Influence of emulsifier concentration on partition behavior and chemical stability of betamethasone dipropionate in emulsion gels
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Julia Puschmann, Michael E. Herbig, Christel C. Müller-GoymannAbstractThe partitioning of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in emulsions is influenced by various factors, such as composition of the phases, emulsifier type and concentration, and temperature. Therefore, the chemical stability of the API can be influenced by its partitioning into the aqueous phase as degradation is typically facilitated in water. With increasing emulsifier concentration from 0.15% to 5.0%, more betamethasone dipropionate (BDP) was solubilized in polysorbate 80 micelles leading to a small, but increased fraction of BDP exposed to the aqueous phase along with preferential partitioning of BDP to the aqueous phase and thus increased degradation. Similarly, by enhancing solubility and partitioning to the aqueous phase, the addition of polyethylene glycol 400 also led to increased BDP degradation. Due to pH dependent degradation of BDP, increasing emulsifier concentrations resulted in a more pronounced degradation of BDP at pH 8, which is beyond the stability optimum, whereas at pH 5 the API was sufficiently stable and no differences in concentration were detected within 12 weeks even under accelerated conditions. No significant differences were seen with the varying emulsifier concentrations regarding ex vivo skin penetration.Graphical abstract
Authors: Horton R, Lucassen A Abstract Introduction: Clinical practice and research are traditionally seen as distinct activities that are governed by different principles and processes. Innovative technologies such as genomic testing challenge this model, involving many activities that cannot be easily categorized as purely research, or purely clinical care. Areas covered: We discuss the interdependence of research and clinical practice in the context of genomics, for example, when determining the significance of rare genetic variants, or diagnosing newly described rare diseases. We highlight the potential of the ...
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of incidental DT during decompression for LSS with and without fusion in ≥3 levels was associated with BMI and previous surgery at the same spinal level. Invasivness (SII) is valid rather for variables proper to surgery such as bledding and Op-time but no with incidence for DT and subsequent CSF-leackage. PMID: 31601067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Visocchi M, Mattogno PP Abstract PMID: 31601066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Furst T, Hoffman H, Chin LS Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) literature indicates that younger patients benefit from improved survival, however, this benefit is not shared by those 70+ years of age. The purpose of this study is to examine mortality trends in PCNSL patients 70+ years of age to better understand why improved prognosis has not yet reached this rapidly growing population subset. METHODS: 2075 cases (1973-2012, age at diagnosis 70+ years) within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were included in Kaplan-Meier and multiv...
Authors: Godano U Abstract PMID: 31601064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]