Virus Crisis Economic FAQ

Arnold Kling1. Why are we so concerned about this virus, which so far (as of mid-March) has killed many fewer people than an ordinary flu?The key to the answer lies in the words “so far.” The virus seems to spread at a phenomenal rate, with cases doubling more than once a week. If the number of deaths were to double once a week, then starting from about 200 deaths on March 15, by the end of May the total would be 200,000 deaths, which is about ten times the number that we get from ordinary flu.The Imperial College papermade an extrapolation that warned of the possibility hundreds of thousands of deaths if social distancing were not encouraged.2. How do differences in testing frequency and reporting practices affect reported spread rates and death rates?The reported spread rate depends on the actual spread rate and the trend in testing frequency. For example, in the United States, testing ramped up the week of March 16, and the reported spread rate rose above 50 percent per day on some days, but that is probably well above the actual spread rate. It is very difficult to estimate the actual spread rate as long as testing protocols are changing.Death rates are also very unreliable. Some people have died of the disease without being tested for it, so that they do not count in the virus death statistics.Deaths occur with a lag so that if the number of cases is increasing, the reported death rate will understate the true death rate. To see this, assume that the true dea...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs

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This article reviews the neurologic complications encountered with cardiac and pulmonary disorders, specifically focusing on endocarditis, cardiac arrest, heart failure, hypercapnia, hypoxia, and cystic fibrosis. As neurologic dysfunction is one of the most frequent complications of these diseases and may even be the presenting symptom, it is important to be familiar with these complications to foster early recognition and intervention. RECENT FINDINGS Advances have been made in the identification of which patients can safely undergo valvular surgery for treatment of infective endocarditis in the setting of stroke, whic...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrimary headaches are less common and differ in presentation in older versus younger individuals. Secondary headaches become more common among older patients.Recent FindingsDiagnosis and management of headaches in those>  65 years are discussed. Migraine and tension-type headaches are rarely new onset in this age group and should be a diagnosis of exclusion. In older individuals, migraine is more likely to be bilateral with less sensory sensitivities. Migraine aura may present without headache; careful assessment is needed to exclude stroke. Other primary headaches discussed include ...
Source: Current Pain and Headache Reports - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study applied a qualitative approach using semi ‐structured questions to evaluate experiences of receiving tactile massage among patients with first‐time‐ever stroke. The interviews lasted between 6–25 min and analysed using manifest content analysis. Data was collected between 2015‐2017. This study applies to the COREQ checklist.ResultsEight patients>18  years of age participated. The participants experienced emotional worries especially during the night hours affecting their sleep negatively. Receiving tactile massage was reported to relax and to ease worries and anxiety momentarily, durin...
Source: Nursing Open - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
The index, which considers several sleep disturbances, is superior to looking at isolated sleep issues in predicting subsequent cardio- and cerebrovascular events.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Cardiology Headlines - Category: Cardiology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news
Conditions:   Stroke;   Sleep-disordered Breathing;   Sleep Apnea Syndromes;   Sleep Apnea, Obstructive;   Sleep Apnea, Central;   Fragmentation, Sleep Intervention:   Device: Treatment according to standard care recommandation Sponsor:   University Hospital, Grenoble Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
(Spink Health) The study, conducted in Switzerland, found that having multiple sleep-wake disturbances such as sleep-disordered breathing, extreme long or short sleep duration, insomnia and restless leg syndrome independently and significantly increased the risk of a new cardio-cerebrovascular event in the two years following a stroke.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Conditions:   Stroke;   Sleep-disordered Breathing;   Sleep Apnea Syndromes;   Sleep Apnea, Obstructive;   Sleep Apnea, Central;   Fragmentation, Sleep Intervention:   Device: Treatment according to standard care recommandation Sponsor:   University Hospital, Grenoble Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Cognition is an important function of the brain that enables us to acquire and process information, to enhance our understanding of thoughts, experiences, and our senses. Any condition that affects our ability to think, reason, memorize, or be attentive affects our cognitive ability. Some cognitive decline is a normal part of aging, but there are many things you can do to prevent or forestall cognitive changes as you age, including when planning for surgery. Older adults are having more surgical procedures As our population ages and medicine and healthcare advances, more older adults are likely to develop serious condition...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Healthy Aging Managing your health care Memory Neurological conditions Prevention Surgery Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsNeurostimulant administration during acute stroke care may improve wakefulness. Future controlled studies with a neurostimulant administration protocol, prospective evaluation, and discretely defined response and safety criteria are needed to confirm these encouraging findings.
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
We read with interest the study by Krittanawong et al “Sleep Duration and Cardiovascular Health in A Representative Community Population (from NHANES, 2005 to 2016)”.1 The authors studied 32,152 participants who responded to the sleep survey and found short sleep duration (9 hours) was also associated with higher prevalence of stroke, heart failure and coronary artery disease.
Source: The American Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
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