Back pain and school bag weight – a study on Indian children and review of literature

Back pain in children is a complex phenomenon, which has been shown to be associated with physical and psychosocial factors. None of the studies on Indian children have investigated the possible association between back pain and psychosocial factors. We decided to determine the prevalence of back pain in students and association with both physical and psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 163 students from two city schools. Physical factors were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Strengths and difficulties questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial factors. The studied sample consisted of 49.7% boys and 50.3% girls. Mean school bag weight was 6.1±2.4 kg (range: 2.2–15.6 kg). Mean weight of school bag as a percentage of body weight was 13.5±6.2%. Approximately 76% students carried more than 10% of their body weight. The prevalence of back pain (over last 1 month) was 53.9%. No associations were found between back pain and weight of school bag, weight of school bag as a percentage of body weight and physical activities. Significant associations were found between back pain and number of hours spent watching television [odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5–7.5; P=0.003], history of injury to the back (OR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.47–15.8, P=0.003), presence of a family member complaining of back pain (OR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.25–3.14, P=0.002), conduct (P=0.042) and hyperactivity problem...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: SPINE Source Type: research

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Traumatic/contusive spinal injury produces all or most of the following disruptions of spinal cord integrity: tearing of the meninges with leakage of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF); disruption of the blood –spinal cord barrier; vertebral scarring with eventual tethering/compression of the cord; inflammation; vascular disruption with hemorrhage, edema and ischemia; free-radical injury with neuronal excitotoxicity, at-level neuronal hyperactivity, apoptosis and eventual cellular loss; mitochondrial dy sfunction; electrolytic changes; accumulation or loss of transmitters; up- and down-regulation of transmitter receptors; d...
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Rationale: Pain management is an essential part of good obstetrical care. The rapid onset of pain relief after combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia may cause a transient imbalance in maternal catecholamine level, leading to uterine hyperactivity and fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities. How to manage the uterine basal tone and FHR abnormalities after labor analgesia still remains controversial. Patient concerns: A 33-year-old nulliparous woman at 40+5 weeks’ gestation underwent induction of labor after premature rupture of membranes. CSE analgesia was provided when the patient described her pain as the top o...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) has been applied to alleviate neuropathic pain effectively, yet the mechanisms underlying pain reduction owing to this treatment are not clarified completely. The activated microglia, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the spinal cord were demonstrated to be involved in developing neuropathic pain. Also, it has been just known that PRF on DRG inhibits the microglial activation in nerve injury rats. Here, we aim to investi...
Source: Pain Research and Management - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Pain Res Manag Source Type: research
Discussion Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is also known as Willis-Ekbom disease. RLS is a clinical diagnosis with criteria being: 1. An urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the lower extremities (Note: sometimes other body parts can be affected) 2. The urge to move begins or worsens when sitting or lying down 3. The urge to move is partially or totally relieved by movement (Note: relief by activity may not be noticable if severely affected but must have been previously present) 4. The urge to move the legs and any accompanying unpleasant sensations during rest or in activ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that in FM a deteriorated function of cortical inhibition, indexed by a higher SICI parameter, a lower function of the DPMS, together with a higher level of BDNF indicate that FM has different pathological substrates from depression. They suggest that an up-regulation phenomenon of intracortical inhibitory networks associated with a disruption of the DPMS function occurs in FM. Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) and fibromyalgia (FM) present overlapped symptoms. Although the connection between these two disorders has not been elucidated yet, the disruption...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Christophe Duret1,2*, Anne-Gaëlle Grosmaire1 and Hermano Igo Krebs3,4,5,6,7,8 1Centre de Rééducation Fonctionnelle Les Trois Soleils, Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation, Unité de Neurorééducation, Boissise-Le-Roi, France 2Centre Hospitalier Sud Francilien, Neurologie, Corbeil-Essonnes, France 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States 4Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Fujita Health University, Nago...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Discussion Human trafficking is estimated to be the second largest criminal activity in the world after illegal arms trafficking. It affects all nations with an estimated 27 million people of all ages worldwide but only a small number are identified. It is defined by the United Nations as “the recruitment, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercions, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power, or a position of vulnerability to achieve the consent of a person, having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.” It includes comme...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
In conclusion, our data show some of the brain modifications probably responsible for the behavioral phenotype associated with TBI and suggest the CBD as a pharmacological tool to improve neurological dysfunctions caused by the trauma. Introduction The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, exhibits a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders (Fernández-Ruiz et al., 2013; De Gregorio et al., 2018; Schonhofen et al., 2018). Through a multitarget mechanism, CBD shows pot...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the studies presented in the current review demonstrate that CBD has the potential to limit delta-9-THC-induced cognitive impairment and improve cognitive function in various pathological conditions. Human studies suggest that CBD may have a protective role in delta-9-THC-induced cognitive impairments; however, there is limited human evidence for CBD treatment effects in pathological states (e.g. schizophrenia). In short, they found that CBD may help alleviate the negative impact of a person with schizophrenia from taking cannabis, both in the psychotic and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. T...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Alternative and Nutritional Supplements Disorders General Research Treatment cannabidiol Cannabis cbd cbd oil Marijuana THC Source Type: blogs
This article is for general educational purposes only and should not be relied upon as a substitute for individual professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you need help for an emotional or behavioural problem, please seek the assistance of a psychologist or other qualified mental health professional Greg is the director at Counselling in Melbourne, a private counselling practice in Melbourne, Australia. Greg has been involved in the medical profession for many years, and has immediate family members who also have also chosen careers in the medical field such as Theater Nurse, Midwife Sister Paramedic, GP and On...
Source: PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: featured self improvement depression morning morning routine pickthebrain Source Type: blogs
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