Fighting and aggressive sound determines larger male to win male ‐male competition in a bark beetle
AbstractIntrasexual selection occurs in male ‐male competition over access to females and usually results in the larger male winning. While much research has documented that size matters, little is known about how the larger male wins.Dendroctonus valens is an aggregating monogamous bark beetle in which males have large variation in body size and display intense competition over females. Behavioral observation showed two males fight each other within the gallery by pushing/shoving and stridulated more when two males encountered each other. Experiments using two different ‐sized males synchronously competing showed that larger males won 95% of contests. Reciprocal displacement experiments using muted and intact males of different or equal size were used to simulate male‐male competition. Larger males displaced the smaller resident male in 90% of contests, while s maller males prevailed over larger residents in 6.7% of contests. With both males silenced, larger males displaced smaller males in 80% of contests, while smaller males prevailed in 8% of contests. Further experiments using equal‐sized males showed aggressive sound‐emitting males displaced muted males in 67% of contests, yet intact males displaced other intact males in only 37.5% of contests. Sound analysis showed sound pressure level is an honest signal of body size and males chose soft sounds over loud aggressive sounds in assays. Therefore,D. valens males have evolved dual behaviors, fighting and aggressi...
Authors: Khurram A, Abedi D, Abedi M PMID: 32497473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: Use of VR facility tours as an alternative to in-person tours of affiliate training facilities during a residency interview day is a viable and innovative option that can save time and money and favorably impact the applicant's impression of the program. More research is necessary to assess whether VR tours can replace in-person tours at the main teaching site, however, while social distancing measures are in place, VR tours may become necessary for programs moving forward. ABBREVIATIONS: Med-Peds: Internal Medicine-Pediatrics; VR: Virtual Reality; AAMC: Association of American Medical Colleges; IRB: Instit...
Authors: Edigin E, Eseaton PO, Shaka H, Ojemolon PE, Asemota IR, Akuna E PMID: 32493181 [PubMed - in process]
Authors: Roberts V, Malone K, Moore P, Russell-Webster T, Caulfield R Abstract Our personal views about the challenges of continuing to deliver peer teaching during a pandemic. We are a group of 4th year medical students who are part of a student society which has delivered structured, highly formulaic peer-led teaching sessions for the past three years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the reduced access to our normal clinical teaching highlighted the importance of peer-led teaching sessions. We wanted to continue with our peer-taught sessions but knew we would have to devise a new format to make our teaching accessi...
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