Host-range shift of H3N8 canine influenza virus: a phylodynamic analysis of its origin and adaptation from equine to canine host

AbstractPrior to the emergence of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) and the latest avian-origin H3N2 CIV, there was no evidence of a circulating canine-specific influenza virus. Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that H3N8 CIV emerged from H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). This host-range shift of EIV from equine to canine hosts and its subsequent establishment as an enzootic CIV is unique because this host-range shift was from one mammalian host to another. To further understand this host-range shift, we conducted a comprehensive phylodynamic analysis using all the available whole-genome sequences of H3N8 CIV. We found that (1) the emergence of H3N8 CIV from H3N8 EIV occurred in approximately 2002; (2) this interspecies transmission was by a reassortant virus of the circulating Florida-1 clade H3N8 EIV; (3) once in the canine species, H3N8 CIV spread efficiently and remained an enzootic virus; (4) H3N8 CIV evolved and diverged into multiple clades or sublineages, with intra and inter-lineage reassortment. Our results provide a framework to understand the molecular basis of host-range shifts of influenza viruses and that dogs are potential “mixing vessels” for the establishment of novel influenza viruses.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Related Links:

Lower respiratory tract infections, such as infections caused by influenza A viruses, are a constant threat for public health. Antivirals are indispensable to control disease caused by epidemic as well as pandemic influenza A. We developed a novel anti-influenza A virus approach based on an engineered single-domain antibody (VHH) construct that can selectively recruit innate immune cells to the sites of virus replication. This protective construct comprises two VHHs. One VHH binds with nanomolar affinity to the conserved influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2) ectodomain (M2e). Co-crystal structure analysis revealed that the com...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Contributors : Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen ; Laura Martin-Sancho ; Anshu P Gounder ; Sumit K ChandaSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensInfluenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes yearly global epidemics, and sporadic pandemics due to human adaptation of pathogenic strains. Efficient replication of IAV in different species is, in part, dictated by its ability to exploit the genetic environment of the host cell. To investigate IAV tropism in human cells, we evaluated the replication of IAV strains in a diverse subset of epithelial cell lines. HeLa cells ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Recently, Hu and colleagues declared in this journal that they had isolated two H3N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that were derived from recombination events (1). AIVs pose great challenges for disease control due to their rapid evolution. Their viral genomes are comprised of eight negative-strand RNA segments, and the lack of a proofreading mechanism during RNA replication results in a high frequency of point mutations. In addition to generating genetic diversity by rapid mutation, if multiple AIV strains coinfect a single cell, then the eight segments of the AIV genome can reassort and yield progeny virions with novel ...
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Epidemics of seasonal influenza caused by H1N1pdm09, H3N2, and type B viruses occur throughout the world. Sporadic human H5 and H7N9 virus infections are also reported in particular regions. To treat influenza patients effectively with antivirals, sensitive and broad-reactive influenza rapid diagnostic tests (IRDTs) are required. Here, we tested the sensitivity of 23 IRDTs during the 2018–2019 influenza season for their ability to detect H1N1pdm09, H3N2, H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, and Victoria- and Yamagata-lineage type B viruses. All IRDTs detected all influenza A and B viruses tested but with different sensitivities. Severa...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study illustrates how recurrent influenza infections increase the co-infection risk and facilitate evolutionary jumps by successive gene exchanges. It recalls the importance of appropriate biosecurity measures inside holdings to limit virus persistence and interspecies transmissi ons, which both contribute to the emergence of new potentially zoonotic viruses.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Linlin Li, Yun Zhang, Jiawen Dong, Junqing Zhang, Chunhong Zhang, Jianru Qin, Minhua Sun, Zhihong XuAbstractDuck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has caused enormous economic losses to the poultry industry in China. In the current study, we generated chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) containing E protein of the DTMUV and HA2 protein of the H3N2 avian influenza virus (AIV). The chimeric VLPs could induce specific antibody responses in both mice (n = 5/group) and ducks (n = 10/group). After immunizing ducklings w...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of soluble recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) protein produced in human cell culture (Expi293F cells) as an influenza vaccine against homosubtypic and heterosubtypic influenza virus challenges in mice. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with purified soluble HA protein of H1N1pdm09 virus and then challenged with a lethal dose of H1N1pdm09, seasonal H3N2, or highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. Vaccinated mice showed better morbidity than mock-vaccinated mice following H1N1pdm09 challenge. By contrast, all mice died following H3N2 challenge. Interestingly, all vaccinated...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study reveals that the fruiting bodies of G. splendens possess azaphilone derivatives with the NA inhibitory activity. This is the first report on the isolation of neuraminidase inhibitors from the fruiting bodies of G. splendens. PMID: 31448146 [PubMed]
Source: Mycobiology - Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research
More News: Bird Flu | Epidemiology | H3N2 | Influenza | Veterinary Research