in Aortic Rings from Diabetic Rats.
Authors: Crespo MJ, Roman M, Matias J, Morales M, Torres H, Quidgley J Abstract Diabetics have a higher risk of developing cerebral vasospasms (CVSP) than nondiabetics. The addition of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker dantrolene to standard therapies reduces vasospasms in nondiabetics. Whether diabetics with CVSP also benefit from this drug, however, is unknown. We evaluated the effects of a 30 min incubation with dantrolene (50 μM), nimodipine (50 nM), and both drugs in combination, on phenylephrine- (PHE-) induced contraction and on acetylcholine- (ACh-) induced relaxation in aortic ri...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Implication of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, and Subclinical Inflammation on Mild Renal Insufficiency.
This study included 1174 Korean adults. NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasonography. Mild renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 and
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - May 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Mitochondrial Function in Diabetic Nephropathy.
Authors: Sifuentes-Franco S, Padilla-Tejeda DE, Carrillo-Ibarra S, Miranda-Díaz AG Abstract Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the second most frequent and prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The increase in the production of oxidative stress (OS) is induced by the persistent hyperglycemic state capable of producing oxidative damage to the macromolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids). OS favors the production of oxidative damage to the histones of the double-chain DNA and affects expression of the DNA repairer enzyme which leads to cell death from apoptosis. The chronic hypergl...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - May 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research