Strategies for Sharing Limited Resources among Children and Adolescents in Three Traditional Societies of East Africa: Sociocultural and Genetic Factors.
This study presents data on the results of economic games for sharing with a potential friend or unfamiliar peer in three ethnic groups of East Africa (Hadza, Iraqw, and Meru). The total sample was 583 children and adolescents; mean age, 13.5 ± 3.1 years. In addition, DNA analysis was carried out and the OXTR gene rs53576 single nucleotide polymorphism was genotyped for 162 Meru individuals. The pronounced individual variability in making decisions on sharing with a potential partner was established. Children and adolescents behaved altruistically towards friends significantly more frequently as compared with strang...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Butovskaya ML, Karelin DV, Dronova DA, Filatova VO, Butovskaya PR, Tishkov VA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Cognitive Functions in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract The present study demonstrates the effect of combined ionizing radiation (γ rays, 0.24 Gy, 661.7 keV, whole body and 12C, 0.18 Gy, 450 MeV, head region) on the behavior of animals in mouse transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. Significant improvement of spatial learning and stimulation of locomotor and exploratory behavior were observed in wild-type mice after irradiation. However, an anxiolytic effect and stimulation of locomotor and exploratory behavior were revealed in irradiated mice with tauopathy. Mice with cerebral amyloidosis also exhibited improved learning in the odor recognition ...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Chicheva MM, Mal'tsev AV, Kokhan VS, Bachurin SO Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Circahoralian Rhythms of Body Temperature in Mammals and Birds with Different Metabolism Levels.
Abstract The time course of intraperitoneal body temperature has been analyzed in two species of mammals (laboratory C57Bl/6 mice and white-breasted hedgehogs (Erinaceus roumanicus) and in two species of passerine birds (common greenfinch Chloris chloris and Japanese quail Coturnix japonica) with different body weights. Similar sets of basic harmonics appearing synchronously in different individuals have been found in the body temperature spectra of the species studied. The level of basal metabolism in those animal species considerably vary; therefore, the period of fluctuations of body temperature in the range of...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Diatroptov ME, Panchelyuga VA, Panchelyuga MS, Surov AV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Is the Gill Skeleton of Acorn Worms (Enteropneusta) Similar to the Gill Skeleton of Amphioxus (Cephalochordata)?
Abstract The gill skeleton of the enteropneust Saccoglossus mereschkowskii consists of a series of tridents. The central prong of each trident bifurcates in its ventral end. The most anterior gill skeletal element has a simple horseshoe shape. Homologues of the elements of the enteropneust gill apparatus were found in the structure of the gill apparatus of Cephalochordata. The organization of the gill skeleton of Enteropneusta and Cephalochordata can be derived from the metameric horseshoe-shaped elements. The similarity of the structure of the gill skeleton of Enteropneusta and Cephalochordata contradicts a commo...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Ezhova OV, Malakhov VV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Increased Stress Resistance of the Offspring Egg Cross Chickens when Using Biologically Active Substances before Hatching.
Abstract Application of biologically active compositions, containing colamine, succinic acid, serine, and pyridoxine hydrochloride before hatching decreased hatchery waste and increased hatching rates by 2.65% and egg hatchability by 1.85%. The chicks of the experimental group exhibited a decrease in the intensity of lipid peroxidation, which indicated a greater resistance to stress. This conclusion is additionally based on an increase in the Krebs index by a factor of 1.74 (p
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kochish II, Lugovaya IS, Azarnova TO, Naydensky MS, Antipov AA, Petrova YV, Anshakov DV, Zolotukhina EA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

An Unusual Pathway of Mitoptosis Found in Ehrlich Carcinoma Cells.
Abstract An integrated microscopic study of the destruction of mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells under starvation conditions has been carried out. It has been found that, in addition to apoptosis, necrosis, and apoptotic necrosis, already known for EAC, cell destruction can also occur through mitochondrial autolysis, which is proposed to be considered a new kind of mitoptosis. A mitoptosis in EAC is characterized by the appearance of many autolyzing mitochondria, the fusion of which leads to rupture of the cell membrane and the ejection of the nucleus from the cell. It is assumed that the polymorphism of...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Pimenova EA, Reunova YA, Menchinskaya ES, Reunov AA, Aminin DL Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Gender-Dependent Effect of Maternal Methyl-Enriched Diet on the Expression of Genetic Absence Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression in Adult Offspring of WAG/Rij Rats.
Abstract In the present study it has been shown for the first time that maternal methyl-enriched diet (choline, betaine, folic acid, vitamin B12, L-methionine, zinc) during perinatal period reduces the expression of genetic absence epilepsy and comorbid depression in adult offspring of WAG/Rij rats. This beneficial effect was more pronounced in males compared with females. It is assumed that epigenetic modifications induced by maternal methyl-enriched diet in the offspring at the early stages of ontogenesis might be a possible mechanism underlying the correction of genetically-based pathologic phenotype in WAG/Rij...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sarkisova KY, Gabova AV, Fedosova EA, Shatskova AB Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Nature of the Increased Efficiency of Sorption-Stimulating Preparations Containing Non-Ionic Surfactants for Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment.
Abstract The effect of the introduction of a non-ionogenic surfactant Polysorbate 20 into a sorption preparation (CB-H-BYA) on the structure of sorbent layers formed on the surface of spring wheat seeds during their pre-sowing treatment has been studied using electron microscopy. According to the results, an increase in the efficiency of sorption preparations containing Polysorbate 20 is based on an intensification of the bentonite aggregate disintegration into individual montmorillonite particles and a formation of more dense protective sorption layer providing a better protection of seeds against allelotoxins on...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Shoba SA, Gorepekin IV, Fedotov GN, Gracheva TA, Salimgareeva OA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

First Data on the Contact Zone and Hybridization between the Cryptic Species of Shrews Sorex araneus and S. satunini (Eulipotyphla, Mammalia).
Abstract For the first time, based on sequence variation of microsatellite loci and the mtDNA cytb gene fragment, population genetic structure of the common shrew and Caucasian shrew in their contact zone was investigated. It was demonstrated that, although there was no complete reproductive isolation between the species under consideration, the gene flow was considerably limited. These data testify to the established reliable reproductive barriers between the common shrew and Caucasian shrew. PMID: 33083884 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Stakheev VV, Makhotkin MA, Grigoryeva OO, Kornienko SA, Makarikov AA, Panasjuk NV, Orlov VN Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Genetic Specificity of the Siberian Forest Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus valentinae Flerov, 1932) of the Kuznetsk Alatau.
Abstract This is the first study to show the genetic identity of the Altai-Sayan population of the forest reindeer of the Kuznetsk Alatau (Rangifer tarandus valentinae). The population is characterized by the existence of unique mitochondrial lines, the absence of signs of introgression of domestic rein deer mtDNA, as well as a low level of genetic diversity. In the sample studied, only two nucleotide substitutions (both of them transitions) were revealed, the nucleotide diversity (0.0015 ± 0.00136) was almost ten times lower than in most populations of wild reindeer in Russia and was comparable only with t...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Vasilchenko AA, Kholodova MV, Baranova AI, Naidenko SV, Rozhnov VV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Increased Expression of the Multimerin-1 Gene in α-Synuclein Knokout Mice.
Increased Expression of the Multimerin-1 Gene in α-Synuclein Knokout Mice. Dokl Biol Sci. 2020 Sep;494(1):260-263 Authors: Chaprov KD, Goloborshcheva VV, Tarasova TV, Teterina EV, Korokin MV, Soldatov VO, Pokrovskiy MV, Kucheryanu VG, Morozov SG, Ovchinnikov RK Abstract Multimerin-1 (Mmrn-1) is a soluble protein, also known as elastin microfibril interfacer 4 (EMILIN-4), found in platelets and in the endothelium of blood vessels. Its function and role in pathology are still not fully understood. Genetic modifications in alpha-synuclein gene (Snca) locus that mapped 160 Kb apart from Mmrn-1 in mo...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Chaprov KD, Goloborshcheva VV, Tarasova TV, Teterina EV, Korokin MV, Soldatov VO, Pokrovskiy MV, Kucheryanu VG, Morozov SG, Ovchinnikov RK Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Ratio between Primary Production Values of Lake and Terrestrial Ecosystems.
Abstract At low latitudes (i.e., in the equatorial zone), the primary production of lake ecosystems is comparable with the plant production in their water catchment areas. In contrast, at high latitudes, the primary production of lake ecosystems is less than the primary terrestrial production approximately by two orders of magnitude. This paper addresses the reason behind the different reactions of the terrestrial and lake ecosystems to external factors determined by the geographical zone. Computational experiments show that in accordance with van't Hoff's rule, at high latitudes featuring low temperatures and hig...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Boulion VV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Normalization of Testicular Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Male Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus under the Conditions of Metformin Therapy.
Abstract One of the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men is steroidogenic and spermatogenic dysfunctions. There is evidence of a restoring effect of the antidiabetic drug metformin on them. We studied the effect of MF therapy (4 weeks, 200 mg/kg/day) on the hormonal parameters of the gonad axis and on the morphological characteristics of epididymal spermatozoa in male rats with a severe form of T2DM caused by a high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin. It has been shown that MF therapy, along with the restoration of the metabolic parameters, normalizes the plasma levels of testosterone and leptin an...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Derkach KV, Bakhtyukov AA, Bayunova LV, Zorina II, Shpakov AO Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Seasonal Dynamics of Testosterone and Corticosterone in Predatory Birds as Exemplified by the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis).
Abstract Testosterone and corticosterone are steroid hormones that regulate various aspects of bird behavior. The dynamics of blood level of these hormones depending on the stage of the life cycle have been studied in many species. It has been shown for both sexes that the levels of both hormones rise during the breeding season. We have studied changes in the level of these hormones in the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) during a year. This has been the first study of this type on northern goshawk. We collected blood samples from 16 adult northern goshawks kept in pairs in aviaries in the VITASFERA Rare Bird...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Marchenko AA, Beme IR, Sarychev EI, Goretskaya MY Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Destruction of Sound Signal Structure in a Peripheral Population (as Exemplified by the Gray Marmot Marmota baibacina).
Abstract The variability of the alarm call of the gray marmot (Marmota baibacina) in the peripheral population in the valley of the Arpa River (Kyrgyzstan) is described. It was earlier reported that this population lived together with the red marmot (M. caudata). The authors did not find the red marmot there. Two forms of aberrations were found in the edge population of the gray marmot: amplitude modulation and no pause between the components. The destruction of the signal structure that is typical of the species is probably associated with the disruption of gene flow and does not contain clear signs of hybridizat...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Nikol'skii AA, Vanisova EA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Participation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 α Heat Shock Proteins in Stress Response in the Course of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Participation of Hsp70 and Hsp90α Heat Shock Proteins in Stress Response in the Course of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Dokl Biol Sci. 2020 Jul;493(1):124-127 Authors: Novoselova EG, Glushkova OV, Khrenov MO, Parfenyuk SB, Lunin SM, Novoselova TV, Fesenko EE Abstract The role of two heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90α, on stress response in mice with severe diabetes mellitus induced by a high dose of alloxan (500 mg/kg body weight), as well as in RIN-m5F β cells cultured in the presence of cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-α) was studied. Our results showed that severe type 1 diabetes melli...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Novoselova EG, Glushkova OV, Khrenov MO, Parfenyuk SB, Lunin SM, Novoselova TV, Fesenko EE Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Plant Growth Hormones Increase the Stimulation Efficiency of Seedlings Development for Spring Wheat Seeds upon Pre-sowing Treatment.
Abstract The influence of pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds with combined use of plant growth hormones and sorption preparations based on bentonite-humate mixtures on seeds germination and their development in soils was studied. In some cases, the combined use of plant growth hormones and the sorption preparation (CB-H-BYA) that can decrease the intake of allelotoxins from soil to seeds allows noticeably increasing the efficiency of plant growth hormones used for pre-sowing treatment. The inclusion of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin, and forchlorophenuron) into the sorption preparation (CB-H-BYA)...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Shoba SA, Gorepekin IV, Fedotov GN, Gracheva TA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Analysis of Geographical Variability of Morphogenetic Trajectories Using the Mole Vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.) as an Example.
Abstract ABSTTRACT: -Using the methods of geometric morphometrics, we have revealed the phenomenon of geographical variability of morphogenetic trajectories when doing side-by-side comparisons of mandibular shapes in individuals of different ages from three southern Trans-Ural populations of the mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.) in the common morphospace. PMID: 32894428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Vasil'ev AG, Bol'shakov VN, Vasil'eva IA, Sineva NV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

An Attempt to Reconstruct the Phylogeny of the Hipposideros Leaf-nosed Bats Based on Nuclear Gene Markers.
Abstract The genus Hipposideros is one of the largest bat genera. The latest research on its Asian representatives has been done only with mitochondrial or sole nuclear markers. In the present study we compare the results of phylogenetic reconstructions, based on mitochondrial, on single nuclear genes and on multiple nuclear markers analyzed using the MRP algorithm (Matrix representation with parsimony) for representative species from all the main species groups. MRP analysis provides the most supported and well-interpretable phylogeny. Our data indicate monophyly of the large Asian leaf-nosed bats which suggests ...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Yusefovich AP, Artyushin IV, Raspopova AA, Bannikova AA, Kruskop SV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Lipid Status of Gray Whales Eschrichtius robustus in the Piltun Feeding Area.
Abstract For the first time, the relationship of lipid and fatty acid composition with individual, gender and age characteristics of the gray whale Eschrichtius robustus in the Piltun feeding area is shown using the methods of biochemical analysis. PMID: 32894430 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - June 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mamaev MS, Murzina SA, Pekkoeva SN, Voronin VP, Rozhnov VV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Skull Morphology Variation as Related to Trophic Specialization in Three Forms of Salvelinus malma (Salmonidae) from the Kamchatka River Basin.
Abstract New data on the correlation between morphology and trophic specialization of three riverine charr forms from the Kamchatka River basin (stone charr, white charr, and Dolly Varden) are presented. The paper analyzes the food preferences of the fishes according to their stomach contents and retrospectively assesses their nutrition according to the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes. The three charr forms are compared in terms of the head shape and structure of the cartilaginous skull for the first time. The correlation between the type of their nutrition and structural features of their skull is shown. Both g...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Melnik NO, Esin EV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Stevioside Has the Maximum Biological Activity among Natural Stevia Diterpenes.
Abstract The concentrations of steviol and its derivatives stimulating the growth of wheat plants were measured: 10-8 for stevioside and 10-9 М for steviol and isosteviol. It was found that stevioside increased the activity of amylolytic enzymes and protein content, as well as frost tolerance of the roots of wheat seedlings. Thus, stevioside can be recommended for the development of complex phytopreparations for stimulating the growth processes and increasing the resistance of wheat plants to low temperatures. PMID: 32632831 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Ogorodnova UA, Sapunova AS, Timofeeva OA, Mironov VF Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Physiological and Biochemical Strategies of Adaptation in Halophytes.
Abstract The relationship between the ecological adaptive strategies of some halophyte groups and their metabolism has been demonstrated; this correlation determines their competitive capabilities and place in the ecosystem. The features of the content of total and membrane lipids, chlorophylls, carotenoids, and membrane and water-soluble proteins, as well as the level of lipid peroxidation, hydration of photosynthetic organs, and sodium accumulation in euhalophytes, crynohalophytes, and glycohalophytes, which are confined to different levels of soil salinity, have been established. PMID: 32632832 [PubMed - i...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Rozentsvet OA, Nesterov VN, Bogdanova ES, Rozenberg GS Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

New Data on the Expansion of Eurytemora Giesbrecht (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Russian Arctic Region.
Abstract As a result of studying different populations of crustaceans of the genus Eurytemora Giesbrecht from the inland water bodies of the basins of the White Sea, the Pechora Sea, the Lena River delta, and Pacific coast of the United States, the species Eurytemora gracilicauda Akatova 1949 has been found along the entire northern border of the Russian Eurasia, while North American E. americana Williams 1906 has not been registered within these limits. Clear morphological and molecular genetic differences between E. gracilicauda and E. americana are presented. PMID: 32632833 [PubMed - in process] (Source: D...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Fefilova EB, Sukhikh NM, Rasova EE, Velegzhaninov IO, Abramova EN Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Is There a Relationship between the Chitty Effect and the Types of Population Dynamics?
Abstract Thirty-year studies of populations of eight shrew species in the Middle Yenisei taiga have shown that at the late 20th century the population dynamics had a pronounced cyclic character, but in the 21st century cyclic dynamics changed with fluctuating one. The analysis of the dependence of the animal body weight on the population density have revealed that under cyclic dynamics at the peaks of the population, the animal's body weight is significantly higher than that at population decline, i.e., the corollary from the Chitty hypothesis (the Chitty effect) is observed. In populations with fluctuating dynami...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Yakushov VD, Sheftel BI Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

First Description of the Fur of Two Cubs of Fossil Cave Lion Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) Found in Yakutia in 2017 and 2018.
Abstract The first description of well-preserved fur of one male and one female cubs of the fossil cave lion Panthera spelaea (finds of 2017-2018, Semyuelyakh River, Yakutia, Russia) is presented in comparison with the fur of two cubs (a male and a female) of the extant African lion P. leo and adult lions of both species: the color, differentiation, configuration, microstructure, and internal design of hair of different categories are considered. The coat of the cave lion is similar but not identical to that of the African lion, because it contains a high thick undercoat of spiral-shaped thick and airy down hair. ...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Chernova OF, Protopopov AV, Boeskorov GG, Pavlov IS, Plotnikov VV, Suzuki N Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Phenomenon of Synchronous Food Intake in Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) under the Conditions of Isolation from Each Other.
Abstract The dynamics of body temperature was used to determine the food intake synchronization in starlings located at a distance of 105 km from each other. Thermal accumulators were implanted intraperitoneally to the birds; the birds had free access to food or were kept under the conditions of food deprivation. It was found that food intake moments significantly more often coincided with an accuracy of up to a minute even in the birds separated by a considerable distance. The difference in time of sunrise of a few minutes, as well as the conditions of constant lighting did not affect the synchronism of food inta...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Diatroptov ME, Rutovskaya MV, Surov AV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

New Data on the Holocene Mammal Fauna of the Ustyurt Plateau.
Abstract Analysis of mammalian species composition has been performed for eight archaeological sites on the Ustyurt plateau. They date to the range from the middle Subboreal to the middle Subatlantic. The modern species composition of large mammals formed by the end of the Middle Holocene (Subboreal 2) and did not change until the early 20th century. The ungulate species composition and ratio on the plateau showed geographical variation and changed over time. Boars were always rare or absent in the north of Ustyurt. The structure of the ungulate fauna in the north of Ustyurt changed over time. Onager numbers in th...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kosintsev PA, Bachura OP, Gasilin VV, Gimranov DO, Samashev Z, Loshakova TN, Onggaruly A, Bisembaev AA, Bol'shakov VN Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

First Discovery of the European Buffalo Bubalus murrensis (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) from the Pleistocene of the Russian Plain.
Abstract The skull of a buffalo from the Upper Pleistocene deposits in the Lukerino village near the city of Kolomna (Moscow Region) was found to belong to Bubalus murrensis (Berckhemer, 1927). In Western Europe, this species occurred in the Middle and Late Pleistocene during interglacials. In the Pleistocene of the East European Plain, the fossil Bubalus is discovered for the first time. According to the radiocarbon (14C) analysis of the collagen, the fossil dates to the Allerød interstadial (the age is ca. 12 800 years). PMID: 32483703 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Vislobokova IA, Tarasenko KK, Lopatin AV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

First Finding of Etruscan Bear (Ursus etruscus, Ursidae, Carnivora) in the Crimea (Taurida Cave, Early Pleistocene).
Abstract A fragment of a bear skull with partially preserved dentition is descibed from the Lower Pleistocene deposits of the Taurida cave (Crimea). The presence of P1-P3, the structure of P4, and sizes of the cheek teeth enable the identification of the specimen as Ursus etruscus Cuvier, 1823. The new find is the first in Crimea and the entire Russia and is of great interest due to rarity of this species in the Pleistocene of Eastern Europe. PMID: 32483704 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gimranov DO, Lavrov AV, Startsev DB, Tarasenko KK, Lopatin AV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Decrease in Human Aging Rate Since the Middle of the 20th Century.
Abstract The plot of the mortality rate minus the constant A of the Gompertz-Makeham equation and the plot of the mortality intensity increment d(m) reflect the actual rate of biological aging. It was shown that since the middle of the 20th century there has been a slowdown in aging for all the countries of the world that were studied (for available periods in the history), in all parameters: R0 and k coefficients of the Gompertz equation, mortality intensity increment d(m) and maximum life span. The slowdown in the aging rate of continues to the present. The probable cause is a significant improvement in medical ...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Dontsov VI, Krut'ko VN, Mitrohin OV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Gelatin and Starch: What Better Stabilizes the Enzyme Activity?
Abstract The regularities of the functioning of a number of enzymes in a viscous environment created by natural polymers, starch and gelatin are examined. Based on the analysis of kinetic curves of thermal inactivation, mechanisms of thermal inactivation of enzymes in a viscous microenvironment are proposed. Using the example of butyrylcholinesterase, NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase, and coupled system of the luminous bacteria (NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase + luciferase), the conditions, under which starch and gelatin have a stabilizing effect on enzyme activity during storage and exposure to various physical and chemical...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Esimbekova EN, Govorun AE, Lonshakova-Mukina VI, Kratasyuk VA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The First Find of Merck's Rhinoceros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae, Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis J äger, 1839) Remains in the Russian Far East.
The First Find of Merck's Rhinoceros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae, Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis Jäger, 1839) Remains in the Russian Far East. Dokl Biol Sci. 2020 Mar;491(1):47-49 Authors: Kosintsev PA, Zykov SV, Tiunov MP, Shpansky AV, Gasilin VV, Gimranov DO, Devjashin MM Abstract Enamel macro- and microstructure has been studied in the teeth of Merck's rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis Jäger, 1839), woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis Blumenbach, 1799), and rhinoceroses from the Tetyukhinskaya (44°35' N, 135°36' E) and Sukhaya (43°09' N, 131°28'...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kosintsev PA, Zykov SV, Tiunov MP, Shpansky AV, Gasilin VV, Gimranov DO, Devjashin MM Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Mechanism of the Stimforte Effect on the Activation of Target Cell Defense against Viral Infection.
Abstract Stimforte in a wide range of concentrations (15-225 µg/mL) totally inhibits the cytopathic activity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Vero-V cell culture. Interferons (IFN) play the most important role in the suppression of infection when the drug is introduced into the culture before the infection. When Stimforte is introduced after the infection, the mechanism of action seems to be different. The activators of IFN production are mainly (or exclusively) the ligands of receptor complexes TLR-4 and NOD-2 contained in the drug. The action of these substances is probably synergistic, similar to the act...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mal'dov DG, Deryabin PG, Grigoryan SS, Mishin DV, Andronova VL, Isaeva EI, Galegov GA, Ilichev AV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Growth Features of Castanea sativa Mill. in Forest Stands Infected by Cryphoneciria parasitica (Murrill) М. Е. Barr. in Abkhazia.
Abstract Currently, the forest plantations of Castanea sativa Mill. are largely damaged by phytopathogenic organisms, of which Cryphoneciria parasitica (Murrill) М. Е. Barr. has the most negative impact. The spread of this type of disease reduces the vital state and significantly reduces the life expectancy of C. sativa trees. For the first time, using dendrochronological analysis, the specificity of distribution and degree of phytopathogenic damage to C. sativa trunk tissues were assessed. It was revealed that in its lower part the dieback of the peripheral layers of wood occurs fairly evenly with a total degra...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Koba VP, Plugatar YV, Shevchuk OM, Leyba VD, Sakhno TM Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Changes in the Activity of Genes Involved in the Regulation of Hematopoiesis during Tumorigenesis in Irradiated Mice.
Abstract We used 183 F1 CBA×C57Bl hybrid mice to study the delayed effects of low-power long-term γ-irradiation at a dose of 12.6 Gy (10 mGy/min) 8 and 10 months after the treatment. Eight months after the treatment we found the increased expression of the transcription factor NFκB and its target genes iNOS and G-SCF in the bone marrow (BM). Ten months after the treatment malignant lymphomas were revealed in 14 of 94 mice in the liver, abdominal cavity, and subcutaneously. In the BM of these mice, the transcription of the PTEN, NFκB, and iNOS genes was inhibited and the contents of long non...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Saleeva DV, Mikhailov VF, Rozhdestvenskii LM, Shulenina LV, Raeva NF, Zasukhina GD Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

A New Approach to Evaluating the Pumping Function of the Heart by the Myocardial Work.
Abstract The function of left ventricular (LV) contractility consists of two aspects, the force of myocardial contraction, which provides a sufficient pressure gradient to open the heart valves, and deformation, which determines the actual cardiac output [1, 2]. The relationship between the characteristics of LV deformation and LV volume parameters remains poorly understood. The LV work may reflect the dependence between the volume and deformation characteristics of the left ventricle. Myocardial work indexes can more accurately describe the systolic LV function when the LV ejection fraction (EF) and global longit...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Oleynikov VE, Smirnov YG, Galimskaya VA, Kupriyanova SN Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The First Finding of the Late Miocene Baleen Whales of the Genus Zygiocetus (Cetotheriidae, Mysticeti) in Crimea (Melek-Chesme Locality, Kerch Peninsula).
Abstract Fragments of four Zygiocetus sp. whale skeletons from the Melek-Chesme locality at the Kerch Peninsula are described. This is the first finding of the representatives of this genus in Crimea. PMID: 32483712 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tarasenko KK, Lopatin AV, Startsev DB Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

A New Genus of the Brachyericinae (Erinaceidae, Erinaceomorpha) from the Lower Miocene of Mongolia.
Abstract Ereberix erebericulus gen. et sp. nov., the smallest representative of the Asian Brachyericinae (Erinaceidae, Erinaceomorpha), a peculiar extinct group of short-faced hedgehogs with predatory adaptations, is described from the Lower Miocene Loo Formation of the Taatsiin Gol locality (Valley of Lakes, Mongolia). The description of the new form expands the knowledge on the taxonomic and morphological diversity of the Asian Brachyericinae. PMID: 32483713 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Lopatin AV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Digestive System of Fish as an Indicator of Coastal Pollution.
Abstract Assessment of pollution of marine environment and biota with hydrocarbons is of particular importance, since oil products are among the priority pollutants of many seas. Development of new environmental toxicological biomarkers is one of the promising methods of integrated assessment of pollution effects. Here, the first investigation on the abundance of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the digestive system of coastal fish (stickleback, dace, white bream, common bleak, perch, gudgeon, and roach) from the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea has been performed. The results reflect changes occurring in the ...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - February 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Polyak YM, Demchuk AS, Sharov AN, Gubelit YI, Berezina NA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Best-Vision Zones and Visual Resolution of the Retina of Neonatal Bottlenose Dolphins Tursiops truncatus.
Abstract The topography of ganglion cells in the retina of three neonatal bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus has been studied in retinal wholemounts. Two areas of high ganglion cell density have been identified in the form of local spots in the temporal and nasal quadrants of the retina, near a horizontal diameter at a distance of 10-15 mm from the optical disk. The maximum density of ganglion cells in these areas on average for five preparations is 657 and 636 cells/mm2 in the temporal and nasal quadrants, respectively. The retinal resolution, estimated by the maximum density of ganglion cells and a posterior...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Mass AM, Supin AY Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Cascade System of Osmotic Homeostasis Regulation.
Abstract The human and animal osmoregulation system is aimed at stabilizing serum osmolality in order to maintain cell volume. It has been shown that the introduction of 5 mL water per 100 g of body weight into the stomach of rats decreases serum osmolality and the concentration of Na and Ca, but not K and Mg. The cascade system of osmotic homeostasis increases secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxytocin, and decreases secretion of vasopressin, which reduces the osmotic permeability of collecting duct. After water loading and the injection of 0.015 nM exenatide (GLP-1 mimetic), the time of excretion ...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Natochin YV, Marina AS, Shakhmatova EI Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Functional Connectomic Approach to Studying Selank and Semax Effects.
Abstract The present study was aimed at the assessment of effects of anxiolytic Selank and nootropic Semax on the whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of each of the predefined regions of interest (ROIs) in 52 healthy participants. The ROIs included amygdala (one of the key regions for the regulation of anxiety) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; the key region for executive functions, including working memory) in the right and left hemisphere. Resting-state fMRI was carried out three times, namely before, after 5 and 20 min of the injection of either Semax, or Selank, or placebo. Between...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Panikratova YR, Lebedeva IS, Sokolov OY, Rumshiskaya AD, Kupriyanov DA, Kost NV, Myasoedov NF Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Rapid Morphological Diversification of the Cyprinid Fish Oreoleuciscus potanini (Cyprinidae) in the Course of Formation of a Reservoir in a River of the Semiarid Zone.
Abstract The analysis of phenetic diversity in Potanin Altai osman Oreoleuciscuspotanini from the Taishir Reservoir built in 2007 on the Zavkhan River (Great Lakes Hollow, Mongolia), revealed four morphologically discernible forms. Earlier, there were described two forms of O. potanini from the riverine part of the Zavkhan River and three forms in the lakes of the Great Lakes Hollow. The data of the study demonstrate similarity with cyclic morphogenesis in the closely related species Oreoleuciscushumilis in the Lakes Valley also belonging to the Central Asian closed basin. PMID: 32342319 [PubMed - in process]...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Dgebuadze YY, Mironovsky AN, Mendsaikhan B, Slyn'ko YV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Obturacula of Vestimentifera (Annelida, Siboglinidae) Are Homological to the Dorsal Lips of the Polychaete of the Family Sabellidae.
Abstract We have conducted comparative analysis of the structure of the dorsal lips of the polychaete Eudistylia polymorpha from the family Sabellidae and the obturacula of Oasisia alvinae (Vestimentifera). It has been concluded that the obturacula of Vestimentifera are homologs of the dorsal lips of Polychaete from the family Sabellidae. It has been suggested that the head lobe of siboglinids of the subfamily Frenulata is homologous to the fused obturacula of Vestimentifera. PMID: 32342320 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Karaseva NP, Rimskaya-Korsakova NN, Gantsevich MM, Malakhov VV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Influence of a 1000 Times Weakened Magnetic Field on Embryogenesis and Ontogenesis of the Japanese Quail in Several Generations.
Abstract The paper presents experimental data on the influence of a 1000-fold weakening of the Earth's magnetic field on the embryonic and postembryonic development of the Japanese quail in three generations. It has been shown that the weakening of the earth's magnetic field by a factor of 1000 affects the formation of blood vessels in Japanese quail embryos, in particular, causing a decrease in angiogenesis in seven-day-old embryos of both the first generation (F1) and the next two ones (F2 and F3). Pathological and anatomical studies of embryos of different ages in three generations have revealed various patholo...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Orlov OI, Gurieva TS, Dadasheva OA, Spassky AV, Ezdakova MV, Litvin ED, Sychev VN Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

First Discovery of Pogonophora (Annelida, Siboglinidae) in the Kara Sea Coincide with the Area of High Methane Concentration.
Abstract Here we report the first finding of a frenulate pogonophoran (Annelida, Siboglinidae) in the southern part of the Kara Sea. This finding was made in the Yenisei Gulf in the region of the highest methane concentrations, resulting from the degradation of permafrost under the influence of river flow. It has been suggested that pogonophorans are indicators of hydrocarbon manifestations of various genesis. PMID: 32342322 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Rimskaya-Korsakova NN, Karaseva NP, Kokarev VN, Simakov MI, Gantsevich MM, Malakhov VV Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Biological Threat: The Threat of Planetary Quarantine Failure as a Result of Outer Space Exploration by Humans.
Abstract The paper presents the results of experiments with spore-forming bacteria and microscopic fungi performed in the framework of the Russian Research Program outside the International Space Station. It has been found that microorganisms not only survive in this extreme environment, but also retain reproductive ability. Moreover, most microorganisms exhibit an increase in biochemical activity and resistance to antimicrobial agents, specifically antibiotics. These findings are of obvious interest to the developers of both planetary quarantine methods and biomedical safety systems for manned space exploration m...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - December 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Sychev VN, Novikova ND, Poddubko SV, Deshevaya EA, Orlov OI Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

The Vertebrate Exoskeleton: Geometric Patterns of the Armor Relief Formation in Early Jawless Vertebrates (Agnatha, Vertebrata).
Abstract Analysis of data on the hard cover structure in various osteostracan taxa (Osteostraci, Agnatha) allowed us to describe geometric patterns of the armor relief formation during morphogenesis of the Vertebrate external skeleton. A circular model of the formation of exoskeletal surface relief has been proposed. A mechanism providing a complete set of the exoskeleton sculpture types was shown to exist already since early Vertebrates. PMID: 32130582 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Doklady Biological Sciences)
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - October 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Afanassieva OB Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research

Set of Enzymatic Bioassays for Assessment of Soil Contamination.
Abstract A concept of the comprehensive assessment of soil contamination is proposed. According to it, the conclusion regarding the presence of toxic substances in the analyzed sample is based on the inhibition of enzymatic reactions responsible for various functions of a living organism, such as luminescence, respiration, etc. These functions are taken as test functions in classical bioassays with the use of living objects (luminous bacteria, daphnia, algae, and others). The regularities of the impact of different classes of toxicants on the activity of particular enzymes or coupled oligo-enzyme chains have been ...
Source: Doklady Biological Sciences - October 31, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Kolosova EM, Sutormin OS, Esimbekova EN, Lonshakova-Mukina VI, Kratasyuk VA Tags: Dokl Biol Sci Source Type: research