Measles infection in persons with secondary vaccine failure, New York City, 2018-19
Vaccine. 2021 Aug 12:S0264-410X(21)00983-X. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.078. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA large measles outbreak in New York City, which included cases among vaccinated persons and adults presumed to be immune, provided the opportunity to better understand vaccine failure and the potential impact on measles transmission. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity can distinguish primary (low avidity IgG, indicating no evidence of prior immunity) versus secondary vaccine failure (high avidity IgG, indicating prior immune response and waning antibody). Measles IgG avidity was measured on samples from 62 persons: avidity was high in 53 (16 vaccinated and 37 with unknown vaccination history) and low in 9 (1 recently vaccinated and 8 with unknown vaccination history). Secondary transmission from 2 persons with high-avidity IgG results occurred. These findings illustrate that in settings of sustained measles elimination, measles infection and transmission can occur in persons with secondary vaccine failure, underscoring the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for measles during an outbreak despite prior or presumed prior vaccination.PMID:34393016 | DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.078
We present the incidence and vaccination status of pediatric cases (age
Health officials fear that the drop in vaccinations will spark global outbreaks and deaths from the highly contagious disease.
A drop in surveillance and missed vaccine schedules due to the pandemic means potential new outbreaks of measles and other infectious diseases.Medscape Medical News
Transmission and outbreaks are both at an “immediate elevated risk,” according to a joint report from the WHO and the CDC.
This report describes progress toward World Health Assembly milestones and measles elimination objectives during 2000-2020 and updates a previous report (2). During 2000-2010, estimated MCV first dose (MCV1) coverage increased globally from 72% to 84%, peaked at 86% in 2019, but declined to 84% in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. All countries conducted measles surveillance, although fewer than one third achieved the sensitivity indicator target of ≥2 discarded†† cases per 100,000 population in 2020. Annual reported measles incidence decreased 88% during 2000-2016, from 145 to 18 cases per 1 million popu...
CONCLUSION: The application of behavioural frameworks and systems thinking revealed vaccine hesitancy mechanisms in Rwandan communities that demonstrate the interrelationship between immunization services and caregivers' vaccination behaviour. Confidence-building social structures and context-dependent challenges that affect vaccine uptake were also identified.PMID:34737471 | PMC:PMC8542260 | DOI:10.2471/BLT.20.285258