Recent Immunotherapy Treatments for Metastatic Breast Cancer Recent Immunotherapy Treatments for Metastatic Breast Cancer

Kate M. O'Rourke looks at recent immunotherapy treatments for metastatic breast cancer that are proving effective.Medscape Oncology
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Hematology-Oncology Article Source Type: news

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Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with approval of the Melbourne Health and Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research's Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: 2013.081). All subjects gave written informed consent for participation and publication. Results and Discussion TGF-β signaling in NK cells is associated with: phosphorylation in SMAD2 and 3, inhibition of IL-15-induced metabolism/proliferation, simultaneous downregulation of CD44, CD49e, and Eomes, and upregulation of CD16 and CD49a expression (7, 10). SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) belongs to the SMAD family of transcription...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Joseph D. Romano1,2,3,4 and Nicholas P. Tatonetti1,2,3,4* 1Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States 2Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States 3Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States 4Data Science Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States The discovery of new pharmaceutical drugs is one of the preeminent tasks—scientifically, economically, and socially—in biomedical research. Advances in informatics and computational biology have increased productivity at many stag...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the role of IL-19 in asthmatic animal models in order to determine the therapeutic potential of IL-19-signaling antagonists for treating allergic asthma. Materials and Methods Animals All animal experiments were done using the protocols of the National Institutes of Health standards and guidelines for the care and use of experimental animals. The research procedures were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of National Cheng Kung University (IACUC NO. 107272 and 105077). Generating IL-20R1 Knockout Mice IL-20R1 knockout(−/−) mice were generated and maintained on a C57BL/6 ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Future Perspectives It is now evident that NK/ILC family plays a pivotal role in the immune defenses. Recent studies in murine and human settings demonstrated that the expression of several inhibitory checkpoints, that may be detrimental in the tumor context, is not restricted to T lymphocytes, revealing an important, yet poorly appreciated, contribution of their expression on innate immune cells. Thus, in the recent years different immunotherapy approaches, based on the blockade of inhibitory NK cell receptors, have been developed in order to unleash NK cell cytotoxicity. This is particularly important in...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated whether the combination of focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles can improve adoptively NK-92MI cell infiltration into ovarian tumors through biodistribution, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. The treatment effects of using this strategy twice a week were explored. The potential molecular mechanism of FUS assisting NK cell therapy was also initially explored through evaluating the expression of ICAM1 and CX3CL1 by qRT-PCR. Our results indicated that FUS and microbubbles can improve NK-92MI cells’ infiltration into tumors, and the combination of FUS and NK-92MI cells had a better ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review, we have discussed important milestones from the early description of “Serum-sickness” as being due to antibodies directed against Neu5Gc epitopes all the way to the present-day therapeutic implications of these antibodies in cancer therapy. Some of these milestones have been represented in a concise timeline (Figure 6). While the “Xenosialitis” hypothesis is well-supported in the human-like mouse models, it has yet to be conclusively proven in humans. It remains to be seen if “Xenosialitis” plays a role in other uniquely-human diseases. FI...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, osmotic burst of inflated complement-damaged cells may occur, but these bursts are most likely a consequence of metabolic collapse of the cell rather than the cause of cell death. The Complement Cell Death Mediator: A Concerted Action of Toxic Moieties Membrane pores caused by complement were first visualized by electron microscopy on red blood cell membranes as large ring structures (22). Similar lesions were viewed on E. coli cell walls (23). Over the years, ample information on the fine ultrastructure of the MAC that can activate cell death has been gathered (24) and has been recently further examined (...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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