Decreased carO gene expression and OXA-type carbapenemases among extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from burn patients in Tehran, Iran.
In this study, 100 A. baumannii strains were isolated from burn patients and their susceptibilities to different antibiotics were determined using disc diffusion testing and broth microdilution. Presence of carO gene and OXA-type carbapenemase genes was tested by PCR and sequencing. SDS-PAGE was done to survey CarO porin and the expression level of carO gene was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. A high rate of resistance to meropenem (98%), imipenem (98%) and doripenem (98%) was detected. All tested A. baumannii strains were susceptible to colistin. The results indicated that 84.9% were XDR and 97.9% of strains were MDR. In addi...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - April 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abbasi E, Goudarzi H, Hashemi A, Chirani AS, Ardebili A, Goudarzi M, Sharahi JY, Davoudabadi S, Talebi G, Bostanghadiri N Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors to Demodex folliculorum infection in eyelash follicles from a university population of Mexico.
In conclusion, it was observed that the main population positive to infection consisted of young adults; this is in contrast with the international evidence reporting a high rate of infection in older adults. Besides, our results suggest that items of daily use such as cosmetics, facial cream, eyeliner, glasses, or contact lenses may be some of the main culprits of the infection by D. folliculorum. PMID: 32223304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica)
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vargas-Arzola J, Segura-Salvador A, Torres-Aguilar H, Urbina-Mata M, Aguilar-Ruiz S, Díaz-Chiguer DL, Márquez-Navarro A, Morales-Reyes L, Alvarado-Vásquez N, Nogueda-Torres B Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Fatal case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus suis in a splenectomized man and a review of the European literature.
M, Urbán E Abstract Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic human pathogen, which is a causative agent of invasive infections in people who are in close contact with infected pigs or contaminated pork products. It is associated with severe systemic infections, most commonly meningitis and sepsis, which may lead to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Serotype 2 is the most prevalent type in S. suis infections in humans. We have reported a case of a very rapidly proceeding fatal human S. suis infection in a splenectomized, but otherwise immunocompetent patient in Hungary. We would like to highlight the ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ágoston Z, Terhes G, Hannauer P, Gajdács M, Urbán E Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Challenges in identification of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. in Lebanon.
This study aimed to evaluate the routine identification tools available in Lebanon for differentiation of Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. The identification of 43 isolates defined as Shigella spp. by Api 20E was accessed using MALDI-TOF, serological testing, duplex PCR targeting ipaH (present in Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive E. coli "EIEC") and lacY (found in E. coli including EIEC but not Shigella spp.) as well as gyrB gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was investigated as well as Shiga-toxin production. All isolates were identified as E. coli by MALDI-TOF while the PCR showed a disparate group of ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Halimeh FB, Rafei R, Diene S, Mikhael M, Mallat H, Achkar M, Dabboussi F, Hamze M, Rolain JM Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

A diagnostic challenge in clinical laboratory: Misidentification of Neisseria subflava as Neisseria meningitidis by MALDI-TOF MS.
Abstract MALDI-TOF MS provides fast, easy to perform and cost-effective diagnosis in clinical microbiology laboratories, however in some cases results of MALDI-TOF MS should be confirmed with additional tests. This confirmation is especially important for causes of life-threatening infections like Neisseria meningitidis. In our laboratory, three isolates were identified as N. meningitidis by Bruker MALDI Biotyper (BD, USA) between April 2018 and March 2019 from clinical specimens of blood, sputum, and urine. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed for further investigation. Two of the isolates were identified as Neisser...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Unalan-Altintop T, Karagoz A, Hazirolan G Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam susceptibility of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Hungary.
elegh S, Katona K, Kristóf K Abstract Our objective was to compare the activity ceftazidime-avibactam (C/A) and ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T) against multidrug (including carbapenem) resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates collected from six diagnostic centers in Hungary and to reveal the genetic background of their carbapenem resistance.Two hundred and fifty consecutive, non-duplicate, carbapenem-resistant multidrug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa isolates were collected in 2017. Minimal inhibitory concentration values of ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, C/A and C/T were determined b...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: O'Neall D, Juhász E, Tóth Á, Urbán E, Szabó J, Melegh S, Katona K, Kristóf K Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Tigecycline susceptibility of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from intensive care units in the western Balkans.
This study included 349 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. collected from Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2016 and 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion, VITEK2, gradient, ComASP Colistin. Tigecycline susceptibilities were interpreted according to breakpoints of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Majority of the tested isolates were CRAB (92.8%). Tigecycline MIC50/MIC90 values were 4/8 μg/mL by BMD and 0.5/4 μg/mL by gradient test. Essential agreement for BMD and gradient tes...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gajic I, Ranin L, Kekic D, Opavski N, Smitran A, Mijac V, Jovanovic S, Hadnadjev M, Travar M, Mijovic G Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Human coronavirus OC43 and other respiratory viruses from acute respiratory infections of Egyptian children.
This study investigated prevalence of 10 respiratory viruses; Adenovirus, influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Parainfluenza virus (PIV)type 1-4, enterovirus, and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) among children in Alexandria, Egypt presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections. The study was conducted on children
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Naga IS, Elsawaf GE, Elzalabany M, Eltalkhawy MY, Kader O Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

A simplified in vitro model for investigation of the antimicrobial efficacy of various antiseptic agents to prevent peri-implantitis.
n E, Ungvári K Abstract The biofilm formation by oral bacteria on the implant surface is one of the most remarkable factors of peri-implant infections, which may eventually lead to bone resorption and loss of the dental implant. Therefore, the elimination of biofilm is an essential step for the successful therapy of implant-related infections. In this work we created a basic in vitro model to evaluate the antibacterial effect of three widely used antiseptics.Commercially pure (CP4) titanium sample discs with sand blasted, acid etched, and polished surface were used. The discs were incubated with mono-cultur...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Venkei A, EÖrdegh G, Turzó K, Urbán E, Ungvári K Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at admission among high-risk Turkish and international patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Although MRSA has a low prevalence in our center, a variation in the rate of MRSA positivity was observed across patients from different countries. Absence hospital acquired contamination or outbreaks in our institution may be attributed to the screening algorithm used and underscores the importance of risk analysis for patients referred from geographical locations with unknown MRSA frequency, to reduce the risk of transmission. PMID: 32160784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica)
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ozdamar M Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

In vitro activity of colistin against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-24-like genes: A multicenter based study.
This study was aimed to evaluate occurrence of antibiotic resistance and the presence of resistance determinants among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. This cross-sectional study from January to September 2018 was performed on 59 A. baumannii strains isolated from clinical samples in the north of Iran. Isolates were identified by standard microbiologic tests and molecular method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The presence of carbapenem resistance genes was detected by PCR method. All isolates were resistant to cefepime, meropenem, imipen...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khanjani S, Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie H, Shenagari M, Ashraf A, Mojtahedi A, Atrkar Roushan Z Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Evaluation of cell-penetrating peptide-peptide nucleic acid effect in the inhibition of cagA in Helicobacter pylori.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of PNA on inhibiting the expression of cagA. After confirmation of the desired gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the antisense sequence was designed against cagA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of conjugated PNA against H. pylori was determined. The effect of the compound on the expression level of the cagA was investigated in HT29 cell culture using real-time PCR. The results showed 2 and 3 log reduction in bacterial count after 8- and 24-h treatment with 4 and 8 μM of the compound, respectively. The lowest expression level of the cagA gene was observed at a...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - February 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Javanmard Z, Kalani BS, Razavi S, Farahani NN, Mohammadzadeh R, Javanmard F, Irajian G Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Novel CYBA mutation in a family with BCGitis.
In this study, a family affected by BCGitis caused by a novel intronic autosomal recessive CYBA mutation (88,713,158 C > T) has been described. The proband is a 5-year-old girl with chronic granulomatous disease who was referred to the clinic due to BCGitis. The culprit mutation was detected following whole genome sequencing and was confirmed among the family members by Sanger sequencing. Being symptom-free at the time of diagnosis, despite the proband's mother homozygosity, was a characteristic feature of this report. Remarkably, none of the CYBA-mutated members, as a known chronic granulomatous disease c...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rayzan E, Pouladfar G, Parvaneh N, Shahrooei M, Aryan Z, Rezaei N Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Comparison of in vitro assays to study the effectiveness of antiparasitics against Acanthamoeba castellani trophozoites and cysts.
;ry N Abstract We aimed to compare LDH release assay, trypan blue and fluorescent stainings, and non-nutrient Escherichia coli plate assay in determining treatment efficacy of antiamoebic agents against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites/cysts, in vitro. 1BU trophozoites/cysts were challenged with 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanid (PHMB), 0.1% propamidine isethionate (PD), and 0.0065% miltefosine (MF). Efficacies of the drugs were determined by LDH release and trypan blue assays, by Hoechst 33343, calcein-AM, and ethidium homodimer-1 fluorescent dyes, and by a non-nutrient agar E. coli plate assay. All three ant...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shi L, Stachon T, Latta L, Elhawy MI, Gunaratnam G, Orosz E, Kiderlen AF, Seitz B, Bischoff M, Szentmáry N Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Genotyping of Acantamoeba spp. from rhisophere in Hungary.
In this study, 10 rhizosphere samples were collected from maize and alfalfa plants in experimental station at Institute of Genetics, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Szent István University. We detected Acanthamoeba based on the quantitative real-time PCR assay and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. All studied molecular biological methods are suitable for the detection of Acanthamoeba infection in humans. The quantitative real-time PCR-based methods are more sensitive, simple, and easy to perform; moreover, these are opening avenue to detect the effect of number of parasites on human disease. Acanthamoeba speci...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Orosz E, Posta K Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Fluoroquinolone resistance conferred by gyrA, parC mutations, and AbaQ efflux pump among Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates causing ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen due to its ability to survive in hospital settings and its antimicrobial resistance. It is one of the key pathogens in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of quinolone resistance among A. baumannii isolates causing VAP and to investigate the presence of the novel abaQ gene among them. Quinolone-resistant A. baumannii isolates causing VAP were collected over a period of 4 months. Mutations within gyrA and parC were analyzed and the presence of qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and abaQ w...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Attia NM, ElBaradei A Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Coexistence of genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzymes among clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran.
In this study, 84 out of 85 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to at least one of the aminoglycosides and harbored at least one AME gene. The most common gene encoding AMEs was aph (3')VIa, followed by aac(3')-Ia, ant(3″)-Ia, ant (2″)-Ia, and aac(6')-Ib. The aminoglycoside-resistant genotypes were completely matched to resistant phenotypes to each one of the aminoglycoside agents. There was a clear association between AME gene types and the phenotype of resistance to aminoglycosides with their ERIC-PCR types. Our findings highlight the coexistence of AME genes and clonal dissemination of multiresistant A. bau...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shooshtari FS, Navidifar T, Amin M, Goodarzi H Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Molecular emm typing of Bulgarian macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.
Abstract Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen causing a broad range of infections, linked with global morbidity and mortality. Macrolide resistance rates vary significantly in different parts of the world. Driving factors of the emergence and spread of resistant clones are not clearly understood. We investigated 102 macrolide-resistant GAS strains collected during the period 2014-2018 from various clinical specimens from Bulgarian patients. Strains were characterized by the presence of mefA/mefE, ermA, and ermB using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for mefA/mefE. Resistant strains were studied ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Muhtarova A, Mihova K, Markovska R, Mitov I, Kaneva R, Gergova R Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Correlation of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance among clinical and soil isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in Iraq.
Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that is reported as a major cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the biofilm formation by A. baumannii clinical and soil isolates, to display their susceptibility to 11 antibiotics and to study a possible relationship between formation of biofilm and multidrug resistance. During 8 months period, from June 2016 to January 2017, a total of 52 clinical and 22 soil isolates of A. baumannii were collected and identified through conventional phenotypic, chromo agar, biochemical tests, API 20E system, and confirmed geno...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hassan PA, Khider AK Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Emergence of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Poland.
In this study, 65 multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from different clinical samples were included. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin was detected by broth microdilution method in three different ways. For selected K. pneumoniae strains, eazyplex SuperBug mcr-1 test was performed. This test detects mcr-1 gene, which encodes a colistin-resistance determinant. Most of the analyzed K. pneumoniae strains were resistant to colistin in all applied methods. The exception was two strains, where MIC of colistin was 2 mg/L in SensiTest Colistin and MIC-Strip Colistin tests. In MIC COL test, MIC ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sękowska A, Chudy M, Gospodarek-Komkowska E Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of serogroup 6 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected during 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in Bulgaria.
Abstract Serogroup 6 remains common in the pneumococcal-conjugated vaccine era in Bulgaria; therefore, we investigated its clonal and serotype dynamics. The antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed by broth microdilution. Strains identified as serogroup 6 with latex agglutination method were subjected to serotype-specific PCRs. Erythromycin-resistant strains were analyzed by PCR for presence of ermB and mefE genes. MLST was performed to define clonal composition of the sequence types (STs). Serogroup 6 was represented by 40 (13.3%) from 301 invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Molecular se...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alexandrova AS, Setchanova LP, Pencheva DR, Mitov IG Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Prevalence of carbapenem-hydrolyzing OXA-type β-lactamases among Acinetobacter baumannii in patients with severe urinary tract infection.
Prevalence of carbapenem-hydrolyzing OXA-type β-lactamases among Acinetobacter baumannii in patients with severe urinary tract infection. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2019 Dec 09;:1-7 Authors: Girija SA, Priyadharsini JV, Paramasivam A Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii produces carbapenemase-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) as one of the major drug resistance mechanisms. This investigation is thus aimed to assess the prevalence and to characterize the CHDL-producing strains of A. baumannii by both phenotypic assays and genotypic characterization. A total of 73 isolates of A. baumannii...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Girija SA, Priyadharsini JV, Paramasivam A Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Resistance and heteroresistance to colistin among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.
ür D Abstract Colistin is one of the most effective alternatives for treating Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The aim of this study was to determine colistin resistance and heteroresistance rates in A. baumannii from clinical samples in Hacettepe University clinical microbiology laboratory between June 2016 and January 2017. A total of 200 isolates were included in the study. In vitro susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and tigecycline were determined by disk diffusion test. Most isolates were multiresistant as they exhibited resistance t...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Çağlan E, Nigiz Ş, Sancak B, Gür D Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Provocation of life functions at a unicellular eukaryote level by extremely low doses of mammalian hormones: Evidences of hormesis.
Abstract Hormones, characteristic to higher ranked animals, are synthesized, stored, and secreted by unicellular eukaryote animals. The unicells also have receptors for recognizing these materials and transmit the message into the cells for provoking response. The hormones are effective in very low concentrations (down to 10-21 M) and opposite effects of lower and higher concentrations can be observed. However, sometimes linear concentration effects can be found, which means that hormesis exists, nevertheless uncertain, as it is in the phase of formation (evolutionary experimentation). Hormesis, by transforma...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Csaba G Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

A pilot study in Serbia by European Clostridium difficile Infection Surveillance Network.
This study by ECDIS-Net gives bases for a national surveillance of CDI in Serbia. PMID: 31813261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica)
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jovanović M, van Dorp SM, Drakulović M, Papić D, Pavić S, Jovanović S, Lešić A, Korać M, Milošević I, Kuijper EJ Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Comparing identification of clinically relevant Prevotella species by VITEK MS and MALDI biotyper.
In conclusion, both VITEK MS and MALDI Biotyper provided reliable and rapid identification. However, the permanent extension of the databases is needed. PMID: 31813262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica)
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Toprak NU, Veloo ACM, Urban E, Wybo I, Jean-Pierre H, Morris T, Justesen US, Tripkovic V, Jeverica S, Soyletir G, Nagy E, ESCMID Study Group for Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI)** Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Growing consumption of antibiotics and epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infections in Poland: A need to develop new solutions.
wska-Mach J Abstract Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infections (CDIs) are becoming more common and more serious. C. difficile is the etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, and toxic megacolon while CDIs recur in 7.9% of patients. About 42.9 CDI cases/10,000 patient-days are diagnosed each day in Europe, whereas in Poland 5.6 CDI cases/10,000 patient-days are reported; however, the median for European countries is 2.9 CDI cases/10,000 patient-days. Epidemiology of CDIs has changed in recent years and risk of developing the disease has doubled in the past ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jachowicz E, Pobiega M, Różańska A, Wójkowska-Mach J Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

An unusual case of peritoneal dialysis-associated bacterial peritonitis caused by Weeksella virosa.
In this report, we present a 4-year-old female patient with Addison's disease and end-stage renal failure secondary to focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis had been performed, and 3 months later, the patient developed fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. Peritoneal fluid culture and dialysis fluid culture were positive for W. virosa. It was identified with Phoenix (BD, USA) and confirmed via 16S rRNA sequencing. It cannot be identified by Maldi Biotyper (Bruker). The isolate was found to be resistant to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin by gradient test. Intraperitoneal cefepim...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Unalan T, Karagoz A, Bayhan C, Ozsurekci Y, Hazirolan G Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Microbial dysbiosis and microbiota-gut-retina axis: The lesson from brain neurodegenerative diseases to primary open-angle glaucoma pathogenesis of autoimmunity.
Abstract In recent years, microbiota-associated neurodegenerative diseases have been exploited and provided new insight into disease pathogenesis. However, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), known as a complex neurodegenerative disease resulting from retinal ganglion cell death and optic nerve damage, can cause irreversible blindness and visual field loss. POAG, which shares several similarities with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), has limited studies and slow progression in the understanding of pathogenesis when compared to PD and AD. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge of ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - December 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chaiwiang N, Poyomtip T Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Characterization of carbapenem-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In this study, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in carbapenem-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible (Car-R/Ceph-S) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. A total of 243 P. aeruginosa isolates were studied. The disk diffusion and agar dilution methods were used for determination of antibiotic susceptibility patterns. AmpC and efflux pump overproductions were detected by phenotypic methods. The presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression of OprD, MexAB-OprM, and MexXY-OprM efflux pumps was assessed by real-time PCR. According to disk diffusion method, altog...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - November 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khalili Y, Yekani M, Goli HR, Memar MY Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Molecular diversity and antibiotic resistance gene profile of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from humans and food animals in Lagos, Nigeria.
This study determined the diversity and antibiotic resistance gene profile of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from humans and food animals. Using standard methods, Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples, profiled for antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance genes. Seventy-one Salmonella isolates were recovered from both humans and food animals comprising cattle, sheep, and chicken. Forty-four serovars were identified, with dominant Salmonella Budapest (31.8%). Rare serovars were present in chicken (S. Alfort, S. Wichita, S. Linton, S. Ealing, and S. Ebrie) and humans (S. Mowanjum, S. Huettwillen, S. Lime...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - October 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ajayi A, Smith SI, Kalpy JC, Bode-Sojobi IO, René YK, Adeleye AI Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Imported Zika virus infections in Hungary between 2016 and 2018.
We describe the first laboratory diagnosed imported Zika-infections of Hungary, to highlight the challenges of microbiological identification of the pathogen, caused by serological cross-reactivity and short viremia. Serological examination was carried out using indirect immunofluorescent assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plaque-reduction neutralization test was used for verification purposes. A wide range of clinical specimens: serum, whole-blood, urine, saliva, and semen were analyzed by molecular methods, and sequencing was applied in case of PCR positive results to identify the virus strain. Zika-infected pa...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - October 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nagy O, Nagy A, Tóth S, Pályi B, Vargáné Koroknai A, Takács M Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

CLSI - EUCAST: Comparison of antibiotic-susceptibility profile of Enterobacteriaceae of animal origin according to the standards.
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is a relevant "One Health" issue that shows the need of comparison of isolates of different origins. In this way, guidelines for antimicrobial-resistance evaluation in animals are relevant in relation to human sources. This work aims to compare antimicrobial-resistance results of animal isolates considering CLSI and EUCAST guidelines. The comparison shows considerable differences in the results, which include antibiotics used as primary options in hospital infections. EUCAST showed the higher number of samples with resistance profiles than CLSI that indicates a more effi...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - October 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Palmeira JD, Ferreira H Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Indian and international patients in North India.
Abstract The aim of the study was to find out the carbapenem resistance rate and prevalence of different carbapenemase genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from a North Indian corporate hospital that receives both Indian and international patients. A total of 528 clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were included in the study. All isolates that were found resistant to carbapenems by MIC testing (Vitek II Compact®) were screened for NDM, OXA-48, VIM, and KPC genes by PCR. Sequencing of NDM gene and transmissibility by conjugation assay were checked on 22 randomly selected NDM-positive i...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - August 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jaggi N, Chatterjee N, Singh V, Giri SK, Dwivedi P, Panwar R, Sharma AP Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Serogroup diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis: Meningococcus infection monitoring in Belarus.
This study performed an epidemiological survey of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from patients and from asymptomatic carriers. Altogether, 74 N. meningitidis strains (46 invasive and 28 non-invasive) were isolated between February 2011 and May 2018 in different regions of the Republic of Belarus. Serogenotyping was carried out by real-time PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics were determined by broth microdilution and results were interpreted in accordance with EUCAST. The serogroups of N. meningitidis were determined as follows: serogroup B - 65%, C - 11%, W - 9%, A - 5%, Y - 4%, and ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - July 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kharkhal HN, Titov LP Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Time-variable expression levels of mazF, atlE, sdrH, and bap genes during biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.
In this study, a catheter-derived S. epidermidis isolate with strong ability of biofilm formation was selected. PCR assay was used to detect sdrH, bap, atlE, and mazF genes in this isolate. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels of these genes after 4, 8, and 20 h during the course of biofilm formation. The studied genes showed different expression levels at different time intervals during biofilm formation by real-time PCR method. Expression levels of atlE and sdrH genes were the highest at 4 h, whereas bap gene showed the highest expression level at 8 h during the course of biofilm forma...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shivaee A, Mohammadzadeh R, Shahbazi S, Pardakhtchi E, Ohadi E, Kalani BS Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in HIV patients of Arba Minch province, Ethiopia: Carriage rates, antibiotic resistance, and biofilm formation.
This study aimed at delineating the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm-forming potentials of nasally colonized MRSA among HIV patients in the Arba Minch province of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was performed in HIV patients who visit anti-retroviral therapy clinic of the Arba Minch Hospital between February and April 2017. Nasal samples were collected and inspected for Staphylococcus following standard procedures. MRSA was identified using cefoxitin disk and antibiotics sensitivity test was performed as per Kirby-Baur disk diffusion method. The formation of biofilm was inspected using both qualitative a...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manilal A, Shewangizaw M, Mama M, Gezmu T, Merdekios B Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Phylogenetic analysis of human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Iran.
This study was carried out in order to analyze the infection frequency and coinfection rates of HBoV with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to perform phylogenetic analysis of HBoV in samples of children with acute respiratory infection in Isfahan, Iran. During the time period 2016-2017, altogether 75 respiratory samples from children hospitalized with acute respiratory infection were collected. The samples were first screened for RSV by direct immunofluorescence method and then subjected to detect HBoV DNA by PCR. Genotyping of HBoV-positive samples was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products using NP and VP1/V...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohammadi M, Yavarian J, Karbasizade V, Moghim S, Esfahani BN, Hosseini NS Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Diagnosis of malaria in a traveler 9 months after returning from West Africa by illumigene ® LAMP assay: A case report.
We report a 53-year-old male patient who was hospitalized with fever attacks, chills, and headache caused 9 months after returning from Africa. During his stay in Africa, he used malaria chemoprophylaxis. Microscopy of thin and thick blood films and rapid diagnostic antigen testing remained negative for three times. The EDTA blood samples were tested using the Meridian illumigene® malaria LAMP assay that gave a positive result for Plasmodium spp. Diagnosis of malaria was subsequently specified as P. ovale infection by real-time PCR. Ovale malaria often manifests with delay and low parasitemia. The patient was treated w...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reuken PA, Baier M, Hagel S, Eisermann P, Stallmach A, Rödel J Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Clinical pitfalls of leishmaniasis and Whipple's disease hidden behind systemic lupus erythematosus: A case series.
Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic autoimmune disease that can affect major organs possibly leading to life-threatening complications and appears with heterogeneous clinical picture. SLE could present with broad spectrum of clinical and laboratory features that can resemble those of other diseases, such as hemopoietic malignancies, infections, or immune-mediated disorders. Its complexity and protean features overlap with many other diseases, hindering the differential diagnosis. Rarely, true overlap with other diseases may occur. Herein, we report a case series of two patients affected ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Francesca L, Firinu D, Deidda M, Costanzo G, Del Giacco SR Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori genotypes among Belarus patients with gastroduodenal disorders and their association with clinical outcome.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori genotypes (vacA and cagPAI) directly in gastric biopsy specimens in patients with gastric diseases in Belarus. Gastric biopsies were collected from 461 patients with different gastrointestinal disorders: superficial gastritis (287 subjects), atrophy gastritis (59 subjects), erosive gastritis (47 subjects), duodenal ulcer disease (54 subjects), and stomach ulcer (14 subjects). PCR-based genotyping was used to detect s1a, s1b, s2, m1a, m1b, m2, cagM, cagA, and cagT genes. Overall prevalence of vacA s1a allele was 60.5% followed by m...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yanovich O, Doroshko M, Titov L Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Distribution of genes encoding resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from burn patients.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA in MRSA strains isolated from burn patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. A total of 76 isolates of S. aureus were collected from January to May 2017 from Taleghani Burn Hospital in Ahvaz. Among 76 S. aureus strains collected, 60 (78.9%) isolates were MRSA. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing for MRSA showed extreme high resistance rate to clarithromycin (100%) and azithromycin (100%), followed by erythromycin (98.3%). The PCR assay revealed that the frequency rates of msrA, ermA, and ermC genes were 23 (38.3%), 28 (46.7%), and 22 (36.7%), res...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khoshnood S, Shahi F, Jomehzadeh N, Montazeri EA, Saki M, Mortazavi SM, Maghsoumi-Norouzabad L Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Identification of an intestinal microbiota signature associated with hospitalized patients with diarrhea.
Abstract As an important global health challenge, diarrhea kills nearly two million people each year. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) usually manifests itself as the diarrhea-predominant subtype. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth has been observed more frequently in patients with IBS compared to healthy controls. However, the pathophysiology of IBS is not fully understood, and based on recent evidences, altered gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, we aimed to compare the microbiome in hospitalized patients with diarrhea and healthy individuals. Thirty patients and 10 ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - May 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohammadzadeh N, Kalani BS, Bolori S, Azadegan A, Gholami A, Mohammadzadeh R, Masjedian Jazi F Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Clinical course of Acanthamoeba keratitis by genotypes T4 and T8 in Hungary.
This study reports seven CL wearer, Acanthamoeba PCR-positive patients with AK, diagnosed between January 2015 and 2018. Patients had the diagnosis of AK 1.36 months after first symptoms. Genotyping allowed the identification of six isolates of the T4 and one of the T8 genotypes. At first presentation, pseudendritiformic epithelopathy/dirty epithelium (four eyes, 57.1%), multifocal stromal infiltrates (five eyes, 71.4%), ring infiltrate (three eyes, 42.8%), and perineuritis (one eye, 14.3%) were observed. AK was healed without later recurrence in two eyes (28.5%) using triple-topical therapy, in three eyes (42.8%) followin...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Orosz E, Kriskó D, Shi L, Sándor GL, Kiss HJ, Seitz B, Nagy ZZ, Szentmáry N Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Detection of Acanthamoeba spp. from dust phenomenon in Ilam Province, West Iran.
This study aimed to represent the existence and genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. in dust phenomenon in Ilam Province, Iran. In this study, 55 dust samples were collected and by targeting the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene, the genotypes were determined. Utilizing the tolerance ability test, the pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was also recognized. Eighteen samples of Acanthamoeba (32.7%) were detected in the sampling areas. According to sequencing analysis, the isolates related to T4 (77.7%) and T2 (22.3%) genotypes were reported. It was revealed by thermo- and osmotolerance tests in which si...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saberi R, Najafi A, Naserifar R Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

A powerful in vivo alternative model in scientific research: Galleria mellonella.
Abstract Murine models are suggested as the gold standard for scientific research, but they have many limitations of ethical and logistical concern. Then, the alternative host models have been developed to use in many aspects especially in invertebrate animals. These models are selected for many areas of research including genetics, physiology, biochemistry, evolution, disease, neurobiology, and behavior. During the past decade, Galleria mellonella has been used for several medical and scientific researches focusing on human pathogens. This model commonly used their larvae stage due to their easy to use, non-essen...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - February 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Singkum P, Suwanmanee S, Pumeesat P, Luplertlop N Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

First isolation of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter beijerinckii from an environmental sample.
lay S Abstract The emergence of opportunistic Acinetobacter spp. in healthcare settings poses a significant threat to public health. The major reasons for nosocomial spread of these species are their abilities to develop and transfer drug resistance against various classes of antibiotics. Considering that Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous in nature, can utilize several carbon sources, and reach humans via various pathways, our aim was to obtain information about the environmental strains of this genus. Our first step was to develop and test a multistep isolation procedure based on traditional scientific methods. A...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - February 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Radó J, Kaszab E, Benedek T, Kriszt B, Szoboszlay S Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance, virulence and genetic diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae in community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Iran.
In this study, 91.7%, 33.3%, and 4.2% of phenotypically ESBL-producers were positive for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes, respectively. An association was observed between the presence of traT, fyuA, or cnf-1 genes with antibiotic resistance. Two clone types were obtained by PFGE that indicate different K. pneumoniae clones in community- and hospital-acquired UTIs. The findings of this study are valuable in development of treatment strategies against UTIs in Iran. PMID: 30803251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica)
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - February 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eghbalpoor F, Habibi M, Azizi O, Asadi Karam MR, Bouzari S Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Next-generation sequencing of plasmid carrying blaOXA-48 in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Turkey.
l;, Saral A Abstract A carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated in Turkey in 2012 and blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-48 genes were observed in this strain. The aim of this study was to investigate transferability of plasmid bearing blaOXA-48 in K. pneumoniae and to use whole-genome sequencing in order to understand the genetic context of plasmid. K. pneumoniae strain was used as donor in conjugation experiments. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of selected transconjugant was determined. Plasmid was isolated from transconjugant colony and was named as pKPT. Complete sequencing of the pKPT was conducted ...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - February 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Düzgün AÖ, Saral A Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Aromatic hydrocarbon receptors in the immune system: Review and hypotheses.
Abstract Ah-receptors (AhRs) recognize and bind foreign environmental molecules as well as some target hormones of other nuclear receptors. As ligands activate transcription factors, they transmit the information on the presence of these molecules by binding to the DNA, which in turn activate xenobiotic metabolism genes. Cross talk with other nuclear receptors or some non-nuclear receptors also activates or inhibits endocrine processes. Immune cells have AhRs by which they are activated for physiological (immunity) or non-physiological (allergy and autoimmunity) processes. They can be imprinted by hormonal or pseu...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - February 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Csaba G Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research