Home Exercise Interventions in Frail Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFrailty is characterized by decreased physiological reserve and increased risk of falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Frail older adults may benefit from exercise interventions targeting their multiple problems and functional deficits; however, most research focuses on center-based interventions, which may present accessibility challenges for frail older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the most recently published home-based exercise interventions for frail older adults living at home.Recent FindingsEight manuscripts met inclusion criteria. Research inter...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - August 5, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Geriatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudies that focus on geriatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are limited, although these injuries occur commonly as a result of falls in the older adult population. This review aims to explore current literature in this area and summarize common practices in diagnosis and treatment of this condition.Recent FindingsOlder adults who sustain a fall should be evaluated for the possibility of mTBI, with reported falls forward or the presence of upper extremity fractures being associated with increased risk of trauma to the head. Efforts to determine pre-injury cognitive status may improve the abil...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - July 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Trends in the Management of Fall Risk in People with Lower Limb Amputation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeople living with lower limb amputation are at an increased risk of falling compared with the healthy geriatric population. Factors of increased age and increased number of comorbidities could compound the already increased risk. The purpose of this article is to highlight recent research associated with fall risk in amputees and provide the reader with evidence to help guide clinical interventions.Recent FindingsThough research on the topic of falls in people with amputation is becoming more common, there is still a dearth of evidence regarding what contributes to increased fall risk and how to a...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Gait and Balance Assessment of Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will outline seminal and contemporary balance and gait measures most commonly used with geriatric clients, along with the administration procedures, clinical utility, and psychometric qualities that support their use.Recent FindingsTen balance and five gait performance tests were reviewed. Balance instruments range from the simple to the complex. These tools quantify older adults ’ ability to maintain postural stability during tasks that manipulate sensory conditions and functional activities, and challenge their base of support. Gait assessment is common in geriatric rehabilitati...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction as an Exercise Alternative to Ameliorate the Effects of Aging
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBlood flow restriction (BFR) exercise is a recent and novel intervention showing promising results in counteracting several physiological effects related to aging, leading to disability in older adults. The purpose of this paper is to review recent literature within the last 5  years on the effectiveness of BFR training in older adults.Recent FindingsBFR performed during light load (20 –30% of one-repetition maximum) resistance exercise have showed to enhance musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health in healthy and frail older adults without any adverse events. Other novel findings are ...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - July 21, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the Elderly
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a diagnostic challenge, particularly in low endemic settings with ageing populations. The impact has both individual and infection control implications.Recent FindingsOver the past 20  years, progress has been made in trying to improve TB diagnostics. International recommendations for investigation however still rely heavily on the index of suspicion, imaging and ultimately culturingMycobacterium tuberculosis which remains the gold standard for diagnosing TB disease. Recent advances include molecular diagnostics with the ability to rapidly identify TB diseas...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 14, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Recent Developments in Technological Support for Wanderers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWandering occurs among more than half the population living with dementia. The purpose of this paper is to review recent publications on the topic of wander management through technology.Recent FindingsVarious technological devices exist for monitoring wandering. The hardware is utilized in home settings and institutions. Decisions about suitable technology consider disease stage, environment, satellite reception, and cost.SummaryWander management through technology is developing rapidly. Home and institutional care settings utilize basic technology for wander management, including motion detectors...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Older Women with Urinary Incontinence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review and discuss the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for urinary incontinence (UI) in older women.Recent FindingsAs opposed to UI in young and middle-aged women, UI in older women is often multifactorial. One randomized control trial (RCT) and secondary analyses from four RCTs suggest that healthy older women with UI benefit from PFMT as much as younger women. In older women with UI, 12 RCTs support PFMT as an effective treatment. Of interest, recent RCTs propose a more holistic approach to PFMT to address concurrent cognitive, gait, and balance deficits in older incontinent wo...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 26, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Behavioral Interventions for Alzheimer ’s Management Using Technology: Home-Based Monitoring
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDementia is a progressive brain disease that affects 5.8 million people in the USA. In 2018, more than 16 million Americans provided unpaid care for persons with dementia (PWD). Most of this care is provided by family members and friends yielding 18.5 billion hours of unpaid care worth $233.9 billion.Novel technological approaches to assist caregivers and improve health and function of PWD are being explored. Models to assess and predict behaviors may provide greater quality of life (QOL) for both PWD and their caregivers. The purpose of this paper is to review current available technologies for be...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 21, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Telemedicine: a Valuable Tool in Neurodegenerative Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), is rising as the global population ages. Access to specialist care, which improves outcomes, is insufficient and disease-related disability makes in-person physician visits burdensome. Telehealth is one potential means for improving access to care. T he purpose of this manuscript is to review recent publications on telemedicine in AD and PD.Recent FindingsTelemedicine is feasible in AD and PD and acceptable to patients and their caregivers. Compared with in-person visits, teleme...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 14, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Bronchiectasis in the Elderly —a Disease That Has Not Gone Away
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the early twentieth century, bronchiectasis (BE) was not a disease seen in the elderly population as life expectancy was usually
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 14, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Unique Role of Lung Cancer Nurse Navigators in Elderly Lung Cancer Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLung cancer care in the elderly is complex for both providers and patients, but a lung nurse navigator can help bridge the gap between providers and patients. The purpose of this paper is to review recent publications on the role of the lung nurse navigator and identify their importance in patient care with an emphasis on their impact on the elderly.Recent FindingsNurse navigation programs vary greatly from institution to institution but are increasingly used in a variety of diseases and roles. Multiple recent studies have shown that nurse navigators lead to a significant improvement in screening r...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 11, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Role of Healthcare Robotics in Providing Support to Older Adults: a Socio-ecological Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we provide an overview of how healthcare robotics can facilitate healthy aging, with an emphasis on physical, cognitive, and social supports. We next provide a synthesis of future challenges and considerations in the development and application of healthcare robots. We organize these considerations using a socio-ecological perspective and discuss considerations at the individual, care partner, community healthcare, and healthcare policy levels.Recent FindingsOlder adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population. Age-related changes and challenges can present difficulties...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 10, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Continence: Bowel and Bladder and Physical Function Decline in Women
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to review the various forms of incontinence, highlight their impact on older women, and explore current literature regarding the link between physical activity, physical function, and incontinence.Recent FindingsBoth urinary and fecal incontinence become more prevalent with age, and are associated with significant morbidity. In parallel, there is a well-established decline in physical function that occurs with age. Furthermore, incontinence has a bidirectional relationship with physical function decline. Given the known link between increasing physical activity and pr...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 9, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Pleural Infection —a Growing Problem in the Elderly
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPleural infection is a common cause of hospitalisation and associated with high morbidity and mortality. This review summarises our current knowledge and practice in cases of pleural infection, with a particular focus on the evidence relevant to the management of this condition in older adults.Recent FindingsThe incidence of pleural infection is rising in older adults, who often present with less specific symptoms and commonly suffer from one or more comorbidities that can both confound diagnosis and impact on longer-term outcomes. Aspiration of oropharyngeal contents plays an important role in the...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - March 9, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Seizures and Epilepsy in the Elderly: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to highlight important clinical aspects in diagnosis and management of epilepsy in the elderly and to highlight recent literature and its relevance to current practice.Recent FindingsRecent studies have shown that elderly patients are under referred for evaluation to epilepsy monitoring units and for epilepsy surgery, which has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in this population.SummaryThe elderly are at increased risk for acute symptomatic seizures and epilepsy. Accurate diagnosis can be challenging in older patients due to limitations in history, atypical s...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Role of Cardiovascular Disease in Cognitive Impairment
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewWith no disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) currently established, a priority for public health is prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. Treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may provide such an opportunity.Recent FindingsWhile the pathology of athero- and arteriolosclerotic cerebrovascular disease was once thought of as distinct from AD pathobiology, accumulating evidence suggests that there is more overlap in vascular and AD-related pathologies than previously recognized. CVD and its risk factors are associated with cognitive decline and...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Toward Generational Improvement in Native Elder Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlder American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) are a diverse, rapidly growing population; there is a paucity of data in the literature specific to this population.Recent FindingsAI/AN elders represent a relatively small proportion of the overall AI/AN population, carry a high burden of chronic conditions and disability, and suffer disparate impact of social determinants of health. Most but not all of the burden of illness and disability has its origin earlier in the lifespan.SummaryThere is a small set of high leverage actions that can be taken in clinical care, public health, and long-term serv...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - December 18, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Fibrotic Signaling Pathways of Skin Fibroblasts in Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
This article provides an overview of the clinical presentation and treatment of NSF, with an in depth review of the signaling pathways of fibroblasts associated with the development of skin fibrosis in NSF. (Source: Current Geriatrics Reports)
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - December 12, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Men: Update on Evaluation and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of the appropriate evaluation of elderly men with urinary incontinence and an updated review of treatment options available to these patients.Recent FindingsAdding pelvic floor physical therapy to bladder training exercises is more effective for treating overactive bladder than bladder training alone. Beta-3 adrenergic agonists are a safe and effective alternative to anticholinergic therapy in older adults. Sacral neuromodulation is safe and effective in older adults and may benefit men with incomplete bladder emptying. A de-obstructing surgery may benefit men with both under...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - December 3, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Synthetic Review of Financial Capacity in Cognitive Disorders: Foundations, Interventions, and Innovations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFinancial capacity (FC) is a complex, multidimensional construct that changes over the lifespan and commonly becomes impaired as individuals age and develop dementia. Impaired FC results in several important negative outcomes including loss of independence and increased victimization and abuse. The goal of this review is to synthesize current knowledge of the assessment and intervention of impaired financial capacity in order to propose its further development in the context of technological advancements.Recent FindingsCurrent methods of assessing FC are based on conceptual foundations that include...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Evolving Concepts in the Evaluation and Management of Bladder Cancer in Elderly Men
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, the contemporary knowledge regarding specific issues related to the care of older bladder cancer patients is reviewed. The status of radical cystectomy, bladder-sparing strategies, checkpoint inhibition, prostate-sparing surgery, and BCG distribution pertaining to older adults are discussed.Recent FindingsThe use of minimally invasive approaches for radical cystectomy in patients with invasive bladder cancer is on the rise, including those patients with advanced age. Enhanced recovery pathways are improving time-to-recovery for patients undergoing radical cystectomy which may be es...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - November 20, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

A Scoping Review of Dementia Symptom Management in Persons with Dementia Living in Home-Based Settings
AbstractBackgroundA large proportion of our older adults live with Alzheimer ’s disease and related dementias, and the number of those diagnosed in the future is expected to increase dramatically as the population ages. Persons with dementia bring unique healthcare challenges due to the manifestation of behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with the disease. The lack of geriatric clinicians as well as a properly trained non-geriatric specialist workforce capable of addressing the symptoms persons with dementia exacerbates the challenge of providing effective care. Pharmacological interventions are contrain...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Caring for the Older Person Who Is Diagnosed with Cancer: a Toolbox for the Geriatric Nurse
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo offer a “toolbox” for geriatric nurses consisting of a general understanding of geriatric oncology, use of a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), role in the multidisciplinary team (MDT), and additional roles as leader, clinician, educator, advocate, and exemplar.Recent FindingsGeriatric oncology incorporates the use of the Ambulatory Geriatric Oncology Program (AGOC), CGA, and an MDT to determine functional status, comorbid conditions, social support, and emotional concerns in addition to diagnosing and treating cancer. Nurses have a role in all elements of geriatric oncology.S...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - November 11, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Adverse Effects of Androgen Deprivation in Elderly Men with Prostate Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize the key literature of complications and adverse effects experienced by elderly men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, as well as evidence-based strategies to manage these complications.Recent FindingsCurrent research demonstrates several adverse effects associated with treatment with androgen deprivation therapy, including skeletal complications, possible cardiovascular effects, diabetes and metabolic complications, decreased sexual function and libido, depression, and cognitive decline.SummaryDespite the well-known side effect pr...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Medical Therapies for Treatment of BPH: Special Considerations in Elderly Men
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBenign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is among the most common diseases worldwide, manifesting clinically with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The prevalence of BPH and LUTS increases with age. There has been an increase in the types of medication available for treatment. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on medication for the treatment of BPH and LUTS as it relates to older adult men.Recent FindingsAlthough many different medication classes have studies showing benefits in the older male population for those with BPH, careful attention needs to be paid to their side ...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Insomnia in Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo evaluate and summarize recent research articles pertaining to insomnia in older adults that can guide healthcare providers on factors to consider when assessing and managing insomnia.Recent FindingsUp to 75% of older adults experience symptoms of insomnia. Insomnia is associated with socioeconomic status, racial and ethnic classification, family relationships, medical and mental health disorders, cognitive function, and dementia. Although one-fifth of older adults are still prescribed sleep medications, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is the first-line treatment for insomnia  and ...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - October 22, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mobility Challenges Among Older Adult Mobility Device Users
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes recent research regarding challenges to mobility experienced by older adult mobility device users.Recent FindingsDifferent elements that affect mobility in this population were highlighted using the Human Activity Assistive Technology model. Key constructs in this model include the human (personal factors); the desired activity (mobility); assistive technology (mobility devices); and context (physical and social environmental factors). Poor mobility skills and lack of mobility confidence are personal factors that can limit the places that older adults go. However, new mobility...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 25, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mental Health Care of Older Adults: Does Cultural Competence Matter?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMinority and limited English proficiency seniors are consistently found to have multiple health care disparities, including higher incidence and prevalence of various mental health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review current literature on culturally competent mental health care for older adults.Recent FindingsThe US population is aging and becoming increasingly more diverse. Minority and underserved groups of seniors are known to suffer from lower health literacy, limited English proficiency, and poorer health care outcomes. Quality mental health care is particularly dependent on bei...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 22, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Delirium in the Elderly Surgical Patient
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDelirium is an unfortunately frequent complication in the postoperative course of elderly patients, affecting as much as half of all patients with even higher rates in the intensive care unit. Early recognition and diagnosis are tantamount to prevention of the associated increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we will summarize the current literature pertaining to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of delirium in the elderly surgical patient population.Recent FindingsSeveral large randomized control trials looking at the treatment of delirium with neuroleptic medications have been ...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 18, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Aging Patients in Correctional Settings
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe United States (US) has the highest number of incarcerated people in the world. This incarcerated population is aging disproportionately compared with the general population. Correctional facilities need to develop geriatric competencies to respond to this aging crisis.Recent FindingsOlder inmates have an increased burden of chronic medical conditions. This leads to higher healthcare utilization and costs across correctional systems. Daily symptoms, such as pain, and geriatric syndromes, such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and sensory impairment, are common but are frequently undertreated...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 18, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Review of Forward-Head Posture and Vestibular Deficits in Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewForward-head posture (FHP) is a common postural deviation associated with older age, cervical muscle weakness, poor balance, anteriorly displaced center of mass, increased postural sway and fall risk, impaired cervical proprioception, and possibly vestibular dysfunction. Studies have found increased fall risk in older adults with FHP but have not identified a casual reason for this relationship. This review aims to examine the links between (FHP) and vestibular deficits.Recent FindingsWhile assessment of overall posture, including FHP, is a common component of a physical therapy evaluation, a stand...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 14, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Living In Place: the Impact of Smart Technology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo discuss impact of smart technology and highlight specific types of technologies that would be supportive of older adults to Live In Place.Recent FindingsSmart technology has potential to increase the ability of older adults to remain in their homes by monitoring health, safety, and falls, preventing potential accidents and injuries. Several types of smart technology were identified in the literature as supportive of Living In Place. These include sensor systems with predictability analysis, wearable technology, information and communication technology, and smart homes. In general, the less intru...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 14, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

In-Home Video Telehealth for Dementia Management: Implications for Rehabilitation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe progressive nature of dementia requires ongoing care delivered by multidisciplinary teams, including rehabilitation professionals, that is individualized to patient and caregiver needs at various points on the disease trajectory. Video telehealth is a rapidly expanding model of care with the potential to expand dementia best practices by increasing the reach of dementia providers to flexible locations, including patients ’ homes. We review recent evidence for in-home video telehealth for patients with dementia and their caregivers with emphasis on implications for rehabilitation professio...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Non-invasive Ventilatory Support in the Elderly
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe first description of non-invasive ventilation use began in the 1920s. Since then, its role in patient care has evolved through increased clinical knowledge and scientific advancements. The utilization of non-invasive ventilation has broadened from initial application in acute in-hospital ICU settings to now include the outpatient settings. This review discusses the history of non-invasive ventilation and its role in acute in-hospital chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and weaning from mechanical ventilation in the elderly. The elderly popula...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Managing Infectious Disease in the Critically Ill Elderly Patient
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewInfections and subsequent sepsis are an increasing cause of hospital admission and critical illness in the elderly population. The risk factors that predispose elderly patients to infections, such as comorbidities and frailty, also contribute to prolonged recovery times and subsequent mortality.Recent FindingsElderly patients may present with atypical symptoms such as delirium and remain afebrile thus delaying the diagnosis of infections. White blood cell count is not as useful in the diagnosis of infection as other biomarkers such as procalcitonin. Once an infection has begun, the elderly pati...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Role of Palliative Care in the Elderly Surgical ICU Patient
AbstractPurpose of ReviewManagement of geriatric trauma patients is a multidisciplinary effort. The purpose of this paper is to review recent literature and further elucidate the role of palliative care in the geriatric trauma patient population.Recent FindingsRecognition of the resources provided by palliative care continues to increase. Adoption of early consultations may improve both patient and family experiences especially in end-of-life situations.SummaryEarly identification of at risk patients allows for proper utilization of consultative resources. Palliative care has several defined roles in the elderly trauma pop...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Integrated Primary and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Successes, Challenges, and Recommendations
We describe the successful implementation of real-world integrated care programs, discuss our own experience with integrated care, and share recommendations from our clinical practice.Recent FindingsIntegrated care increases access to treatment, produces better outcomes for patients, reduces costs, improves the patient experience, and decreases stigma. Despite extensive evidence supporting the effectiveness of integrated care, clinical, organizational, and financial challenges serve as barriers to its widespread implementation.SummaryIntegration of primary and mental health care is a highly effective treatment model for ol...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Pressure Injury in the Critically Ill Elderly Patient
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPressure injuries are a major problem for all people, but they are especially problematic in the elderly patient. The goal of this review is to provide strategies for reducing the incidence of these problem wounds in the geriatric population. The review asks: what are the risk factors for developing pressure injuries? And how are these risks magnified in the elderly population?Recent FindingsThere are several wound healing organizations that have developed definitions and strategies for dealing with pressure injuries. Risks can be divided into “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” fac...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Exercise and Protein Supplementation for Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSarcopenia results in disability and negatively impacts older adults ’ ability to live independently. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature regarding the effectiveness of exercise and nutritional supplementation as a treatment for sarcopenia.Recent FindingsA number of recent studies demonstrated improvements in muscle mass and function in sarcopenic adults through resistance training and combination resistance+aerobic exercise training. Variability in program design, duration, and intensity leads to inconsistent findings in the literature. The addition of protein su...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Body Composition and Falls Risk in Older Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo explore evidence for associations between body composition and falls in older adults and interventions that may reduce falls through improving body composition.Recent FindingsBoth sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality) and obesity appear to increase falls risk, but relationships with falls-related injury may differ. Nevertheless, perceptions of obesity as a protective factor for fractures have been challenged in recent years. Emerging research suggests that combined entities such as sarcopenic obesity also increase risk of falls, although effects of conditions such as osteos...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 6, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Consideration of Anticoagulation: Surgical Care for the Elderly in Current Geriatrics Reports
ConclusionThe use of anticoagulation therapy has changed dramatically over the last decade. These changes are multifactorial and include the increasing prevalence of OAC use, and the introduction of NOACs. Consequently, challenges associated with managing OAC in the elderly will only become more complicated over time. Surgical providers need to be aware of these changes and update their practice on the shifting epidemiology of this population, evolving guidelines, and new reversal agents. (Source: Current Geriatrics Reports)
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - June 6, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: a Safe and Effective Treatment Option in our Elderly Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTreatment of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can present a surgical dilemma for elderly patients, especially in those with multiple comorbidities. The purpose of this paper is to review recent publications on this topic and highlight the benefits of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in such patients.Recent FindingsHoLEP is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with BPH of any age with any prostate size. It is superior to many other BPH treatment options. It can be safely completed in those on anticoagulants, in the re-treatm...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Frailty, Successful Aging, Resilience, and Intrinsic Capacity: a Cross-disciplinary Discourse of the Aging Process
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe relationship between successful aging, frailty, intrinsic capacity, and resilience is explored, in terms of underlying physiology, indicators, and utility.Recent FindingsFrailty may be regarded as the reverse of successful aging conceptually, but more appropriate for clinical management and health promotion programs. Intrinsic capacity may be used as indicator of healthy aging, and the concept of resilience more relevant in research efforts to understand the heterogeneous age-related changes. In prevention of geriatric syndromes and diseases, as well as in the formulation of health policies, th...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 25, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Integrating Frailty and Cognitive Phenotypes: Why, How, Now What?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review elucidates the concept of frailty in relationship to reserve and resilience, the relationships and shared pathophysiology between physical frailty and cognitive impairment, the theoretical underpinnings of three integrated phenotypes of physical and cognitive impairments, and the potential of incorporating biomarkers into phenotype refinement and validation.Recent FindingsThe fact that frailty and cognitive impairment are associated and often coexist in older adults has led to the popular view of expanding the definition of frailty to include cognitive impairment. However, there is grea...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 24, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Frailty in Surgical Preoperative Evaluation and Postoperative Recovery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMajor abdominal surgery in the elderly is challenging and complex. Frailty as a clinical entity in the elderly is increasingly recognized as a useful assessment tool to identify at-risk patients. We aim to review recent literature on frailty in surgical preoperative evaluation and postoperative recovery and determine its applications in emergency surgery.Recent FindingsFrailty has been established as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in elderly surgical patients. Individualized treatment goals and tailor-made interventions to optimize clinical conditions in frail patients before a...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 22, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Update on Interventions to Prevent or Reduce Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: a Scoping Review and Community Translation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith increasing interest in frailty prevention and management globally, this scoping review provides an update to the current knowledge on interventions to reduce frailty in community-dwelling older adults and its state of translation in real-world settings.Recent FindingsUpdating previous findings of 14 studies from 2000 to 2016 by Puts et al., we reviewed 10 additional studies from 2016 to 2018 and found that up to date, 18 of 24 studies overall showed effective interventions in preventing or reducing frailty (as the intervention target) in community-dwelling older adults. Multidimensional frailt...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 22, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Health for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Older Adults
AbstractPurpose for ReviewThe growing geriatric population includes gender minorities or the LGBTQ adults who present with a rich history of unique experiences that have invariably affected the provision and access to quality health care services. The purpose of this article is to review, understand, and discuss the differences and similarities of health-related geriatric issues within and between them.Recent FindingsBased on the existing literature, relevant findings include the identification of multiple marginalized identities within oppressive social systems, negative health outcomes, and the presence of health care di...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 17, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Training Programs on Geriatrics in Rural Areas: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo understand the current scope of training in geriatrics in rural areas for rural providers and teams, we reviewed current literature to identify training programs which pertain to geriatric education and training of the rural workforce.Recent FindingsOlder adults are one of the fastest growing demographics in the USA and represent a higher share of the population in rural areas than in other counties. Older adults in rural areas often have complex health challenges and may benefit from care from healthcare teams with geriatrics training. However, there is a paucity of geriatrics workforce in the ...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Deprescribing: Right-Sizing Medication Regimens to Optimize Outcomes in Palliative Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to describe the current state of polypharmacy in older adults and those with an advanced illness, evidence that supports deprescribing, and best practices to implement deprescribing in palliative care.Recent FindingsPractitioners and patients indicate they are interested in reducing the number of medications prescribed, but there are barriers to this practice. Over 90% of Medicare beneficiaries stated they would be willing to stop taking one or more of their medications if endorsed by their doctor. Several tools have become available in recent years to assist practitio...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - February 23, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research