Radiomics-based Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Neoadjuvant Treatment Response in Rectal Cancer

Condition:   Rectal Cancer Intervention:   Sponsors:   Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University;   The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College.;   Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials

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Conditions:   Rectal Cancer;   Radiotherapy;   Immunotherapy;   Organ Preservation Interventions:   Drug: Chemotherapy;   Drug: Immunotherapy;   Radiation: IMRT Sponsor:   Wuhan Union Hospital, China Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
AbstractThe MERCURY II study demonstrated the use of MRI-based risk factors such as extramural venous invasion (EMVI), tumor location, and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement to preoperatively predict pCRM (pathological CRM) outcomes for lower rectal tumors in a mixed group of upfront operated patients and patients who received neoadjuvant treatment. We aim to study the applicability of results of MERCURY II study in a homogeneous cohort of patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NACTRT) prior to surgery. After Institutional Review Board approval, post NACTRT restaging MRI of 132 patients operated ...
Source: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Outcome for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer(LARC) has improved over past decades, in part because of the use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by total mesorectal excision(TME) surgery[1 –2]. The local recurrence(LR) rates has been dramaticallyreduced to less than 10%. Whereas, distant metastasis(DM) is remain the major cause of treatment failure in LARC[3–4]. Adjuvant chemotherapy(AC) has been recommended for LARC to reduce the incidence of DM. However, only certain subgroups o f patients could benefit from AC.
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Patients with intermediate or locally advanced rectal carcinoma are treated according to international guidelines with neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision surgery.[1,2] Neoadjuvant radiotherapy leads to a reduction in local recurrence rate but is still associated with substantial toxicity as large planning volumes are needed to compensate for inter- and intrafraction movement.[3,4] Particularly the mesorectum is a nonstationary structure, with large day-to-day variation as its shape and volume are affected by both bladder and rectal filling.
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Clin Colon Rectal Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1714239The importance of total mesorectal excision (TME) has been the global standard of care in patients with rectal cancer. However, there is no universal strategy for lateral lymph nodes (LLN). The treatment of the lateral compartment remains controversial and has gone to the opposite directions between Eastern and Western countries in the past decades. In the East, mainly Japan, surgeons consider LLN metastases as regional disease and have performed TME with lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) without neoadjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT) in patients with clinical Stage II/...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
ConclusionFor patients without neoadjuvant CRT, a tendency to preoperative overstaging was observed. Lymph node size alone did not reliably predict metastasis. According to current guidelines, 21/62 (33.9%) of these patients would have been overtreated by using CRT. On the background of relevant side effects, complications, and the limited benefit of CRT on overall survival, we suggest that primary surgical resection should be recommended more liberally for stages II and III rectal cancer.
Source: International Journal of Colorectal Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
lentini V Abstract PURPOSE: Optimal timing of surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (Nad-CRT) is still controversial in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The primary goal of this study was to determine the best surgical interval (SI) to achieve the highest rate of pathological complete response (pCR) and secondly to evaluate the effect on surgical complications and survival outcomes according to the SI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients data were extracted from the international randomized trials: Accord12/0405, EORTC22921, FFCD9203, CAO/ARO/AIO-94, CAO-ARO-AIO-04, INTERACT and TROG01.04. Inclusion cr...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research
ConclusionIn this study, patient characteristics were not associated with response to neoadjuvant treatment, and molecular characteristics determined after surgical resection of the tumor were not predictive of pCR or tumor downstaging. Future studies should include molecular biomarkers from biopsy samples before neoadjuvant treatment.
Source: International Journal of Colorectal Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
AbstractObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the value of baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT in predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (NCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) via the volumetric and texture data obtained from 18F-FDG PET/CT images.Methods In total, 110 patients who had undergone NCRT after initial PET/CT and followed by surgical resection were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups randomly as a train set (n: 88) and test set (n: 22). Pathological response using three-point tumor regression grade (TRG) and me tastatic lymph nodes in PET/CT im...
Source: Annals of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
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