IL-17, IL-10, IL-6, and IFN- γ in Egyptian Behçet's disease: correlation with clinical manifestations.
IL-17, IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ in Egyptian Behçet's disease: correlation with clinical manifestations. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2019 Mar 01;30(1):15-22 Authors: Talaat RM, Sibaii H, Bassyouni IH, El-Wakkad A Abstract There are a limited number of studies that report the polarization of the immune system toward the production of T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, or Th17-type cytokines in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Here, we aimed to detect the presence of various cytokines in serum samples of Egyptian BD patients and to determine the correlation between their production levels and clinical ma...
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 29, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Ischemic time of graft liver forces Th1-to-Th2 activity toward Th1 activity in patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation.
Authors: Park CS, Moon HY, Han S, Chon JY, Chae MS, Hong SH, Choi JH, Chung HS Abstract Recipient's immune responses are an important factor in allograft survival in transplantation. Cytokines are reflected with immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate potential affecting factors of liver allograft survival and their possible correlation with seroum cytokine levels in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). One hundred and seventy-one adult patients' data were collected retrospectively. Five cytokines were collected: interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-17. Ischem...
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 29, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

The role of inflammatory markers hs-CRP, sialic acid, and IL-6 in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.
CONCLUSION: The serum levels of hs-CRP, SA, and IL-6 were not elevated in pregnancies complicated with PE and IUGR compared with normal pregnancies. Since pregnancy is already a process with inflammation, fluctuations in some markers related to inflammation may be masked by the gestation itself. A local subclinical inflammation may have a role in the pathogenesis of PE and IUGR rather than systemic inflammation. PMID: 31074415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Elevated cytokine levels associated with acute kidney injury due to wasp sting.
This study mainly to explore the change of serum cytokines in wasp sting patients and the potential correlation between cytokines and acute kidney injury (AKI) due to wasp stings. The levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in 33 wasp sting and 24 healthy people were measured by flow cytometry, the level of IL-17 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the laboratory examination including inflammatory indicators, muscle enzyme markers, and renal function were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer, blood analyzer, and urine analyzer. The wasp sting patients were divided into AKI (n...
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Autoimmunity and cytokines in Guillain-Barr é syndrome revisited: review of pathomechanisms with an eye on therapeutic options.
Autoimmunity and cytokines in Guillain-Barré syndrome revisited: review of pathomechanisms with an eye on therapeutic options. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2019 May 10;: Authors: Ebrahim Soltani Z, Rahmani F, Rezaei N Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute paralysis in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni is a common trigger for GBS, igniting autoimmunity as a result of molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and host gangliosides. Evidence also suggests an active role for cell-mediated and innate immunity in pathogenesis of GBS. Infec...
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Assessment of an ultra-sensitive IFN γ immunoassay prototype for latent tuberculosis diagnosis.
Assessment of an ultra-sensitive IFNγ immunoassay prototype for latent tuberculosis diagnosis. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2019 Feb 04;: Authors: Ben Salah E, Dorgham K, Lesénéchal M, Pease C, Allard L, Dragonetti C, Gorochov G, Guihot A, Sterlin D Abstract Worldwide there are about 1.7 billion individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and only 5% to 15% will develop active tuberculosis (TB). It is recommended to treat only those most at risk of developing active TB to avoid problems of drug resistance. LTBI diagnosis involves reviewing the individual's medical history, physical ...
Source: European Cytokine Network - February 6, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Serum levels of transforming growth factor β1 and C-reactive protein as possible markers of intra uterine insemination outcome.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in serum TGF-β1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in infertile women following intrauterine insemination (IUI) according to the presence of pregnancy. Sixty-three infertile patients were selected for the study in a nine-month period. Clomiphene citrate or recombinant gonadotropins were used for ovulation induction, and all patients underwent IUI following human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger. The pregnant and non-pregnant groups' TGF-β1 and CRP levels were measured. The CRP levels increased significantly from the day of the hCG trigger to the 8th day after h...
Source: European Cytokine Network - January 31, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

RAC1 expression and role in IL-1 β production and oxidative stress generation in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients.
This study aims to investigate RAC1 expression and role in IL-1β and caspase-1 production and oxidative stress generation in FMF. The study included 25 FMF patients (nine during attack and remission, and 16 during remission only), and 25 controls. RAC1 expression levels were analyzed by real-time PCR. Ex vivo production of caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, catalase, and glutathione system) were evaluated respectively in supernatants of patients' and controls' PBMC and PMN cultures, in the presence and absence of RAC1 inhibitor. RAC1 gene expression and IL-1β levels were...
Source: European Cytokine Network - January 31, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Toll-like receptors pathway in common variable immune deficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA).
Authors: Tavasolian P, Sharifi L, Aghamohammadi A, Noorbakhsh F, Sanaei R, Shabani M, Rezaei N Abstract Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are two major humoral immunodeficiencies, causing a high rate of early age mortality in children. In order to identifiy the possible factors involved in the pathogenesis of CVID and XLA, recent studies have focused on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and demonstrate the defects in different TLR pathways in immune cells of CVID and XLA patients. Herein, we measured TLR-4 and TLR-9 RNA levels and consequently TNF-α and IFN-α product...
Source: European Cytokine Network - January 31, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

In vitro study of HAX1 gene therapy by retro viral transduction as a therapeutic target in severe congenital neutropenia.
Authors: Farajifard H, Zavvar M, Rajaei T, Noorbakhsh F, Nikougoftar-Zarif M, Azadmanesh K, Kompani F, Rezaei N Abstract Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a primary immunodeficiency disease in which a number of underlying gene defects are responsible for abnormalities in neutrophil development. The HCLS1-associated protein X1 (HAX1) mutation is associated with an autosomal-recessive form of SCN. Considering the potential of gene therapy approaches for the treatment of monogenic disorders, in this study we aimed to develop retroviral vectors expressing coding sequences (CDS) to be used for the removal of the ge...
Source: European Cytokine Network - January 31, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Cytokine and molecular networks in sepsis cases: a network biology approach.
Authors: Jekarl DW, Kim KS, Lee S, Kim M, Kim Y Abstract Sepsis is a life-threatening condition of organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host immune response to infection. We performed network analysis of cytokine molecules and compared network structures between a systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or normal control (NC) group and a sepsis group. We recruited SIRS (n = 33) and sepsis (n = 89) patients from electronic medical records (EMR) according to whether data on PCT, CRP, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Elevated adiponectin and sTNFRII serum levels can predict progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with compensated HCV1 cirrhosis.
Authors: Bastard JP, Fellahi S, Audureau É, Layese R, Roudot-Thoraval F, Cagnot C, Mahuas-Bourcier V, Sutton A, Ziol M, Capeau J, Nahon P Abstract An obesity-related altered adipose tissue secretion is suggested as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis. However, no prospective study has yet examined the predictive value of circulating adipokines and immuno-inflammatory biomarkers regarding this risk. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective French national cohort of HCV-infected patients with biopsy-proven compensated cirrhosis. We se...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Cytokines and male infertility.
In conclusion, inflammatory cytokines and adipokines seem to have a pivotal role in the regulation of spermatogenesis; any imbalance in this stable environment may lead to infertility. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to clarify their exact role. PMID: 30547889 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Obesity and inflammation.
Authors: Karczewski J, Śledzińska E, Baturo A, Jończyk I, Maleszko A, Maleszko A, Samborski P, Begier-Krasińska B, Dobrowolska A Abstract The prevalence of obesity has recently increased dramatically and has contributed to the increasing prevalence of various pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, asthma, various types of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and others. Accumulating evidence points to localized inflammation in adipose tissue, which, in turn, promotes systemic low-grade inflammation as a primary force contributing to the d...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Increased IL-1 β levels are associated with an imbalance of "oxidant/antioxidant" status during Behçet's disease.
In this study, we sought to address a relationship that might exist between interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the oxidants/antioxidants markers in Behçet's patients. Behçet's disease patients (n = 78: active stage, n = 28; inactive stage, n = 50) and 41 healthy controls have been included in our study. In this context, we investigated the plasma levels of IL-1β and the nitrosative/oxidative markers: nitric oxide (NO), advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP) and fatty acids peroxidation-malondialdehyde (MDA). The antioxidant system was assessed by measuring ...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Characterization of new anti-IL-6 antibodies revealed high potency candidates for intracellular cytokine detection and specific targeting of IL-6 receptor binding sites.
In this study, five novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive to human IL-6 were generated. The mAbs were characterized for potential diagnostic purposes and recombinant antibodies were derived thereof. Initial epitope mapping using a combination of blocking experiments and Hyper-IL-6, a fusion protein consisting of IL-6 and the soluble IL-6 receptor revealed distinct but overlapping binding sites. At least one of the mAbs was found to interact with the region of IL-6/ IL-R complex formation. Three mAbs were applied successfully in intracellular staining by flow cytometry, whereas one of the mAbs showed comparable...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 29, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Clinical significance of serum leptin level in patients with gastric cancer.
In conclusion, although it was not predictive or prognostic, serum leptin level may be a valuable diagnostic indicator in patients with gastric carcinoma. PMID: 30078770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 7, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Role of IL-18 in transplant biology.
Authors: Liu C, Chen J, Liu B, Yuan S, Shou D, Wen L, Wu X, Gong W Abstract Since pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 and its receptor (IL-18R) are closely involved in regulating both adaptive and innate immune responses, it is conceivable that they might play an important role in organ transplantation. IL-18 can stimulate lymphocytes to produce the IFN-γ and regulate macrophage activity, thereby increasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β), CXCL2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2), and CCL2 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1). Ne...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 7, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Interleukin-6 and cardiac operations.
Authors: Yuan SM Abstract Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory capacities, produced by different cells and tissues, such as leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelium. From the viewpoint of cardiologists, this cytokine is a reliable biomarker of cardiac dysfunction, occurrence of atrial fibrillation, cardiac myxoma with recurrence, remote metastasis or embolization, and atherosclerotic processes. Although IL-6 levels were detected in patients undergoing cardiac operations and reported sporadically, the perioperative kinetics of IL-6 in cardiac surgical patients...
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Associations between interleukin-10 polymorphisms and susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism confers susceptibility to JIA. PMID: 29748155 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

TL1A mediates fibroblast-like synoviocytes migration and Indian Hedgehog signaling pathway via TNFR2 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
In conclusion, our study has revealed that TL1A modulated RA-FLS migration and Indian hedgehog signaling pathway using TNFR2. PMID: 29748156 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Interleukin-32 plays an essential role in human calcified aortic valve cells.
This study comprised aortic valve sclerotic patients and control group patients without calcified aortic valve. Increased IL-32 expression in calcified aortic valvular tissue was shown by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. There was an increase in NF-κB p65 level, p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 MAPK activation underlying IL-32 expression in the study. The level of p-STAT3 but not p-STAT1 was found to be increased in calcified aortic valve tissue. In cultured primary human aortic valve interstitial cells, inhibition of NF-κB or MAPK kinase pathways results in a decrease of IL-32 expression. Treatment of...
Source: European Cytokine Network - May 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Interleukin-18: a regulator of cancer and autoimmune diseases.
Authors: Esmailbeig M, Ghaderi A Abstract Interleukin (IL)-18, structurally similar to IL-1β, is a member of IL-1 superfamily of cytokines. This cytokine, which is expressed by many human lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells, has an important role in inflammatory processes. The main function of IL-18 is mediated through induction of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion from T helper (Th1) cells. This cytokine synergistically with IL-12 contributes to Th1 differentiation and, therefore, is important in host defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Recent evidences showing the invol...
Source: European Cytokine Network - February 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Seminal plasma adipokines: involvement in human reproductive functions.
Authors: Elfassy Y, McAvoy C, Fellahi S, Dupont J, Fève B, Levy R, Bastard JP Abstract Infertility, which increased worldwide over the past few decades, has recently been linked to obesity prevalence. Adipokines, produced by adipose tissue, could be the link between obesity and infertility. The association between circulating adipokines and female infertility has been extensively studied in the last ten years. However, the male aspect has been less investigated, although some adipokines are present in seminal plasma. We have attempted to analyze published studies that measured seminal plasma adipokines and t...
Source: European Cytokine Network - February 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

The prognostic time dependence of intra-tumoural IFN γ mRNA and protein in patients with breast cancer followed for 14 years after surgery and radiotherapy, without subsequent systemic therapy.
This study contributes to clarification of the previously inconsistent prognostic performance of IFNγ by providing the first prognostic evaluation with long follow-up, time-dependence assessment and absence of any chemotherapy influence. PMID: 29478965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - February 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

PRR signaling during in vitro macrophage differentiation from progenitors modulates their subsequent response to inflammatory stimuli.
In this study, we used an in vitro model of HSPC differentiation to investigate the functional consequences (cytokine production) that exposing HSPCs to various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and Candida albicans cells have on the subsequently derived macrophages. Mouse HSPCs (Lin- cells) were cultured with GM-CSF to induce macrophage differentiation in the presence or absence of the following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists: Pam3CSK4 (TLR2 ligand), LPS (TLR4 ligand), depleted zymosan (which only activates Dectin-1), or inactivated C. albicans yeasts (which activate several PRRs, mainly TLR...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Effects of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) neutralization on murine hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) infection.
Authors: Aparicio JL, Ottobre M, Duhalde Vega M, Coutelier JP, Van Snick J, Retegui LA Abstract Mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus A59 (MHV-A59) develop hepatitis and autoantibodies (autoAb) to liver and kidney fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), a fact closely related to the release of alarmins such as uric acid and/or high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1). We studied the effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against IL-17A in our model of mouse MHV-A59-infection. MAb anti-IL-17F and anti-IFNγ were used to complement the study. Results showed that transaminase levels markedly decrease...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Sophocarpine suppress inflammatory response in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes  and in mice with collagen-induced arthritis.
This study aimed to investigate whether sophocarpine is a potential drug for treating RA. The cytotoxicity of sophocarpine to RA-fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) was evaluated using 3-[4,-dimethylthiazol-2-y]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays kit and released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The transcription of proinflammatory cytokines in RA-FLSs was analyzed by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The proteins levels were further verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The alterations in the mediators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nucle...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot (ELISpot) monitoring of cytokine-producing cells for the prediction of acute rejection in renal transplant patients.
Authors: Mohammadi F, Solgi G, Tajik M, Ahmadpoor P, Nikoeinejad H, Einollahi B, Nazari B, Lessan-Pezeshki M, Amirzargar A Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate T-cell immunity markers using serial post-transplantation monitoring of cytokine-producing cells during the first post-transplant months for the prediction of acute rejection and potentially chronic rejection of kidney allograft. We followed 57 kidney allograft recipients for meanly 3 years post-transplantation. Blood samples were collected pre-transplant, 2, 4 and 12 weeks post-transplant. The frequencies of IL-10-, IL-17- and IFN-γ-prod...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Skin innate immune response to flaviviral infection.
Authors: Garcia M, Wehbe M, Lévêque N, Bodet C Abstract Skin is a complex organ and the largest interface of the human body exposed to numerous stress and pathogens. Skin is composed of different cell types that together perform essential functions such as pathogen sensing, barrier maintenance and immunity, at once providing the first line of defense against microbial infections and ensuring skin homeostasis. Being inoculated directly through the epidermis and the dermis during a vector blood meal, emerging Dengue, Zika and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses lead to the initiation of the innate immune re...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Predictive ability of circulating osteoprotegerin as a novel biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury induced by sepsis.
This study revealed a significant elevation of circulating OPG in septic patients with different levels of severity and those who progressed to AKI. Moreover, OPG showed a significant correlation to KIM-1 and cystatin, as well as conventional renal, inflammatory, and endothelial markers. Having a similar specificity to KIM-1, as evidenced by the ROC analysis, OPG has the potential to serve as a reliable biomarker of kidney damage in cases of sepsis-AKI. PMID: 28840836 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Characterization of a long isoform of IL-1R8 (TIR8/SIGIRR).
Authors: Vilia MG, Tocchetti M, Fonte E, Sana I, Muzio M Abstract IL-1R8, also known as SIGIRR or TIR8, is a trans-membrane protein belonging to the IL-1 receptor family. The human gene includes ten exons, and alternative splicing can result in different isoforms. We, herein, characterized a longer isoform of IL-1R8 containing an in-frame additional sequence between the TIR domain and the C-terminal portion of the protein. IL-1R8 Long (IL-1R8L1) mRNA was specifically expressed and regulated in distinct cell lines, in a manner similar to the classic isoform. Overexpression of IL-1R8L1 resulted in the production of a...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

The role of host immune cells and Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in the etiology of Lyme disease.
Authors: Verhaegh D, Joosten LAB, Oosting M Abstract Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi species after the bite of an infected tick. Even though an infection by this bacterium can be effectively treated with antibiotics, when the infection stays unnoticed B. burgdorferi can persist and chronic post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome is able to develop. Although a cellular and humoral response is observed after an infection with the Borrelia bacteria, these pathogens are still capable to stay alive. Several immune evasive mechanisms have been revealed ...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Buprenorphine differentially affects M1- and M2-polarized macrophages from human umbilical cord blood.
Authors: Sun J, Guo W, Du X Abstract As a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist with long half-life time, buprenorphine has been widely used to relieve chronic cancer and nonmalignant pain. The maintenance of chronic pain involves inflammation; however whether buprenorphine has anti-inflammation property remains unclear. Macrophages, the immune cells that initiate and maintain inflammation, were isolated from human umbilical cord blood, and were polarized into M1 or M2 macrophages with IFN-γ in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IL-4, respectively. Quantitative PCR, ELISA, Western blotting analysis, a...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Pulmonary artery hypertension: pertinent vasomotorial cytokines.
Authors: Yuan SM Abstract Pulmonary artery hypertension is a syndrome that shows similar clinical and pathophysiological features characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance. There have been a series of hypotheses trying to describe the development of pulmonary artery hypertension; however, none of them perfectly explains its pathogenesis. To highlight the pathogenesis, novel vasomotorial cytokines including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, endothelin-1, urotensin II, Krüppel-like factor 4, calcitonin gene-related peptide, angiopoietins, and serotonin closely related to pulmonary art...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Upregulation of cytokine mRNA in circulating leukocytes during human endotoxemia.
Authors: Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Kliegel T, Kantner-Schlifke I, Strasser-Marsik C, Mayr FB, Jilma B Abstract Endotoxemia induces pronounced changes in leukocyte count and enhances the release of many cytokines. However, the molecular regulation of this cytokine release is poorly characterized in humans. The time course of mRNA expression of 24 cytokines in circulating leukocytes was studied in a well-standardized model of human endotoxemia (2 ng/kg). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible mRNA levels of leukocytes from 16 healthy volunteers in a ran...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Chemokine and chemokine receptor patterns in patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors: a distinct role for CCR7.
Authors: Haghshenas MR, Ashraf MJ, Khademi B, Ghaderi A, Erfani N, Razmkhah M Abstract To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in pathophysiology of malignant and benign salivary gland tumors (SGTs), we investigated main tumor-inducing chemokines and chemokine receptors, CXCL12/CXCR4/ACKR3 (CXCR7), CXCR3/CXCL10, CCR5/CCL5, CCL21/CCR7, CCL2, CCR4, CXCR5, CCR6, and CXCL8 in tumor tissues. Parotid tissues were obtained from 30 patients with malignant and benign SGTs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to determine the mRNA expression pattern of the mentioned chemokines/chemoki...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Interferon Gamma Release Assay in response to PE35/PPE68 proteins: a promising diagnostic method for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis.
Authors: Mahmoudi S, Pourakbari B, Mamishi S Abstract Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of people who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PE/PPE proteins have been reported to elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses either in the form of whole recombinant proteins or as individual peptides. Very few of the PE and PPE proteins have been previously tested for responses in patients with TB and healthy donors. This is the first study to evaluate the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) after stimulation with PE35 and PPE68. The antigen-specific levels of IFN-&g...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Increased serum IL-17A and Th2 cytokine levels in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma.
This study examines the profiles of upregulation and downregulation of various cytokines and chemokines in relation to asthmatic control status. IL-17A was significantly upregulated in patients with the uncontrolled and refractory status. Therefore, IL-17A may play important roles in asthmatic exacerbation, and its high level, in combination with upregulated Th2 and other cytokines, may indicate the refractory endotype of asthma. PMID: 28840844 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 27, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Direct effects of interleukin-7 on the function of human T cells in vitro.
In conclusion, we speculate that IL-7 is capable of enhancing functional T cell activity without causing significant functional inbalance between various T cell subsets. PMID: 28396296 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - April 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

The co-regulators SRC-1 and SMRT are involved in interleukin-6-induced androgen receptor activation.
Authors: Wang Q, Wang H, Ju Q, Ding Z, Ge X, Shi QM, Zhou JL, Zhou XL, Zhang JP, Zhang MR, Yu HM, Xu LC Abstract BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) can be stimulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the absence of androgens to induce prostate cancer progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the co-activator steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and co-repressor silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) are involved in IL-6-induced AR activation. METHODS: The effects of IL-6 on LNCaP cell proliferation were monitored using real-time cell analysis (RTCA) iCELLigen...
Source: European Cytokine Network - April 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

TGF- β1 functional polymorphisms: a review.
TGF-β1 functional polymorphisms: a review. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2016 Nov 01;27(4):81-89 Authors: Martelossi Cebinelli GC, Paiva Trugilo K, Badaró Garcia S, Brajão de Oliveira K Abstract Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a role in several biological processes. TGF-β1 is the most abundantly expressed isoform, associated with susceptibility to various diseases, and several polymorphisms have been described in the TGF-β1 gene structure, and some of them have been associated with functional implications. To date, eight single-n...
Source: European Cytokine Network - April 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Plasma cytokine profiling to predict susceptibility to acute mountain sickness.
Authors: Lu H, Wang R, Li W, Xie H, Wang C, Hao Y, Sun Y, Jia Z Abstract Extensive studies have been performed on acute mountain sickness (AMS), but biomarkers predicting AMS are lacking. Presently, the mainstay methods to identify AMS biomarkers include proteomic and genetic methods at high altitudes or in hypoxic simulated chambers. In the present study, we compared plasma cytokine profiles between AMS-susceptible individuals and AMS-resistant individuals at low altitude by cytokine array analysis. In total, 75 differentially expressed cytokines were identified between AMS-susceptible individuals and AMS-resistan...
Source: European Cytokine Network - April 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Effect of atorvastatin on interleukins and prostaglandin E2 in the kidney of type 1 diabetic rats.
Authors: Maraqa AD Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible effect of atorvastatin on renal interleukins (ILs) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty-two male rats from a local Wister-derived strain were included in this prospective study and were classified into four groups. Each group consisted of eight animals: Group 1, non-diabetic negative controls; Group 2, diabetic positive controls; Group 3, non-diabetic rats receiving atorvastatin for 4 weeks; and Group 4, diabetic rats receiving atorvastatin for 4 weeks. At the end of the designated period, the animals were sacrificed ...
Source: European Cytokine Network - April 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Production of TNF-alpha ex vivo is predictive of an immune response to flu vaccination in a frail elderly population.
CONCLUSION: Production of TNFα appears to be primordial for an efficient vaccine response, and may provide a predictive marker for the humoral response to vaccination. It may also provide the basis for evaluating agents designed to rescue TNFα-producing cells. This study emphasises a need to rescue TNF-producing cell function. PMID: 27910810 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cytokine Network)
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

LL-37, HNP-1, and HBD2/3 modulate the secretion of cytokines TNF- α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10 and MMP1 in human primary cell cultures.
LL-37, HNP-1, and HBD2/3 modulate the secretion of cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10 and MMP1 in human primary cell cultures. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2016 Sep 01;27(3):68-74 Authors: Medina Santos CE, López Hurtado CN, Rivas Santiago B, Gonzalez-Amaro R, Cataño Cañizales YG, Martínez Fierro ML, Enciso-Moreno JA, García Hernández MH Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the LL-37, HNP-1 and HBD2/3 peptides on cytokine and MMP production in human polymorphonuclear cells, mononuclear cells and chondrocytes. The levels of cytokines ...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Inflammatory markers associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Authors: Lindberg S, Zarrouk M, Holst J, Gottsäter A Abstract PURPOSE: Inflammation with leukocytic infiltration, degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM), and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are pathological hallmarks of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of this study was to further evaluate relationships between AAA and inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), by comparing levels in 65-year-old men with and without AAA at ultrasound screening. We ...
Source: European Cytokine Network - December 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Neuraminidase enhances in vitro expansion of human erythroid progenitors.
Authors: Bodivit G, Chadebech P, Vigon I, Yacia A, Roziers NB, Pirenne F, Fichelson S Abstract In spite of recent key improvements, in vitro mass production of erythrocytes from human stem cells is still limited by difficulties in obtaining sufficient numbers of erythroid progenitors. In fact, such progenitors are as scarce in the bone marrow as in peripheral blood. We used a two-step culture model of human cord blood-derived erythroid progenitors in the presence or absence of high-purity neuraminidase, in a serum-free, defined culture medium. Granulocytic and megakaryocytic progenitor cell expansions were also stu...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

Effect of pro-inflammatory interleukin-17A on epithelial cell phenotype inversion in HK-2 cells in vitro.
This study aimed to investigate whether IL-17A, a member of the IL-17 family, can induce epithelial cell phenotype inversion, and to explore the molecular mechanism of this phenotype inversion, in vitro. HK-2 cells were cultured and incubated with IL-17A. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay, and the secretion of types I and III collagen was detected by ELISA in dose-dependent and time-dependent experiments. To find out whether IL-17A can induce epithelial cell phenotype inversion, HK-2 cells were stimulated with 80 ng/mL of IL-17A and 10 ng/mL of TGF-β1 as a positive control, for 72 h. To exp...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research

The role of CXCR3 and its ligands in renal transplant outcome.
Authors: Dabiri S, Kariminik A, Kennedy D Abstract Chemokines and their corresponding receptors serve as pro-inflammatory and migratory signals for immune cells. CXCR3 and its corresponding ligands, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, participate in the induction of immune responses against several foreign antigens. Numerous cells, including macrophages, NK cells and T lymphocytes, express CXCR3 and thus, expression of the receptor and its ligands can induce activity of these important immune cells against foreign antigens, including allogeneic grafts. Several parameters of the immune system participate in the induction and ...
Source: European Cytokine Network - August 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Eur Cytokine Netw Source Type: research