‘Enhancing’ red cell fate through epigenetic mechanisms

Purpose of review Transcription of erythroid-specific genes is regulated by the three-dimensional (3D) structure and composition of chromatin, which dynamically changes during erythroid differentiation. Chromatin organization and dynamics are regulated by several epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA (de-)methylation, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones, chromatin-associated structural proteins, and higher-order structural changes and interactions. This review addresses examples of recent developments in several areas delineating the interface of chromatin regulation and erythroid-specific lineage transcription. Recent findings We survey and discuss recent studies that focus on the erythroid chromatin landscape, erythroid enhancer-promotor interactions, super-enhancer functionality, the role of chromatin modifiers and epigenetic crosstalk, as well as the progress in mapping red blood cell (RBC) trait-associated genetic variants within cis-regulatory elements (CREs) identified in genome-wide association study (GWAS) efforts as a step toward determining their impact on erythroid-specific gene expression. Summary As one of the best characterized and accessible cell differentiation systems, erythropoiesis has been at the forefront of studies aiming to conceptualize how chromatin dynamics regulate transcription. New emerging technologies that bring a significantly enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of chromatin structure, and allow investigatio...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: ERYTHROID SYSTEM AND ITS DISEASES: Edited by Narla Mohandas and Sandrina Kinet Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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