Guided self-help to reduce psychological distress in South Sudanese female refugees in Uganda: a cluster randomised trial

Publication date: February 2020Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, Issue 2Author(s): Wietse A Tol, Marx R Leku, Daniel P Lakin, Kenneth Carswell, Jura Augustinavicius, Alex Adaku, Teresa M Au, Felicity L Brown, Richard A Bryant, Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Rashelle J Musci, Peter Ventevogel, Ross G White, Mark van OmmerenSummaryBackgroundInnovative solutions are required to provide mental health support at scale in low-resource humanitarian contexts. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a facilitator-guided, group-based, self-help intervention (Self-Help Plus) to reduce psychological distress in female refugees.MethodsWe did a cluster randomised trial in rural refugee settlements in northern Uganda. Participants were female South Sudanese refugees with at least moderate levels of psychological distress (cutoff ≥5 on the Kessler 6). The intervention comprised access to usual care and five 2-h audio-recorded stress-management workshops (20–30 refugees) led by briefly trained lay facilitators, accompanied by an illustrated self-help book. Villages were randomly assigned to either intervention (Self-Help Plus or enhanced usual care) on a 1:1 basis. Within 14 villages, randomly selected households were approached. Screening of women in households continued until 20–30 eligible participants were identified per site. The primary outcome was individual psychological distress, assessed using the Kessler 6 symptom checklist 1 week before, 1 week after, and 3 months...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): J. Douglas Bremner, Matthew T. WittbrodtAbstractThis chapter reviews the relationship between stress and brain function in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, with an emphasis on disorders that have most clearly been linked to traumatic stress exposure. These disorders, which have been described as trauma spectrum disorders, include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a subgroup of major depression, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative disorders; they share in common a neurobiological footprin...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Since we are living in a time of extremely high statistical occurrences of childhood anxiety, depression and even suicide (which is happening at even younger ages), we need to look at the causes that are behind these difficult challenges that children, teens and young adults are facing today. Whether it be parental influences, interactions with abusive outsiders, school bullying, or something else, mental illnesses are growing at a rampant rate.  When mental illness is not alleviated, it can create C-PTSD (compound or complex PTSD), so it’s critical to reverse it early. What sometimes keeps the underlying factor...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Children and Teens Parenting Trauma adverse childhood experiences Childhood Trauma Source Type: blogs
BACKGROUND: A previous study in Japan found that monthly mean K index values were related to the monthly number of male, but not female, suicides. Correlations between geomagnetic disturbances and suicide/depression have also been reported in countries suc...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Unipolar depression is the most common form of depression and demand for treatment, such as psychotherapy, is high. However, waiting times for psychotherapy often considerably exceed their recommended maximum. As a potentially les...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Unstable pelvic ring injuries result from high energy trauma and lead to significant morbidity and mortality [1-3]. Patients who survive have an intense recovery and rehabilitation process that is rarely straightforward. A holistic and collaborative team approach to optimize care for these patients is mandatory. Few studies have addressed long term functional outcomes, including posterior pelvic pain, sexual and/or urinary dysfunction, and neurological deficits [4,5]. Concurrent with these physiologic studies, there appears to be post-traumatic psychological factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, dep...
Source: Injury - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionHigh quality RCTs investigating the effect of psychological and psychosocial interventions on PTSD, depression and anxiety among children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Results of the available studies may suggest that psychological and psychosocial interventions might be more effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD compared to control conditions. Due to very high heterogeneity, this evidence must be considered with caution.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study sought to fill this gap by examining associations between augmentee status and deployment stress preparedness (independent variables) and depression, probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and binge drinking (dependent variables) in a sample of U.S.
Source: Womens Health Issues - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. This demographic also often suffers from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. Telomere length (TL) has previously been used as a marker for outcomes following repetitive mild TBI (RmTBI) and it may be possible that telomere elongation can reduce post-traumatic behavioral impairments. Telomerase activator-65 (TA-65) is a telomerase small-molecule activator purified from the root of Chinese herbs that has been anecdotally reported to have anti-aging and life-extending...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: While bipolar disorder (BD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur and individually have a higher risk of suicide compared to the general population, few studies have examined the impact of comorbid PTSD on suicidal ideati...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly in younger persons, and this results in tremendous years of life lost. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of recurrent neural networks, one-dimensional convolutional neural networks, ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
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