Impairment of cognitive flexibility in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.

Impairment of cognitive flexibility in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Behav Brain Res. 2019 May 26;:111978 Authors: Yermakov LM, Griggs RB, Drouet DE, Sugimoto C, Williams MT, Vorhees CV, Susuki K Abstract Impaired executive function is a major peril for patients with type 2 diabetes, reducing quality of life and ability for diabetes management. Despite the significance of this impairment, few animal models of type 2 diabetes examine domains of executive function such as cognitive flexibility or working memory. Here, we evaluated these executive function domains in db/db mice, an established model of type 2 diabetes, at 10 and 24 weeks of age. The db/db mice showed impaired cognitive flexibility in the Morris water maze reversal phase. However, the db/db mice did not show apparent working memory disturbance in the spatial working memory version of the Morris water maze or in the radial water maze. We also examined axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier, key axonal domains for action potential initiation and propagation. AIS were significantly shortened in medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of 26-week-old db/db mice compared with controls, similar to our previous findings in 10-week-old mice. Nodes of Ranvier in corpus callosum, previously shown to be unchanged at 10 weeks, were elongated at 26 weeks, suggesting an important role for this domain in disease progression. Together, the findings help establish db/db mice as a model of impaired co...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Trends in Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Daniela Stols-Gonçalves, G. Kees Hovingh, Max Nieuwdorp, Adriaan G. HolleboomThe prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly increasing and may put patients at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (asCVD). Both disease phenotypes often co-occur, in the case of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, and the metabolic syndrome. We explore the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the epidemiology of asCVD in NAFLD patients, shared drivers of both phenotypes, and fact...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the differential impact of DM2 on all-cause mortality in men vs women with HFpEF after admission for acute HF.MethodsWe prospectively included 1019 consecutive HFpEF patients discharged after admission for acute HF in a single tertiary referral hospital. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the interaction between sex and DM2 regarding the risk of long-term all-cause mortality. Risk estimates were calculated as hazard ratios (HR).ResultsThe mean age of the cohort was 75.6 ± 9.5 years and 609 (59.8%) were women. The proportion of DM2 was similar betwe...
Source: Revista Espanola de Cardiologia - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, there were some changes in the salivary levels of some antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and could be measured as an indicator of serum changes. PMID: 31622212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
This study evaluated the postprandial glycemic response and physical properties of the high-amylose rice, Koshinokaori (KK), cooked under different conditions. Twelve healthy subjects (Japanese, 6 males, 6 females) were given cooked, white KK rice or tomato chicken rice (TCR) using KK rice. The Japanese standard rice, Koshihikari (KH), was used as reference. All meals contained the same amount (50 g) of available carbohydrate. Blood glucose levels were measured at 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after each meal. The results from the cooked, white KK rice showed a significant difference in blood glucose variati...
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
Authors: Ina S, Hamada A, Kumagai H, Yamaguchi Y Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) greatly impacts human health worldwide as over 400 million patients suffer from DM-related symptoms. Type 2 DM accounts for more than 90% of DM and is caused mainly by unhealthy lifestyles, such as high-calorie and high-fat diets. Such undesirable eating habitats induce resistance to insulin resulting in high blood sugar levels that cause induction of various symptoms and complications of DM. Therefore, management of blood sugar levels is important for preventing DM. Our group has recently found that rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains ant...
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
Authors: D'Anna R, Santamaria A, Alibrandi A, Corrado F, DI Benedetto A, Facchinetti F Abstract Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy and is characterized by a carbohydrate intolerance which is diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of GDM in our population is about 12%, but risk factors like a previous GDM, ethnicity, a parent with diabetes mellitus type 2 and maternal overweight may increase its occurrence. Complications of GDM are a pre-term birth (before 37 wk gestation), macrosomia (birth weight ≥4 kg) and gestational hypertension....
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
Authors: Lovegrove A, Kosik O, Bandonill E, Abilgos-Ramos R, Romero M, Sreenivasulu N, Shewry P Abstract Soft textured rice is the major source of calories in the diet of most South East (SE) Asian countries. However, it is most often consumed after polishing which removes the bran and embryo and hence most of the vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre (DF) are lost. Consequently, white rice comprises over 90% starch with only trace amounts of DF and is rapidly digested in the human gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a high glycaemic index (GI). The excessive consumption of high GI foods is associated with increase...
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
Authors: Sasaki S Abstract Inspite that rice is a main staple and heaviliy consumed in most of Asian populations, health effect of rice has been less examined in nutritional epidemiologic studies compared to those of foods such as fruits, vegetables, meats and fish. Some recent meta-analyses that collected prospective cohort studies reported the associations between rice intake and incidence of and mortality from some chronic diseases especially type 2 diabetes. Concerning type 2 diabetes, the results are remarkably different between white (polished) rice and brown (unpolished) rice: the former increased and the la...
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
TYPE 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that requires a person to overhaul aspects their diet to keep blood sugar levels in check. Luckily, making even the smallest tweaks can help people to manage the condition. Evidence backs adding a popular ingredient to meals.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
The administration of a high fat content diet is an accelerating factor for metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and early type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to assess the impact of a high fat diet on tuberculosis progression and microbiota composition in an experimental animal model using a C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain submitted to single or multiple consecutive aerosol infections. These models allowed us to study the protection induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination as well as by the natural immunity induced by chemotherapy after a low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our results show ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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