Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage Among Persons Who Inject Drugs and Have Evidence of Hepatitis C Infection.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that most persons who inject drugs in Wisconsin are susceptible to HAV infection and that most persons aged ≥35 who inject drugs are susceptible to HBV infection. In addition to routine vaccination of children, targeted hepatitis vaccination programs should focus on adults who inject drugs to help prevent future infections. PMID: 31539482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Public Health Reports - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research

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The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highest in East Asia and Africa, although its incidence and mortality are rapidly rising in the United States and Europe. With the implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis C treatment programmes worldwide, the epidemiology of HCC is shifting away from a disease predominated by viral hepatitis – an increasing proportion of cases are now attributable to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Surveillance using ultrasound, with or without alpha-fetoprotein, every 6 months has been associated with improved early detection and improved overall survival; however, lim...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In 2018, the number of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported in the United States reached an all-time high. This is worrisome for many reasons. Having an STI can raise risks for HIV, infertility, pregnancy complications, and infant death. Fortunately, all of these outcomes can be avoided if people receive appropriate treatment. What are STIs? STIs are illnesses caused by microorganisms passed between people during sex. An STI can affect anyone who is exposed to it. Syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia are the most common bacterial infections. Trichomoniasis, a protozoan infection, is also diagnosed freque...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Adolescent health HIV Men's Health Relationships Sexual Conditions Women's Health Source Type: blogs
THE GORDON WILSON LECTURE: THE HEPATITIS C VIRUS: FROM HIPPOCRATES TO CURE. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
This study estimated the frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational and non-occupational infections and analyzed the factors associated with case notifications in Brazil from 2007 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an exploratory epidemiological study using the Notifiable Diseases Information System database. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: The frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational infections was 0.7%, of which 1.3% were due to hepatitis A virus (HAV), 45.1% hepatitis B virus (HBV), and 45.3% hepatitis C virus (HCV). There was a significant association of the disease wit...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, ec...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
May is Hepatitis Awareness Month, and May 19 is Hepatitis Testing Day. Many people with hepatitis B and hepatitis C remain unaware of their infection until serious complications occur.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Hepatitis Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Vaccination Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Screening Hepatitis B Vaccination Hepatitis C MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Source Type: news
Conclusion: Our results confirmed that a vaccination approach could facilitate diagnosis of chronic HBV infection in the presence of isolated anti-HBc. If it were not for a family outbreak of hepatitis A, this unexpected family HBV focus would not have been revealed.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Despite effective vaccines, hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in many regions of the world [1]. The continued presence of this hepatotropic virus is dependent upon unbroken chains of fecal-oral transmission, since persistent infection is rare-to-nonexistent and chronic HAV shedders are unknown. Accordingly, HAV disappears at times from small, isolated human populations, only to return with a vengeance when re-introduced [2,3]. Thus, unlike hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) that cause longterm persistant infections and co-evolved with humans and other primate species o...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to examine Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) screening, and the risk of HBV reactivation during Hepatitis C (HCV) therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). A retrospective chart review was performed of patients treated with second generation DAA therapy from January 2014 to September 2016  at the Iowa City VA Healthcare System. In total 409 patients initiated HCV treatment, 308 (75%) and 241 (59%) were HAV and HBV vaccine eligible, respectively. Among those, 24 (8%) received a HAV vaccine, while only 20 (8%) received a HBV vaccine. Of these, 7 patients initiating an immunizati...
Source: Journal of Community Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
We report on the renal complications of viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV, hepatitis E), autoimmune hepatitis, cirrhosis, and Wilson's disease. The most frequent renal disorders are those related to HBV, and HCV due their high prevalence worldwide. Expert commentary: Thanks to generalization of vaccination against HBV, prevalence of HBV-related liver diseases will decrease, and thereby its associated renal involvement such as polyarteritis nodosa (an exceptional condition), and glomerulonephritis such as membranous nephropathy. Thanks to direct acting antiviral agents HCV infection will be cured within the next decade. However, HC...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
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