Use of GRADE for assessment of evidence about prognostic factors: rating certainty in identification of groups of patients with different absolute risks
The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to rating certainty in the results of research studies was initially developed for therapeutic questions. The approach considers: study design, risk of bias; inconsistency; imprecision; indirectness, publication bias; magnitude of effect; and dose-response.Questions about prognosis bear great relevance for decision-making in health care. Studies of prognosis can inform individuals about their likely outcome: for instance, in patients with a new diagnosis of cancer, are they likely to be alive or dead in five years.
Notch signaling is a highly conserved intercellular pathway with tightly regulated and pleiotropic roles in normal tissue development and homeostasis. Dysregulated Notch signaling has also been implicated in human disease, including multiple forms of cancer, and represents an emerging therapeutic target. Successful development of such therapeutics requires a detailed understanding of potential on-target toxicities. Here, we identify autosomal dominant mutations of the canonical Notch ligand Jagged1 (or JAG1) as a cause of peripheral nerve disease in 2 unrelated families with the hereditary axonal neuropathy Charcot-Marie-T...
States with the highest rates of melanoma cases linked to ultraviolet radiation are spread across the United States on the East and West coasts, in Hawaii and in landlocked states, according to a study published Monday in the International Journal of Cancer.
Patches made from human placenta could prevent men becoming impotent following prostate cancer surgery. Incontinence and erectile dysfunction can occur in up to seven in ten men.
Once thought to be"undruggable," a target in renal cell carcinoma now has a drug aimed at it, and initial results from a small clinical trial are promising.Medscape Medical News