Vaccination strategies to control Ebola epidemics in the context of variable household inaccessibility levels

by Gerardo Chowell, Amna Tariq, Maria Kiskowski Despite a very effective vaccine, active conflict and community distrust during the ongoing DRC Ebola epidemic are undermining control efforts, including a ring vaccination strategy that requires the prompt immunization of close contacts of infected individuals. However, in April 2019, it was repo rted 20% or more of close contacts cannot be reached or refuse vaccination, and it is predicted that the ring vaccination strategy would not be effective with such a high level of inaccessibility. The vaccination strategy is now incorporating a “third ring” community-level vaccination that targe ts members of communities even if they are not known contacts of Ebola cases. To assess the impact of vaccination strategies for controlling Ebola epidemics in the context of variable levels of community accessibility, we employed an individual-level stochastic transmission model that incorporates f our sources of heterogeneity: a proportion of the population is inaccessible for contact tracing and vaccination due to lack of confidence in interventions or geographic inaccessibility, two levels of population mixing resembling household and community transmission, two types of vaccine doses with different time periods until immunity, and transmission rates that depend on spatial distance. Our results indicate that a ring vaccination strategy alone would not be effective for containing the epidemic in the context of significant delays...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

, Norheim G Abstract Today's world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impa...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs research efforts have advanced to understand the pathophysiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and other epidemic viral infections and develop medical countermeasures such as vaccines, pregnant women have remained an underexamined subgroup. To better understand the implications of future outbreaks of VHF for pregnant women amidst an evolving vaccine landscape, we examine three pathogens —yellow fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever—each with different levels of evidence and understanding of disease in pregnancy and at varying stages of vaccine development.Recent FindingsThere are very li...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEbola virus infection has one of the highest overall case fatality rates of any viral disease. It has historically had an especially high case mortality rate among pregnant women and infants —greater than 90% for pregnant women in some outbreaks and close to 100 % in fetuses and newborns. The Merck recombinant vaccine against Ebola virus, termed rVSV-ZEBOV, underwent clinical trials during the 2013–2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic where it was found to be 100% efficacious. It was sub sequently used during the 2018 DRC Équateur outbreak and in the 2018 DRC Kivu Ebola which is still...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
I am afraid for Dr. Tedros’ safety. The World Health Organization Director-General and I are walking from the WHO’s midtown-Manhattan offices to the nearby U.N. campus, where Tedros is participating in the U.N. General Assembly. As we cross avenues amid a chorus of honking horns, Tedros is so intent on answering my questions, rarely breaking eye contact, that he appears not to notice traffic lights changing and cyclists whizzing past at alarming proximity. His staff and I breathe a collective sigh of relief when he arrives at the U.N. unscathed. It should come as no surprise that the man at the helm of the worl...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized climate change health World Health Organization Source Type: news
New cases are down to 15 a week from a high of 128 in April, but outbreaks are still popping up in remote and dangerous mining areas.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Ebola Virus Epidemics Disasters and Emergencies Vaccination and Immunization World Health Organization Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus Congo, Democratic Republic of (Congo-Kinshasa) Uganda Source Type: news
[MSF] Esther only winces slightly when a doctor on Doctors Without Borders/M édecins Sans Frontières' (MSF) vaccination team injects the Ebola vaccine called rVSV-ZEBOV into her left upper arm in Kimbangu, a community in the southwest of Beni--one of the recurring hotspots of the current Ebola epidemic in North Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Justi n*, her two-and-a-half year-old son, bursts into tears when he sees a new syringe being filled, and only calms down a few minutes
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
We describe reference materials that have been or are being developed for haemorrhagic fever viruses and consider the issues surrounding their production, particularly that of biosafety where the viruses require specialised containment facilities. Finally, we advocate the use of reference materials at early stages, including research and development, as this helps produce reliable assays and can smooth the path to regulatory approval.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur projections are concentrated in a range up to about 300 cases beyond those already reported. While a catastrophic outbreak is not projected, it is not ruled out, and prevention and vigilance are warranted. Prospective validation of our models in real time allowed us to generate more accurate short-term forecasts, and this process may prove useful for future real-time short-term forecasting. We estimate that transmission rates are higher than would be seen under target levels of 62% coverage due to contact tracing and vaccination, and this model estimate may offer a surrogate indicator for the outbreak response challenges.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
(KAMPALA, Uganda) — Researchers in Uganda have launched the largest-ever trial of the experimental Ebola vaccine that is expected to be deployed in neighboring Congo, where a deadly outbreak has killed over 1,800 people. The trial of the Janssen Pharmaceuticals vaccine involves up to 800 people in the western district of Mbarara and is supported by Doctors without Borders and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Pontiano Kaleebu, a Ugandan researcher who leads the trial, said Friday that he regrets that the Janssen vaccine has not yet been deployed in Congo. The health minister there who stepped down l...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized congo ebola onetime Uganda vaccine Source Type: news
More than 1,500 deaths and 2,500 people sickened – that’s the recent account of the ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) raging in the country since last August, and recently declared a public health emergency of international concern. Experts say efforts to contain the virus are hindered by biological, public health, political, and cultural issues, but we looked around what digital health technologies could do to mitigate the spread and the devastation of the infectious disease. The Spaghetti-like virus… The lethal Ebola virus first appeared in 1976 around a river in Congo &nda...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine Africa AI artificial intelligence Congo digital digital health digital maps disease disease outbreak ebola epidemic Innovation technology Source Type: blogs
More News: Ebola | Ebola Vaccine | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Outbreaks | Tropical Medicine | Vaccines