IJU Awards 2017
Indian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):93-94 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Re: Singh A et al. Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: Feasibility and outcome in postchemotherapy residual mass in testicular cancer. Indian J Urol 2017;33:304-9
Mustafa Zafer Temiz, Omer Onur Cakir, Engin Kandirali, Atilla SemerciozIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):91-92 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mustafa Zafer Temiz Omer Onur Cakir Engin Kandirali Atilla Semercioz Source Type: research

Author Reply Re: Goel A. Research training during residency. Indian J Urol 2017;33:257-8
Apul GoelIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):90-91 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Apul Goel Source Type: research

Re: Goel A. Research training during residency. Indian J Urol 2017;33:257-8
Sohrab AroraIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):89-90 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sohrab Arora Source Type: research

Periureteral inferior vena caval venous ring presenting as urinary obstruction
Suprava Naik, Arashdeep Singh, Sudipta Mohakud, Nerbadyswari DeepIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):87-88The embryological development of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is complex, and thus the vena cava may undergo a large number of congenital anomalies. Periureteric venous ring is a rare developmental anomaly of IVC where the right ureter passes through a slit-like opening in a partially duplicated infrarenal IVC, resulting in dilatation of upper urinary tract. Split-bolus multidetector computed tomography technique is useful in detecting such vascular anomaly causing ureteric obstruction as it can clearly show the vascu...
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Suprava Naik Arashdeep Singh Sudipta Mohakud Nerbadyswari Deep Source Type: research

Ureteropelvic junction obstruction - mimicking an & #8220;elephant head & #8221; on magnetic resonance imaging
We present images a case of an adult female with Left UPJO, which on MRI mimicked an 'elephant head'. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sony Bhaskar Mehta Hariharan Krishnamoorthy Biju Pillai Source Type: research

Extrarenal retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma with oncocytoma
We present herein the first case to be reported in English literature. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Amir Mahmud Ali Syed Jamal Rizvi Kamal V Kanodia Source Type: research

Papillary renal cell carcinoma with abscess formation: A report of three cases
We report three cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with abscess formation. Such association has been reported uncommonly in literature. Our cases were unique in that final histopathological report was papillary RCC in all of the patients. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Girdhar Singh Bora Pankaj Panwar Ravimohan S Mavuduru Nandita Kakkar Source Type: research

Pediatric pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect causing complete urethrovaginal avulsion
We report our experience of managing a 10-year old girl presenting 6 months after a pelvic fracture with urethrovaginal injury and a completely obliterated urethral meatus managed successfully with a single-stage bladder tube repair. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ritesh Kumar Singh Devashish Kaushal Nikhil Khattar Rishi Nayyar T Manasa Rajeev Sood Source Type: research

Editorial comment on & #8220;Effects of tumor size and location on survival in upper tract urothelial carcinoma after nephroureterectomy & #8221;
Gagan Prakash, Gagan GautamIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):74-75 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gagan Prakash Gagan Gautam Source Type: research

Effects of tumor size and location on survival in upper tract urothelial carcinoma after nephroureterectomy
Shreyas S Joshi, Laura L Quast, Sam S Chang, Sanjay G PatelIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):68-73Introduction: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare disease with few prognostic determinants. We sought to evaluate the impact of tumor size and location on patient survival following nephroureterectomy for UTUC. Materials and Methods: Data on 8284 patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC in the United States between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed from the National Cancer Data Base. Univariable survivorship curves were generated based on pT stage, pN stage, grade, tumor size, and tumor site (renal...
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shreyas S Joshi Laura L Quast Sam S Chang Sanjay G Patel Source Type: research

Impact of learning curve on the perioperative outcomes following robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for renal tumors
Conclusions: RAPN is a viable option for nephron-sparing surgery in patients with renal carcinoma. For a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, acceptable perioperative outcomes following RAPN can be achieved after an LC of about 44 cases. Increasing surgeon experience was associated with improved “trifecta” achievement following RAPN. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brendan Hermenigildo Dias Mohammed Shahid Ali Shiv Dubey Srinivas Arkalgud Krishnaswamy Amrith Raj Rao Deepak Dubey Source Type: research

Symptomatic lower urinary tract dysfunction in sacral agenesis: Potentially high risk ?
Conclusions: Symptomatic neurogenic bladder due to SA may cause renal damage similar to ARM but often eludes diagnosis. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sanjay Sinha Mehul A Shah Dilip M Babu Source Type: research

Comparison of RENAL, PADUA, and C-index scoring systems in predicting perioperative outcomes after nephron sparing surgery
Conclusions: There is good correlation among all the 3 SS. C-index has lower reproducibility due to difficult mathematical calculation but correlated best with trifecta outcomes. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aditya P Sharma Ravimohan Suryanarayana Mavuduru Girdhar Singh Bora Sudheer K Devana Kiruthika Palani Anupam Lal Nandita Kakkar Shrawan K Singh Arup K Mandal Source Type: research

Lateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A safe and effective surgical approach
Conclusions: Our lateral-PCNL technique allows for effective stone clearance due to good stone ergonomics and it should be considered as a safe alternative even in the most routine procedures. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jonathan Jian Wei Gan Jaslyn Ju Lia Gan Jasmine Ju Hsien Gan Kim Tiong Lee Source Type: research

Oncologic outcomes in patients with nonurothelial bladder cancer
Conclusions: With the exception of AC, the most common variant bladder cancer histologies are all independently associated with worse DSS relative to UCC in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sanjay G Patel Adam Benjamin Weiner Kirk Keegan Todd Morgan Source Type: research

Urodynamic outcomes of tamsulosin in the treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men
Conclusions: Tamsulosin 0.4 mg once a day is effective in reducing bladder outlet obstruction on pressure flow studies in patients with primary bladder neck obstruction type 1. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Manoj K Sudrania Anuj Deep Dangi Santosh Kumar Barath Kumar Nitin S Kekre Source Type: research

Decline in semen parameters from 2000 to 2016 among Bangladeshi men attending a tertiary care hospital
Conclusion: In agreement with the hypothesis, Bangladeshi males attending this clinic have experienced decline in semen parameters (total motility and RL motility) and increased frequency of azoospermia. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nusrat Mahmud Eshita Sharmin Md. Arif Mamun Zayan Shamayeen Natalie Rivadeneira Roger Rochat Akanksha Mehta Source Type: research

PET-CT and PET-MR in urological cancers other than prostate cancer: An update on state of the art
Abdul Razik, Chandan Jyoti Das, Sanjay SharmaIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):20-27Hybrid positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) have enabled the combination of morphologic and functional imaging with the promise of providing better information in guiding therapy. Further advance has been made in the past decade with the development of newer radiotracers and optimization of the technical aspects. We performed a search in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed literature concerning the advances and newer developments in the imaging of nonpros...
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Abdul Razik Chandan Jyoti Das Sanjay Sharma Source Type: research

New therapies in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer treatment
Conclusion: The ongoing efforts to develop new therapeutic approaches for NMIBC look very promising and are continuing to evolve. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kareem N Rayn Graham R Hale Gustavo Pena-La Grave Piyush K Agarwal Source Type: research

Round up
Anil MandhaniIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):9-10 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anil Mandhani Source Type: research

What & #39;s inside
Rajeev KumarIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):7-8 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rajeev Kumar Source Type: research

Medical Council of India & #39;s amended qualifications for Indian medical teachers: Well intended, yet half-hearted
Sunita V. S. Bandewar, Amita Aggarwal, Rajeev Kumar, Rakesh Aggarwal, Peush Sahni, Sanjay A PaiIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):3-6 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sunita V. S. Bandewar Amita Aggarwal Rajeev Kumar Rakesh Aggarwal Peush Sahni Sanjay A Pai Source Type: research

Whose evidence do we follow ?
Rajeev KumarIndian Journal of Urology 2018 34(1):1-2 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rajeev Kumar Source Type: research

A game changing LATITUDE: Role of abiraterone plus prednisolone in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer
Aditya Prakash SharmaIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):333-334 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aditya Prakash Sharma Source Type: research

Embolized prostatic brachytherapy seeds mimicking acute chest pain syndromes
Nirmal Guragai, Upamanyu Rampal, Rahul VasudevIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):331-332A 59-year-old male with a history of nonobstructive coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and prostate cancer presented to the hospital with 1-day history of pleuritic chest pain. Initial workup for acute coronary event was unremarkable. Chest X-ray revealed multiple small radial densities which were linear and hyperdense, consistent with embolization of metallic seeds to the pulmonary circulation. The patient was noted to have had radioactive metallic seeds implanted for prostate cancer 6 months ago. Diagnosis of ...
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nirmal Guragai Upamanyu Rampal Rahul Vasudev Source Type: research

Successful renal transplant in a pediatric patient with HIV-associated nephropathy
Anshuman Sood, David Hakim, Abhishek BoseIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):328-330HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a pathological state of the kidneys due to longstanding, uncontrolled HIV infection. With the rapid progression of HIVAN to end-stage kidney failure, there is a significant potential for renal transplantation to improve the quality of life in these patients. Numerous studies have been recently published documenting renal transplantation as a primary treatment for HIVAN. With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, allograft and patient survival rates of HIV-infected persons are nearly identica...
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anshuman Sood David Hakim Abhishek Bose Source Type: research

18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography-guided diagnosis of prostatic and leptomeningeal tuberculosis
We report a case of an immunocompetent patient with pyrexia of unknown origin, on evaluation with whole-body 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography scan found to have suspicious prostatic primary, with hypermetabolic abnormalities involving the brain. Histopathological diagnosis was established as multifocal tuberculosis involving prostate, meninges, and intracranial tuberculomas. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Madhuri Shimpi Mahajan Akshay Bedmutha Natasha Singh Source Type: research

Occult renal cell carcinoma presenting as carcinomatous polyarthritis
Mansoor C Abdulla, Ram Narayan, Hazwa K HamzaIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):323-324Carcinomatous polyarthritis (CP) is a rare paraneoplastic disorder which can be associated with various solid tumors and can even precede detection of the underlying malignancy. A 54-year-old male presented with migratory asymmetric inflammatory polyarthritis and high-grade fever for 6 months. On evaluation, he was diagnosed to have renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CP as an initial presentation of RCC was not described previously. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mansoor C Abdulla Ram Narayan Hazwa K Hamza Source Type: research

Mini access guide to simplify calyceal access during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A novel device
Conclusion: The MAG is a simple, portable, cheap, and novel assistant to achieve successful PCNL puncture. It would be of great help for novices to establish access during their learning phase of PCNL. It would also be an asset toward significantly decreasing the radiation dose during PCNL access. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Puskar Shyam Chowdhury Prasant Nayak Deepak David Sujata Mallick Source Type: research

Results of tubularized urethral plate urethroplasty in Megameatus Intact Prepuce
Conclusions: Surgical correction of MIP in the era of increased cosmetic awareness is justified. Excellent results are obtained with TUPU and along with spongioplasty and frenuloplasty because of availability of wide urethral plate and well-developed spongiosum in these patients. TUPU should be the preferred procedure in cases of MIP. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Amilal Bhat Mahakshit Bhat Akshita Bhat Vikash Singh Source Type: research

A randomized controlled study comparing the standard, tubeless, and totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures for renal stones from a tertiary care hospital
Conclusions: Tubeless and totally tubeless PCNL are safe and effective method of renal stone management. Totally tubeless PCNL significantly reduced postoperative pain and morbidity compared to the tubeless method. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Suresh Bhat Jithin Lal Fredrick Paul Source Type: research

Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: Feasibility and outcome in postchemotherapy residual mass in testicular cancer
Conclusion: RA-RPLND is safe and feasible for postchemotherapy residual mass with accepted compilation rate, but larger studies are required to establish its diagnostic and therapeutic utility along with safety of the procedure. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Amitabh Singh Smaranjit Chatterjee Prashant Bansal Abhishek Bansal Sudhir Rawal Source Type: research

Use of a stopwatch to measure ejaculatory latency may not be accurate among Indian patients
Conclusion: Use of stopwatch to clock the IELT does not appear to represent true IELT in Indian patients. Self-assessed IELT correlated more accurately with symptoms of PE. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gajanan Shripad Bhat Anuradha Shastry Source Type: research

Are there any factors affecting the outcome of endoscopic sclerotherapy in filarial chyluria ? A prospective study
Conclusions: The factors predicting recurrence were higher clinical grade, higher number of pretreatment courses, and high urinary TG and cholesterol. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bimalesh Purkait Apul Goel Yogesh Garg Shriya Pant Bhupendra Pal Singh Satya Narayan Sankhwar Source Type: research

Urine and serum fetuin-A levels in patients with urolithiasis
Conclusions: Patients with urolithiasis have lower urine fetuin-A and creatinine-adjusted serum fetuin-A levels. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rajat Arora Nitin Abrol B Antonisamy S Vanitha J Chandrasingh Santosh Kumar Nitin Kekre Antony Devasia Source Type: research

MicroRNA-21 could be a molecular marker to predict the recurrence of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
Conclusion: We found overexpression of miR-21 in tumor tissue and its association with recurrence, time to recurrence and invasiveness in BC. Quantification of miR-21 along with other pathological parameters could be more objective molecular approach to predict recurrence in NMIBC. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nilay Mitash Shalini Agnihotri Swasti Tiwari Vinita Agrawal Anil Mandhani Source Type: research

Ureteral endometriosis: A systematic literature review
Conclusions: Ureteral endometriosis represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinicians and high clinical suspicion is needed to identify it. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Viktoria-Varvara Palla Georgios Karaolanis Ioannis Katafigiotis Ioannis Anastasiou Source Type: research

Follow-up urodynamics in patients with neurogenic bladder
Conclusions: Neurogenic bladder is managed by a broad cross-section of physicians. Clear recommendations and a management algorithm are important for improving patient care. Follow-up urodynamics can identify patients at risk, prevent renal dysfunction and improve the quality of life. There is an urgent need for more evidence on this important subject. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sanjay Sinha Source Type: research

Market forces in urological practice
Vilvapathy Senguttuvan KarthikeyanIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):264-266 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Vilvapathy Senguttuvan Karthikeyan Source Type: research

Roundup
Arabind PandaIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):261-263 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Arabind Panda Source Type: research

What & #39;s inside
Apul GoelIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):259-260 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Apul Goel Source Type: research

Research training during residency
Apul GoelIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(4):257-258 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - September 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Apul Goel Source Type: research

Under the knife: Surgical stories from around the world
Sanjay A PaiIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(3):256-256 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - June 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sanjay A Pai Source Type: research

Re: Silicate urolithiasis in a pediatric patient
Mahmood Dhahir Al-MendalawiIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(3):255-255 (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - June 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi Source Type: research

Cystoscopic stent removal using a guidewire loop
Ajay T Oswal, Pankaj N Maheshwari, Dhruti AmlaniIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(3):253-254 Stent removal is a simple procedure performed with a rigid cystoscope and a stent removal forceps. In the rare event when the stent removal forceps does not work or breaks down, a guidewire loop can be used to remove the stent. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - June 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ajay T Oswal Pankaj N Maheshwari Dhruti Amlani Source Type: research

Priapism with penile gangrene: An unusual presentation of multiple myeloma
We present a 44-year-old patient of multiple myeloma presenting with ischemic priapism and penile gangrene requiring partial penectomy. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - June 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Vikas Kumar Panwar Ravimohan S Mavuduru Sudheer Kumar Devana Kim Vaiphei Girdhar Singh Bora Source Type: research

Cystitis glandularis: Management and challenges in a renal transplant recipient
We present a rare case where a chronic kidney disease patient was found to have cystitis glandularis while being worked up for living-related donor renal transplant and describe its subsequent management. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - June 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Himanshu Agarwal Mukund G Andankar Viswanath Billa Source Type: research

Dihydroxyadenine stone with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: A case report
Pramod Krishnappa, Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy, Kiran Krishne GowdaIndian Journal of Urology 2017 33(3):246-248 Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive error of purine metabolism resulting in the generation of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), a highly insoluble metabolite of adenine, which can cause radiolucent urolithiasis. This is the second case of DHA stone being reported in India and the first case in India to document the mutation of the APRT gene on blood DNA analysis. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - June 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pramod Krishnappa Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy Kiran Krishne Gowda Source Type: research

Contrast-induced nephropathy in urological imaging: A comparison with cardiology interventions
Conclusion: Although CIN was found to occur with contrast studies, the deleterious effects of contrast in urological procedures were lower than cardiology patients. The association between the occurrence of CIN and patient factors were also different in the two groups. (Source: Indian Journal of Urology)
Source: Indian Journal of Urology - June 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Manas Babu Devesh Bansal Sony Bhaskar Mehta Biju Pillai Hariharan Krishnamoorthy Thankachan Attacharil Source Type: research