Assessing effector T cells in type 1 diabetes

Purpose of review The role of T cells specific for islet autoantigens is proven in pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Recently, there has been rapid expansion in the number of T-cell subsets identified, this has coincided with an increase in the repertoire of reported islet antigens mainly through the discovery of novel epitopes. A discussion of how these marry together is now warranted and timely. Recent findings In this review, we will discuss the autoreactivity against neo-epitopes. We then explore the growing array of T-cell subsets for both CD4+ T cells, including follicular and peripheral T helper cells, and CD8+ T cells, discussing evolution from naïve to exhausted phenotypes. Finally, we detail how subsets correlate with disease stage and loss of β-cell function and are impacted by immunotherapy. Summary The expanding list of T-cell subsets may be potentially encouraging in terms of elucidating disease mechanisms and have a role as biomarkers for disease progression. Furthermore, T-cell subsets can be used in stratifying patients for clinical trials and for monitoring immunotherapy outcomes. However, the definition of subsets needs to be refined in order to ensure that there is a uniform approach in designating T-cell subset attributes that is globally applied.
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Related Links:

Purpose of review To summarize a new form of autoimmune diabetes as an adverse event of specific cancer immunotherapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are revolutionary treatments in advanced cancers; however, they can cause type 1 diabetes following treatment with these state-of-the-art therapies. Recent findings A review of the literature showed that this new form of autoimmune diabetes has significant similarities with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes but also some distinctions. It frequently presents with severe diabetic ketoacidosis and almost half of the patients have type 1 diabetes-associated antibodies at prese...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research
Authors: Yap YA, Mariño E Abstract Diet-microbiota related inflammatory conditions such as obesity, autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and gut infections have become a stigma in Western societies and developing nations. This book chapter examines the most relevant pre-clinical and clinical studies about diet-gut microbiota approaches as an alternative therapy for diabetes. We also discuss what we and others have extensively investigated- the power of dietary short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) technology that naturally targets the gut microbiota as an alternativ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
This study demonstrates for the first time that senescent cells secrete functional LTs, significantly contributing to the LTs pool known to cause or exacerbate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Against Senolytics https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/11/against-senolytics/ There is no consensus in science that is so strong as to have no heretics. So here we have an interview with a naysayer on the matter of senolytic treatments, who argues that the loss of senescent cells in aged tissues will cause more harm to long-term health than the damage they will do by remaining. To be clear, I think this to be a ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Purpose of review Evidence is mounting that disturbances in the gut microbiota play a role in the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and new technologies are expanding our ability to understand microbial function and host interactions. Longitudinal data from large cohorts of children at risk of T1D are nor solidifying our understanding of the function of the microbiota in this disease. Recent findings Although taxonomic changes in the gut microbiota associated with T1D are relatively modest, a functional defect in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) remains as a unifying feature across multiple studie...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCHRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research
This study shows that mRNA levels of the aging related lamin A splice variant progerin, associated with premature aging in HGPS, were significantly upregulated in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Moreover, our data revealed a significantly positive correlation of BMI with progerin mRNA. These data provide to our knowledge for the first-time evidence for a possible involvement of progerin in previously observed accelerated aging of overweight and obese individuals potentially limiting their longevity. Our results also showed that progerin mRNA was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). This might suggest an as...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Narcolepsy (NA) is a primary sleep disorder characterized by loss of hypocretinergic/orexinergic neurons. NA is associated with an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Proposed mechanisms for this association are alterations in food intake, disruption of energy balance, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, as well as inflammation and genetic factors. Orexin deficiency, is associated with increased food intake and reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR) both leading to obesity. The anti-apoptotic effect of orexin on pancreatic beta-cells, increase in peripheral insulin s...
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
This study demonstrated that the incidence of ischemic heart disease and death were three times higher among men with low birth weight compared to men with high birth weight (5). Epidemiological investigations of adults born at the time of the Dutch famine between 1944 and 1945 revealed an association between maternal starvation and a low infant birth weight with a high incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease in these adults (23). Furthermore, Painter et al. reported the incidence of early onset coronary heart disease among persons conceived during the Dutch famine (24). In that regard, Barker's findin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
More News: Clinical Trials | Diabetes | Diabetes Type 1 | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Immunotherapy | Obesity | Pancreas