Combination therapies utilizing neoepitope-targeted vaccines

AbstractClinical successes have been achieved with checkpoint blockade therapy, which facilitates the function of T cells recognizing tumor-specific mutations known as neoepitopes. It is a reasonable hypothesis that therapeutic cancer vaccines targeting neoepitopes uniquely expressed by a patient ’s tumor would prove to be an effective therapeutic strategy. With the advent of high-throughput next generation sequencing, it is now possible to rapidly identify these tumor-specific mutations and produce therapeutic vaccines targeting these patient-specific neoepitopes. However, initial reports suggest that when used as a monotherapy, neoepitope-targeted vaccines are not always sufficient to induce clinical responses in some patients. Therefore, research has now turned to investigating neoepitope vaccines in combination with other cancer therapies, both immune and non-immune, to improve t heir clinical efficacies.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Abstract The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has ushered in a new, golden age for cancer immunotherapy. However, their clinical success remains limited in several solid cancer types because of the low intrinsic immunogenicity of tumors and the development of immune escape mechanisms. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a small population of cancer cells that are responsible for tumor onset, metastatic spread and relapse after treatment, play a pivotal role in resistance to ICIs. The development of novel therapies that can target CSCs would thus improve the outcomes of current immunotherapy regimens. In thi...
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research
Common methods of cancer therapy largely rely on either direct killing of cancer cells or activation of the host immune response to do so, but not both. A recently developed treatment of tumors uses an antibody/photo-absorber, Ab-IR700, with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), to selectively kill IR700-bound and NIR-light-exposed cancer cells by activating an immunogenic cell death pathway. NIR-PIT has been shown in human clinical trials to effectively target tumor cells via a host immune response with relatively few side effects. However, the depth of NIR-light penetration in vivo limits its usefulness. To address...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
We report that electrical stimulation (ES) stimulation of post-stroke aged rats led to an improved functional recovery of spatial long-term memory (T-maze), but not on the rotating pole or the inclined plane, both tests requiring complex sensorimotor skills. Surprisingly, ES had a detrimental effect on the asymmetric sensorimotor deficit. Histologically, there was a robust increase in the number of doublecortin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus and SVZ of the infarcted hemisphere and the presence of a considerable number of neurons expressing tubulin beta III in the infarcted area. Among the genes that were unique...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
l Islam Pranjol Unlike traditional cancer therapies, such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy that are typically non-specific, cancer immunotherapy harnesses the high specificity of a patient’s own immune system to selectively kill cancer cells. The immune system is the body’s main cancer surveillance system, but cancers may evade destruction thanks to various immune-suppressing mechanisms. We therefore need to deploy various immunotherapy-based strategies to help bolster the anti-tumour immune responses. These include engineering T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to specifical...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our research revealed the important role of LIT-induced neutrophil infiltration on the in situ whole-cell vaccine-elicited antitumor immune response and long-term T cell immune memory.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) encompass a diverse array of naturally occurring nanomaterials derived from plant viruses, bacteriophages, and mammalian viruses. The application and development of VNPs and their genome-free versions, the virus-like particles (VLPs), for nanomedicine is a rapidly growing. VLPs can encapsulate a wide range of active ingredients as well as be genetically or chemically conjugated to targeting ligands to achieve tissue specificity. VLPs are manufactured through scalable fermentation or molecular farming, and the materials are biocompatible and biodegradable. These properties have l...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research
Abstract IL-2 was initially characterized as a T cell growth factor in the 1970s, and has been studied intensively ever since. Decades of research have revealed multiple and diverse roles for this potent cytokine, indicating a unique linking role between adaptive and innate arms of the immune system. Here, we review the literature showing that IL-2 is expressed in a plethora of cell types across the immune system, where it has indispensable functions in orchestrating cellular interactions and shaping the nature and magnitude of immune responses. Emerging from the basic research that has revealed the molecular...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research
This study provides direct evidence for the contribution of gut microbiota to the cognitive decline during normal aging and suggests that restoring microbiota homeostasis in the elderly may improve cognitive function. On Nutraceutical Senolytics https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/05/on-nutraceutical-senolytics/ Nutraceuticals are compounds derived from foods, usually plants. In principle one can find useful therapies in the natural world, taking the approach of identifying interesting molecules and refining them to a greater potency than naturally occurs in order to produce a usefully large therape...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract For the past few decades, the mechanisms of immune responses to cancer have been exploited extensively and significant attention has been given into exploiting the therapeutic potential of the immune system. Cancer immunotherapy has been established as a promising innovative treatment for many forms of cancer. Immunotherapy has gained its prominence through various strategies including; cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), adoptive T cell cancer therapy and immune checkpoint therapy. However, the full potential of cancer immunotherapy is yet to be attained. Recent studies have identified the use...
Source: Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Comb Chem High Throughput Screen Source Type: research
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