Constipation: pathophysiology and management
This article highlights improved characterization of pancolonic motility, evidence of efficacy of established and novel drugs for both idiopathic and opioid-induced constipation and a new algorithm for the evaluation of patients with chronic idiopathic constipation who respond inadequately to available laxatives. Summary: The articles cited in this review inform the reader of new developments in the evaluation and treatment of patients with chronic constipation. (Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology)
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: LARGE INTESTINE: Edited by Ciaran P. Kelly and Eamonn M.M. Quigley Source Type: research

The intestinal protozoa: emerging impact on global health and development
Purpose of review: To highlight new findings on the relevance of gastrointestinal protozoan infections to global public health in low-income and middle-income countries and suggest new large-scale interventions. Recent findings: New disease burden assessments and epidemiological studies highlight the role of the major intestinal protozoa as important etiologic disease agents in low-income and middle-income countries. Despite their prevalence and adverse health impact, such information has not yet translated to the implementation of large-scale interventions as exist for helminth infections and other neglected tropical dise...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

Update on molecular epidemiology of Shigella infection
Purpose of review: Shigella spp. are important etiologic agents of diarrhea worldwide. This review summarizes the recent findings on the epidemiology, diagnosis, virulence genes, and pathobiology of Shigella infection. Recent findings: Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei have been identified as the main serogroups circulating in developing and developed countries, respectively. However, a shift in the dominant species from S. flexneri to S. sonnei has been observed in countries that have experienced recent improvements in socioeconomic conditions. Despite the increasing usage of molecular methods in the diagnosis and vir...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

The molecular basis of Clostridium difficile disease and host response
Purpose of review: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to severe colitis and death. The physiologic and molecular mechanisms determining disease outcome are thus far poorly understood. Here, we review recent advances in the relationship between host response to infection and disease outcome. Furthermore, we review recent studies on the relationship between intestinal microbial ecology and pathogenesis of CDI. Recent findings: Severe CDI is characterized by toxin-induced epithelial injury and marked intestinal inflammation. Recent studies demonstrate that systemic markers of inflammat...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

Autophagy and checkpoints for intracellular pathogen defense
Purpose of review: Autophagy plays a crucial role in intracellular defense against various pathogens. Xenophagy is a form of selective autophagy that targets intracellular pathogens for degradation. In addition, several related, yet distinct, intracellular defense responses depend on autophagy-related genes. This review gives an overview of these processes, pathogen strategies to subvert them, and their crosstalk with various cell death programs. Recent findings: The recruitment of autophagy-related proteins plays a key role in multiple intracellular defense programs, specifically xenophagy, microtubule-associated protein ...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

An update on travelers’ diarrhea
Purpose of review: Travelers’ diarrhea, affecting millions of travelers every year globally, continues to be a leading cause of morbidity despite advances in vaccination, prevention, and treatment. Complications of travelers’ diarrhea often present to gastroenterologists and some patients followed by gastroenterologists are at higher risk of developing travelers’ diarrhea. This review will provide an update on recent progress made in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of travelers’ diarrhea. Recent findings: Most causes of travelers’ diarrhea remain bacterial,...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

Ondansetron and probiotics in the management of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in developed countries
Purpose of review: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common and impactful disease, typically managed with supportive care. There is considerable interest in the role of adjunctive therapies, particularly ondansetron and probiotics in improving AGE outcomes. The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of these agents in children with AGE in developed countries. Recent findings: Single-dose oral ondansetron is effective and safe in reducing hospital admissions and the use of intravenous rehydration in children with AGE in emergency-department-based trials. Ondansetron use has increased signi...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Mitchell B. Cohen Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology)
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - December 5, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal bleeding in cardiac patients: epidemiology and evolving clinical paradigms
Purpose of review: Cardiac patients are a fast emerging population vulnerable to gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) due to their use of antithrombotic medications. This review will quantify the GIB risk of cardiac patients prescribed antithrombotic medications, summarize risk-management strategies and highlight knowledge gaps. Recent findings: As the American population ages, it is anticipated that there will be an increased incidence of upper and lower GIB related to age-specific disease, higher burden of comorbidity and increased use of anticoagulants, antiplatelets and aspirin to treat cardiac disease. New evidence has hig...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
This article summarizes guidelines in management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and reviews recent advances in the field. Recent findings: Recent study showed that patients who received blood transfusion with threshold hemoglobin below 7 g/dl rather than below 9 g/dl had significantly lower mortality at 45 days. Endoscopic therapy should be performed on actively bleeding ulcers and ulcers with visible vessel or adherent clot. An over-the-scope clip is a novel device that can be used to achieve hemostasis. It may be a useful tool for achieving hemostasis for patients who failed endoscopic therapy w...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

Management of gastric cancer
Purpose of review: Gastric cancer is an uncommon cancer in the United States but is a very common cancer globally and is endemic in East Asia. It is a virulent cancer that presents with metastatic disease in about one half of United States patients. Recent findings: In this review article, we discuss palliative chemotherapy options as well as validated preoperative, perioperative and postoperative strategies for locally advanced disease, which include chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation. Summary: In the metastatic setting, there has been incremental improvement in cytotoxic chemotherapy combinations in the past 2 decades. T...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori
Purpose of review: This review focuses on new treatment options for eradicating Helicobacter pylori that have emerged as a result of decreased efficacy of standard triple therapy due to increasing antibiotic resistance. We also report on new data regarding primary and secondary gastric cancer prevention strategies and the potential role of H. pylori as a risk factor for extragastric malignancies. Recent findings: Treatment options have shifted from triple to various quadruple modifications. The length of therapy duration has, in general, been extended from 7 to 10 and 14 days. Nonbismuth-based quadruple therapies prescribe...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

Gastroduodenal mucosal defense
Purpose of review: To review recent developments in the field of gastroduodenal mucosal defense. Recent findings: Research in the field of gastroduodenal mucosal defense has focused on continued elucidation of molecular mechanisms that protect the mucosa and influence healing at the cellular level. Review of literature over the past year reveals that familiar proteins and mediators, such as nitric oxide, toll-like receptors, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins (NOD2), β-defensins, macrophages, dendritic cells, mucins, autophagy, and the influence of aging and diet, are still subjects of study...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

Gastric secretion
Purpose of review: This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neural, paracrine, hormonal, and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion. Recent findings: Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High gastric acidity, in combination with pepsin and lipase, kills ingested microorganisms and may play a role in preventing bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Stimulants of acid sec...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

Stomach and duodenum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology)
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research

Role of programmed necrosis and cell death in intestinal inflammation
Purpose of review: To critically review recent advances on the role of programmed necrosis and other cell death modalities in intestinal health and inflammatory bowel disease. Recent findings: Tight regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and cell death is required for intestinal physiology, and to maintain an integral barrier that restricts microbiota translocation and ensures immune tolerance. Apoptosis has long been considered as a normal part of intestinal epithelial cell turnover. However, recent studies have demonstrated that excessive cell death leads to deleterious intestinal inflammation, as is obse...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: IMMUNOLOGY: Edited by Fabio Cominelli Source Type: research

Role of fat and adipokines in intestinal inflammation
Purpose of review: This review summarizes current knowledge on the contribution of mesenteric adipose tissue in intestinal inflammation. We will describe the cellular and humoral characteristics of creeping fat, their potential impact for Crohn's disease and propose a working model for the critical interplay between the creeping fat and the inflamed intestine. Recent findings: Creeping fat can be distinguished from healthy adipose tissue by its distinctively small adipocytes, by a specific microenvironment defined by high levels of adipokines and by a dominant immune cell infiltration. In Crohn's disease transmural inflamm...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: IMMUNOLOGY: Edited by Fabio Cominelli Source Type: research

Novel imaging modalities for immune cell monitoring in the intestine
Purpose of review: The introduction of novel molecular imaging modalities that can not only define disease states on the basis of structural changes and morphology, but also allow in-vivo visualization and characterization of molecular and biochemical alterations on a cellular level add a new dimension to our current diagnostic possibilities. The advents of innovative endoscopic devices coupled with the introduction of novel targeting ligands contribute to the recent advances made in the field of molecular imaging. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss the concepts and the potential of novel endoscopic imagi...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: IMMUNOLOGY: Edited by Fabio Cominelli Source Type: research

Cytokines and mucosal immunity
Purpose of review: Cytokines are integral mediators for maintaining intestinal mucosal homeostasis, as well as prominent effector molecules during chronic gut inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on recent studies of the role of specific cytokines in mucosal immunity. Recent findings: Dichotomous, or even opposing, functions have been described for several cytokines involved in intestinal innate immunity (most notably for members of the interleukin-1 family), which depend on the specific inflammatory conditions within the intestinal mucosa. For example, both interleukin-1α and interleukin-33 exhibit ‘alar...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: IMMUNOLOGY: Edited by Fabio Cominelli Source Type: research

Autophagy, viruses, and intestinal immunity
Purpose of review: To highlight recent findings that identify an essential role for the cellular degradative pathway of autophagy in governing a balanced response to intestinal pathogens and commensals. Recent findings: Following the genetic association of autophagy with inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility, increasing evidence indicates that this pathway functions in various epithelial lineages to support the intestinal barrier. New studies are also revealing that autophagy proteins dictate the quality and magnitude of immune responses. Mouse models, in particular, suggest that autophagy and inflammatory bowel diseas...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: IMMUNOLOGY: Edited by Fabio Cominelli Source Type: research

Central role of IL-17/Th17 immune responses and the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis
Purpose of review: Intestinal fibrosis is a serious, yet common, outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite advances in developing novel treatment modalities to control chronic gut inflammation characteristic of IBD, no effective antifibrotic therapies exist to date. As such, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal fibrosis and the availability of relevant animal models are critical to move this area of investigation forward. Recent findings: Emerging concepts in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis include the central role of interleukin (IL)-17 and Th17 immune r...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: IMMUNOLOGY: Edited by Fabio Cominelli Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology)
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - October 10, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Endoscopic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic disease
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic disorders using endoscopy. Recent findings: The role of endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic disorders continues to increase in importance. The use of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) provides therapy for many pancreatic disorders, including in the treatment of pancreatitis, its complications and pancreatic neoplasia. In recent years, there has been a focus on improving its safety in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Pancreatic endotherapy by ERCP for the t...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: PANCREAS: Edited by Chung Owyang Source Type: research

Recent advances in pancreatic surgery
Purpose of review: To appraise the recent literature dealing with important advances in the field of pancreatic surgery. Recent findings: Surgical care for pancreatic cancer patients remains fractured, with imperfect patient selection and ongoing bias in referral patterns based on socioeconomic factors. Analysis of readmissions after pancreatectomy reveals it to be a poor quality of care metric. More extensive pancreatic resections lead to higher morbidity. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor biology affect patient outcomes and suggest the need for better diagnostic approaches for th...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: PANCREAS: Edited by Chung Owyang Source Type: research

Diagnostic approach to pancreatic cysts
Purpose of review: Diagnosis of pancreatic cysts remains challenging due to limitations of currently available radiologic and endoscopic tools. The diagnostic approach should focus on identifying mucinous and malignant cysts. Mucinous cysts require further differentiation to allow appropriate management. Recent findings: Although the overall rate of malignant pancreatic cysts is low, it remains higher than the general population. MRI with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is the preferred imaging modality for pancreatic cysts. Attempts to improve diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspira...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: PANCREAS: Edited by Chung Owyang Source Type: research

Molecular biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
Purpose of review: Recent advances in sequencing technology have led to a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This timely review seeks to summarize these recent advances which will provide a foundation for future studies in the field. Recent findings: Stereotypical genetic alterations have been identified and confirmed. However, additional alterations have highlighted the importance and complexity of a number of intracellular signaling pathways that present unique opportunities for therapeutic targeting. Summary: A genetic signature of pancreatic ductal ...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: PANCREAS: Edited by Chung Owyang Source Type: research

Chronic pancreatitis
Purpose of review: We review selected important clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2013. Recent findings: Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains difficult, although newer techniques utilizing endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography and MRI hold promise. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Osteoporosis, osteopenia, and bone fracture are particularly common in these patients, and require active intervention and treatment. Diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis, type 3c diabetes, has specific characteristics and requires careful management. Antioxidants ...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: PANCREAS: Edited by Chung Owyang Source Type: research

The conspiracy of autophagy, stress and inflammation in acute pancreatitis
Purpose of review: Acute pancreatitis is associated with alcohol abuse, gallstones and bacterial infection. Its basic cause is tissue destruction accompanied by an innate immune response, which induces epithelial stress pathways. Recent studies have focused on some of the integral cellular pathways shared between multiple pancreatitis models that also suggest new approaches to detection and treatment. Recent findings: Several models of pancreatitis have been associated with stress responses, such as endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress together with the induction of a defective autophagic pathway. Recent evidence rei...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: PANCREAS: Edited by Chung Owyang Source Type: research

Recent advances in the regulation of pancreatic secretion
Purpose of review: This review highlights recent progress made in the field of pancreatic secretion. Recent findings: This review summarizes a number of recent studies demonstrating the intracellular pathways by which hormones and neural inputs regulate pancreatic exocrine and endocrine secretion. In particular, the effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin on intra-acinar cell adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate are explored. Considerable attention is paid to regulation of β-cell function and includes studies detailing the mechanisms of regulation of insulin by somatostatin, serotonin, and me...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: PANCREAS: Edited by Chung Owyang Source Type: research

Endoscopic therapy for chronic pancreatitis
Purpose of review: To summarize recent data on techniques, efficacy and complications of endoscopic management of chronic pancreatitis. Recent findings: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with or without endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is the first-line treatment for large painful obstructive pancreatic duct calculi. Use of preextracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy secretin could result in better stone clearance. The first-line treatment for dominant pancreatic duct strictures is placement of a single 10-Fr polyethylene stent with planned exchanges every 3 months until 1 year. Other endoscopic approaches t...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

Endoscopic surveillance of gastrointestinal premalignant lesions: current knowledge and future directions
Purpose of review: Provide an evidence-based resource for the surveillance of gastrointestinal premalignant lesions, focusing on the scientific articles reported recently. Recent findings: No randomized controlled clinical trials exist to definitively support the efficacy of surveillance programs for Barrett's esophagus and gastric intestinal metaplasia. However, surveillance of these premalignant lesions is recommended by some of the leading organizations. To optimize the usefulness of surveillance programs, targeting high-risk patients might maximize its benefits. A Barrett's esophagus segment of at least 3 cm and evid...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

Wireless capsule endoscopy of the large intestine: a review with future projections
Purpose of review: Video capsule endoscopy, which was initially developed for exploring the small bowel, has been adapted for investigating the colon. This review summarizes recent developments in colon capsule technology as well as indications for its use. Recent findings: Second-generation PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE-2) has been recently developed and has significantly improved the sensitivity and specificity of colon capsules for detecting polyps and/or tumors in patients with suspected or known colonic lesions. The use of CCE-2 has been shown to be of value in patients with incomplete standard colonoscopy. The...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine: a review with future directions
Purpose of review: Here, we review the clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy. Moreover, we provide an outlook on the exceptional future developments of small bowel capsule endoscopy. We discuss clinical algorithms for diagnosis of small bowel diseases. Multiple studies have shown the potential of capsule endoscopy for identification of the bleeding source located in the small bowel and the increased diagnostic yield over radiographic studies. Capsule endoscopy could detect villous atrophy and severe complications in patients with nonresponsive celiac disease. In addition, small bowel capsule endoscopy was ...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

Endoscopic stitching: techniques and indications
Purpose of review: Endoscopic suturing has evolved dramatically over the past decade. Early suturing devices had significant limitations preventing widespread use. Newer devices, though not perfect, have overcome many of these limitations. The purpose of this review is to discuss the techniques and current indications for endoscopic suturing. Recent findings: In addition to technological advances, the indications for endoscopic suturing continue to increase in number. Recent literature has demonstrated successful use of endoscopic suturing for the treatment of procedural adverse events such as leaks, perforations, and fist...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

Best endoscopic stents for the biliary tree and pancreas
Purpose of review: To determine trends in pancreaticobiliary stents over the past 12–18 months. Recent findings: Metal biliary stents continue to be used for palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction with superior patency to plastic stents. The use of covered metal biliary stents is increasingly being used for the management of benign biliary disease. Plastic stents predominate in patients with pancreatic disease, with the exception of transmural drainage of pancreatic necrosis. In both biliary and pancreatic disorders, there is a trend towards greater utilization of endoscopic ultrasound-guided intervention...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

Submucosal endoscopy: the new frontier of therapeutic endoscopy
Purpose of review: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) and submucosal tunneling and endoscopic resection (STER) have been recently described as minimally invasive therapies for achalasia and gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria, respectively. This review illustrates the latest developments in the field of submucosal endoscopy, focuses on POEM and sheds light on STER. Recent findings: Multiple studies from the United States, Asia and Europe have shown that POEM is an effective and safe procedure for achalasia when performed by experienced operators with adequate clinical response in 80...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

New and emerging endoscopic therapies for gastrointestinal bleeding
Purpose of review: To highlight the most recent findings and results of new hemostatic agents for acute bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract of common and less common cause published in the past 12 months. Recent findings: New hemostatic agents have been tested and emerged as promising therapies for acute upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. These are hemostatic sprays, stents for variceal tamponade and devices for mechanical closure of the gut wall. Summary: Some of these devices are capable to definitively stop a bleeding, others are used as adjuvant to other techniques as bridge to other definitive treatments. A...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ENDOSCOPY: Edited by Anthony Kalloo Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology)
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - September 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research