A central role of the endoplasmic reticulum in the cell emerges from its functional contact sites with multiple organelles.

A central role of the endoplasmic reticulum in the cell emerges from its functional contact sites with multiple organelles. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2020 Apr 20;: Authors: Almeida C, Amaral MD Abstract Early eukaryotic cells emerged from the compartmentalization of metabolic processes into specific organelles through the development of an endomembrane system (ES), a precursor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which was essential for their survival. Recently, substantial evidence emerged on how organelles communicate among themselves and with the plasma membrane (PM) through contact sites (CSs). From these studies, the ER-the largest single structure in eukaryotic cells-emerges as a central player communicating with all organelles to coordinate cell functions and respond to external stimuli to maintain cellular homeostasis. Herein we review the functional insights into the ER-CSs with other organelles in a physiological perspective. We hypothesize that, in addition to the primitive role by the ES in the appearance of proto-eukaryotes, its successor-the ER-emerges as the key coordinator of inter-organelle/PM communication. The ER thus appears to be the 'maestro' driving eukaryotic cell evolution by incorporating new functions/organelles, while remaining the real coordinator overarching cellular functions and orchestrating them with the external milieu. PMID: 32313974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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