Implementation of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax in low- and middle-income countries: recommendations for policymakers

AbstractLongitudinal and observational studies have found a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including obesity and diabetes. Following World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, SSB taxes have been implemented in over 40 countries and cities to reduce sugar consumption. Despite continuing battles with communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), an epidemiological transition towards NCDs warrants SSB tax implementation. However, LMICs face challenges when implementing SSB taxes including a lack of resources and opposing arguments from industry. Sharing experiences among  countries can help to improve the likelihood of successful SSB tax implementation. We review experiences of tobacco, alcohol, and SSB tax implementation in LMICs. We discuss potential pitfalls for policymakers and how they might be overcome. We provide recommendations based on implementation expe riences in LMICs to help governments improve implementation capacity and advance public health.
Source: Journal of Public Health Policy - Category: Health Management Source Type: research

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ConclusionsChildren with obesity and increased liver transaminases as surrogates of NAFLD should be screened for T2DM.
Source: Pediatric Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
DiscussionThis overview will assess current evidence from systematic reviews for the association between cadmium exposure and risk of T2DM and other metabolic morbidities. This overview may be helpful for policy-makers and healthcare teams aiming to mitigate T2DM risk in populations at risk of cadmium exposure.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO CRD42019125956
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Scientists from 22 institutions, including UCLA, are recommending early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of severe chronic inflammation to reduce the risk of chronic disease and death worldwide.The group of international experts, which also includes scientists from the National Institutes of Health, Stanford University, Harvard Medical School, Columbia University Medical Center and University College London, point to inflammation-related diseases as the cause of 50 percent of all deaths worldwide.Inflammation is a naturally occurring response by the body ’s immune system that helps fight illness and infection. Whe...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Preclinical studies have suggested the antitumorigenic properties of metformin on prostate cancer; results from epidemiological studies remain contradictory. We aim to investigate the evidence of metformin and the risk of prostate cancer. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched for eligible studies. Meta-analyses were carried out using the most fully adjusted hazard ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Eighteen cohort studies and six case–control studies representing 2 009 504 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified. The pooled HR of prostate ...
Source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Prostate Cancer Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by triglyceride accumulation in the hepatocytes in the absence of alcohol overconsumption, commonly associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Bo...
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
Laparra JM Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is indisputably the most widespread liver disease worldwide, leading to a significant increase in patient morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization. The gut microbiota and its genome (microbiome) have emerged as a novel modulator of the immunometabolic processes that NAFLD implies, but microbiota-targeted interventions have resulted both astounding and at the same time unsuccessful. The most relevant alteration appears to be the overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria, characterized by an increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, although cu...
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research
ra Propolis is a natural product resulting from the mixing of bee secretions with botanical exudates. Since propolis is rich in flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives, the application of propolis extracts has been tried in therapies against cancer, inflammation, and metabolic diseases. As metabolic diseases develop relatively slowly in patients, the therapeutic effects of propolis in humans should be evaluated over long periods of time. Moreover, several factors such as medical history, genetic inheritance, and living environment should be taken into consideration in human studies. Animal models, especially mice and ...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionsSeveral important ethnicity-specific differences in clinical and behavioural characteristics of women with GDM were identified. These differences need to be considered when offering interventions for reducing risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and subsequent type 2 diabetes.RésuméObjectifsLes issues à court terme et à long terme des femmes ayant eu un diabète sucré gestationnel (DSG) varient selon l’ethnicité. Comprendre les différences dans les facteurs de risques initiaux du diabète est important pour éclairer le choix quant aux interv...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of disability and death in the United States today. Information about possible physical damage to the body and concern about growing rates of diabetes in children and teens take center stage in most related discussions. But, there are some serious psychological effects as well that must be considered. Handling these might make the difference in whether someone is successful in managing this condition or not. In a “Wear Blue” campaign, the Diabetes Association of Atlanta and communities across the country are sharing information for National Diabetes Month in November. Many ...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Health-related Mental Health and Wellness Diabetes Source Type: blogs
Abstract BACKGROUND: Adolescent hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors tend to track into adulthood. Consequently, there is a need to determine the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension, and its co-existence with glycaemia, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use among senior secondary school students in Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between December 2015 and March 2016 among students in selected rural and urban senior secondary schools in Botswana. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, measurements and fasting blood glucose testing. Particip...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research
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