Diurnal rhythms in the white adipose tissue transcriptome are disturbed in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with lean control individuals

Conclusions/interpretationDiurnal clock and metabolic gene expression rhythms are decreased in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with lean control participants. Future investigation is needed to explore potential treatment targets as identified by our study, including clock enhancement and induction of EIF2 signalling.Data availabilityThe raw sequencing data and supplementary files for rhythmic expression analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis have been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO series accession number GSE104674).
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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Metabolic flexibility can be assessed by changes in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) following feeding. Though metabolic flexibility (difference in RER between fasted and fed state) is often impaired in individuals with obesity or type 2 diabetes, the cellular processes contributing to this impairment are unclear.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to emphasize the pivotal role of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in tackling the parallel epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).Recent FindingsGLP-1-based therapies and in particular GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) have proven to be effective in lowering blood glucose and decreasing weight. GLP-1 RA not only mitigate these significant medical burdens but also result in weight loss and weight loss independent factors that decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) and microvascular complications of T2DM, such as diabetic nephropathy.SummaryGLP-1-based therapies ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research
AbstractSaturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is evidence, however, that polyunsaturated fatty acids can counteract the pathogenic effects of saturated fatty acids. To gain insight into the early molecular mechanisms by which fatty acids influence hypothalamic inflammation and insulin signalling, we performed time-course experiments in a hypothalamic cell line, using different durations of treatment with the saturated fatty acid palmitate, and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Western blot analysis reveal...
Source: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
This study investigated whether a newly developed smartphone game delivering individualized exercise and physical activity promotion through an elaborate storyline can generate sustained improvements in daily physical activity (steps/day).Study designThirty-six participants were enrolled in this 24-week RCT between August 2016 and April 2018. After baseline assessment, participants were randomized in equal numbers to the intervention or control condition. Data analysis was performed in May–June 2018.Setting/participantsInactive, overweight type 2 diabetes patients, aged 45–70 years, were recruited through adver...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
New in this year's Obesity Medicine Association update, the document also explores how obesity causes cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, and cancer.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape FamilyMedicine Headlines - Category: Primary Care Tags: Diabetes & Endocrinology News Source Type: news
Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30.0 kg/m2, is a major public health issue that contributes to significant disability, mortality, and health care costs (1,2). During the past 50 years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity in the United States, which now affects more than one third of adults (3). P atients with obesity are at increased risk for the development of other serious medical conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (1,2). As such, there has been an increase in the prevalence of T2DM that mirrors that of obesity, with approximately 26 million adults in th...
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-associated comorbidities most notably appeared to have a greater relative influence on cognitive performance than BMI itself in adults with severe obesity. This likely reflects the fact that a very elevated BMI was ubiquitous and thereby probably exerted a similar influence among all adults in the cohort. Accordingly, in the context of severe obesity, diabetes and other comorbidities may have greater sensitivity to cognitive deficits than BMI alone. PMID: 31116012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
Obesity-linked (type 2) diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) has become the largest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Recent evidences suggest that inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DN and T-regulatory cells (Treg) are protective. We developed a novel cytokine (named IL233) bearing IL-2 and IL-33 activities in a single molecule and demonstrated that IL233 promotes Treg and T-helper (Th) 2 immune responses to protect mice from inflammatory acute kidney injury. Here, we investigated whether through a similar enhancement of Treg and inhibition of inflammation, IL233 protects from T2DN in a ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adipose tissue-resident immune cells have been observed, and the potential contribution of these cells to metabolic dysfunction has been appreciated in recent years. This review focused on adipose tissue-resident immune cells that are dysregulated in the context of obesity and T2D. We comprehensively overviewed emerging knowledge regarding the phenotypic and functional properties of these cells and local factors that control their development. We discussed their function in controlling the immune response cascade and dise...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
A recentNew York Timesarticle reports that today ’s Democratic primary in Philadelphia partially represents a referendum on the city’s soda tax, even though it is not on the ballot. Incumbent Mayor Jim Kenney, the engineer of the 1.5 cents per ounce tax on sugary and artificially sweetened beverages which took effect in 2017, is facing two Dem ocratic challengers who both support repealing the controversial tax.Since its inception, the tax has faced vigorous opposition from a coalition of the beverage industry, grocery store owners, and Teamsters, as well as citizens and politicians who worried that it would un...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
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